Useful Notes / The Fall of Constantinople
aka: Fall Of Constantinople
The City of Constantinople
was the capital of what is now known by historians as the "Byzantine Empire"
. This was a direct successor of The Roman Empire
, and as such is sometimes called the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantines were known for their preservation of some of the "Lore of the Ancients,"
including technological achievements, high literacy and a reputation for artistic craftsmanship, having innate advantages due to their superior political stability. They were also strong defenders of Greek Orthodox Christianity
. They were a potent military force; not as exotic as a stereotypically medieval Proud Warrior Race
, but quite professional with a well-earned reputation for strategic and political skill. While seldom strong enough to think of expansion, the Byzantine Empire managed to endure for several centuries. However, Constantinople slowly fell into decline. In the 1200's the Fourth Crusade captured and pillaged
the city. They occupied Constantinople for several years until the city was retaken in a coup by the Greek warlord Michael Palaiologos who declared himself The Emperor
of the restored Byzantine Empire, now effectively little more then a Land of One City
. There was for a few generations a minor Renaissance in the City, but its time was soon to come to an end.
In the meantime more Turkish migrants
arrived from the steppelands to set themselves up as "ghazis" (something of a cross between holy warriors and brigands; "Islamic cossacks" if you will). Eventually they took the service of the chieftain Osman and formed what would become the Ottoman Empire
. The Ottomans expanded and conquered territory until they surrounded Constantinople. An attempt was made to conquer the city but it was frustrated by the coincidental arrival of the Mongol/Turk Timur the Lame (aka Tamurlane) on the other side of the Ottoman Empire. It would be left to Mehmet II, later known as The Conqueror, to finish the job.
The Ottoman forces available outnumbered the entire population of the City, let alone the tiny garrison of soldiers. However the walls of Constantinople were among the most formidable in the world. For this reason many of Mehmet's advisors counseled against the campaign. However Mehmet plodded on. There was little prospect of aid from the West although there was some which distinguished itself. Still, the city refused to submit
. In addition to their vast numbers, the Ottomans also had massive siege cannons at their disposal; this was one of the first major campaigns that used gunpowder. Despite all these advantages, Constantinople was a tough nut to crack. Assault after assault was repealed. The Turks even dragged a number of galleys across land to dominate the harbor in a maneuver that is famed as a Crowning Moment of Awesome
. Finally the Turks breeched the walls and swarmed into the city. The last Emperor, ironically named Constantine XInote
, died fighting
. As was customary the Turks sacked
much of the city but fortunately the layout of the neighborhoods allowed many of the citizens to barricade themselves long enough to negotiate reasonably favorable terms of surrender. After this Constantinople became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The city was virtually depopulated after the conquest, but rapidly recovered, and would once again obtain its former status as the world's largest city.
Contrary to popular belief, the Ottomans did not rename the city as Istanbul
. Although the city was referred to as Istanbul by the Turks and native residents even before the conquest of 1453, in most official doctrines, the city was referred to as the Turkified version of Constantinople (Konstantiniyye). Istanbul did not become the official name for the city until 1923, several years after the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Depictions in fiction:
- The Emperor's Winding Sheet by Jill Paton Walsh. A children's version of the siege from the point of view of an English boy who happens to be serving as a page to Emperor Constantine.
Tropes displayed in the event include :
- Attack Its Weak Point: Subverted. The muslims are more successful in their their attacks after they managed to bring their ships by land to Golden Horn. Constantinople is still strong but now the defender has to disperse already few manpower.
- Ascended Extra: Hasan Ulubat was no-name cavalry soldier but he deservedly becomes legends after delivering first Ottoman flag to the top of the wall. He dies soon after. Many piece of art detailing the siege from Muslim POV includes his presence, film "Fetih 1453" even makes him Mehmed's friend.
- BFG: The Turkish bombards. The largest of which called The Basilica had to be wheeled around on a carriage pulled by 40 cattle and crewed by 200 men. It was so loud that the defenders had to issue warnings to the populace to always keep their ear plugs handy so no one would die of fright or women wouldn't miscarry.
- Cool vs. Awesome: Turkish side has many reserves, Awesome, but Impractical BFG-s, smaller-in-size but bigger number of ships. The Constantinople has triple walls (which was thought to be impenetrable), bigger but fewer ships, greek fire, the way to its only weak point (the sea wall) is guarded by massive chains but fewer manpower. Both sides don't lack of morales and zealotry.
- David vs. Goliath: Except this time Goliath won.
- Subverted. Since some sources explain the fight is more evenly. See Cool vs. Awesome.
- Dawn of an Era: Historians often position this event as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the early modern era. In fact, one theory holds that the literature and knowledge of antiquity smuggled out of the Byzantine Empire by native Greeks helped jumpstart the Renaissance. It was also needless to say the dawn of the Golden Age of the Ottoman Era. Of course, on the flipside...
- End of an Age: The defeat of Byzantium marked the end of the The Middle Ages and the final end of The Roman Empire, which had been in existence for almost two millennia. While Byzantium was a shadow of its former self by this point, its fall still was a tremendous shock to Christendom, and meant that the Ottomans now had free reign to advance further into Europe without a threat to their rear.
- The Empire: Both sides are this. The Ottoman has mix of Budding-Empire and The Empire. The Bizantines are definitely Vestigial Empire.
- Despair Event Horizon: Giovanni Giustiniani being wounded, by either a crossbow bolt or a cannonball, and subsequently retreating. It was the event that led to Constantine's Dying Moment of Awesome below.
- Downer Ending: From the Byzantines' point of view.
- Dying Moment of Awesome: From the Byzantines' point of view. This was the last gasp of The Roman Empire and hell did they live up to the reputation of the original version.
- In fact, it was a great deal more awesome than the event which is often pointed to as the death of the Western Roman Empire: the abdication of the emperor Romulus Augustulus to Odoacer.
- Constantine XI, the final Emperor of Constantinople, had his own. Seeing that the fight was hopeless, he is said to have cast aside his imperial raiments and personally lead his retainers for one final suicide attack. For this, he remains a hero to the Greeks even to this day.
- The last charge of the Byzantine Army, when 1,000 Greek soldiers hurled themselves into a force of over 100,000 Turks to try and buy some time for people fleeing the impending sack of the city.
- From attacker's POV, Hasan Ulubat dies soon after he becomes first to deliver Ottoman flag atop the wall.
- Eagle Squadron: a few Venetian, Genoan, and Papal troops served as this.
- Famous Last Words: "The city is fallen and I am still alive."- supposedly Constantine XI Palaiologos
- Fire-Forged Friends: The native Greek Orthodox and foreign Catholic defenders held a joint service in the Hagia Sophia the night before the fall of the city.
- The Glory That Was Rome: The Byzantines, sort of. An Alternative Character Interpretation is that They Were Hellas. Constantine considered his country a continuation of both.
- Hired Guns: A more-literal-than-most example can be found in Orban, the man who forged the cannons that breached the city walls. Notably, he had originally offered his services to the Byzantines, but was turned down for asking too high a price.
- Istanbul (Not Constantinople): Popular culture perceives this as the reason for the city's naming. Actual history states that ("Konstantiniye") remained the official name until the 20th century, and that the slang name of Istanbul preceded the Fall. It only became the official name in the 20th Century.
- King in the Mountain: Constantine XI became yet another one of these.
- The Lancer: Giovanni Giustiniani came to help defend the empire that his namesake Justinian The Great once ruled.
- Last Stand: For the Byzantines aka Eastern Romans.
- Living Relic: several refugees set themselves up in Venice; the knowledge they took with them helped encourage the Italian Renaissance.
- Multinational Team: On defenders' side, they are composed of citizens of Constantinople (Greek), Western-European volunteers, and later some Turkish defectors. On besiegers' side, their army is diverse as it is collected from every corner of their empire.
- Never Found the Body: Emperor Constantine XI's body was never found or identified conclusively. This is what led to the "King in the Mountain" legends, as well as the stories about the Emperor's final moments.
- Nobody Left Behind: Rather literal example. An Italian doctor recounts that the attackers will rather send nine people to die in attempt to remove one corpse rather than having the shame from leaving that one corpse on the wall.
- Oh, No... Not Again!: Constantinople was besieged no less than 21 times with Muslims attacking six times. This time they fall and finished for good (unlike the result of Siege in 1204).
- Refuge in Audacity: Turks' attacks of land walls are unsuccessful. While the sea wall isn't as strong but the entrance is guarded by chains. Then someone has an idea to transport their ships which contain cannons by land to Golden Horn, bypassing the chain...
- Rousing Speech: Constantine gave one hours before the final assault, and the historian Gibbon called it a worthy funeral oration for the Roman Empire.
...You men of Genoa, men of courage and famous for your infinite victories, you who have always protected this city, your mother, in many a conflict with the Turks, show now your prowess and your aggressive spirit toward them with manly vigour.
You men of Venice, most valiant heroes, whose swords have many a time made Turkish blood to flow and who in our time have sent so many ships, so many infidel souls to the depths under the command of Loredano, the most excellent captain of our fleet, you who have adorned this city as if it were your own with fine, outstanding men, lift high your spirits now for battle.
You, my comrades in arms, obey the commands of your leaders in the knowledge that this is the day of your glory — a day on which, if you shed but a drop of blood, you will win for yourselves crowns of martyrdom and eternal fame.
- The Siege
- Slave Mooks: The Janissaries collected from Balkan Christian peasants. It was a Janissary that was first past the wall according to tales.
- Urban Warfare
- Warrior Prince: Mehmet and Constantine.
- Little known fact: Vlad the Impaler fought there as well, enlisted under a different name within the Wallachian contingent sent by the then-current ruler to help the Byzantines. He had personal reasons to be there (getting his wayward younger brother out of the Sultan's clutches), but has actively fought in several smaller battles, and did guard duty on the city walls. He got rid of a couple of young rivals for the throne while he was there, as well. He also knew when to call it quits and got out of there just in time, by disguising himself as a Turk.
- Weapon of Mass Destruction: Turkish siege guns.
- We Have Reserves: The Turks had lots of reserves.
- Very much inverted by the Byzantines, who after having their empire stand for 1,000 years managed to muster exactly 4,973 able-bodied men to fight. Including monks. And women.