"Comics were investigated after a certain Doctor Fredric Wertham brought out a book called Seduction of the Innocent in 1954, calling for the introduction of a self-regulating body known as the Comic Code Authority, that had such ridiculous rules as, you could not use the word 'flick' in a comic for fear that the 'L' would run into the 'I' and Spider-Man would be saying, 'Look, he's got a fuck knife!'"For decades, The Comics Code Authority—and its set of rules, known as the Comics Code—served as one of America's premier Censorship Bureaus. This site even named said page after the Code for a time. In the early 1950s, a moral panic centered around crime and horror comics swept North America, thanks in significant part to psychologist Frederic Wertham and his book Seduction of the Innocent, a scholarly study which supposedly demonstrated an influential connection between severely troubled children and the comic books they read. (Many years later, researchers discovered that Wertham had based his conclusions almost exclusively on data that was distorted or selective at best, fabricated at worst). To head off the growing backlash, the comic book publishers themselves—as led by major houses Archie Comics (protected by its image of "wholesome American youth")note and DC Comics (which made most of its money from kid-friendly romance and science fiction titles during this time period)—decided to head off calls for government regulation. The publishers formed a industry-imposed censorship bureau called the Comics Code Authority, or CCA, in 1954...which, in hindsight, likely led to tighter censorship than was actually necessary to get their rules approved by the government. The CCA's charter, known as the Comics Code, prohibited (amongst other things) characters questioning public authority figures, characters possessing the slightest moral ambiguity, any suggestion of sexuality up to and including seductive posing, and any display of narcotics in any context whatsoever. Every story now had to have a happy ending (i.e., one in which evil was punished and good was rewarded), which meant multi-part stories with cliffhangers had to be specially approved by the CCA. The Code regulated what advertising could appear in comic books as well, but most of those types of restrictions (e.g., liquor, tobacco, weapons, fireworks, gambling equipment) wouldn't count as surprising or controversial even today. The effect of The Code's harsh censorship on tender young minds remains unknown, but it had a lasting effect on the medium's artistic maturity, as the often-absurdly "wholesome" entertainment created in the Code's wake effectively stereotyped graphic storytelling of any kind as silly fluff fit only for children. (That stigma still persists to this day.) Numerous publishing houses folded after the formation of the CCA because their more adult-themed subject matter couldn't pass the Code—which just happened to cut down on Archie's and DC's competition, as well as competiton to DC-owned Independent News, then the largest distributor in the Comics Magazine Association of America (the CCA's nominal governing body). William Gaines' EC Comics, the industry's most notorious publisher during the backlash, tried its best to operate under the Code despite mounting frustration, but gave up within a year when a planned reprint of the Aesop-heavy "Judgement Day" was vetoed anyway because the main character was a black man. That objection had no basis whatsoever in the Code, and it confirmed EC editors' suspicions that they were being deliberately harassed into oblivion. EC won the battle when it reprinted "Judgement Day" unedited (largely by threatening actual legal action), but ultimately lost the war: The story appeared in the final issue of their last comic title, after which they abandoned the newsstand comics business altogether to focus on MAD Magazine. note Two publishers, Dell Comics and Gilberton (publisher of Classics Illustrated), stayed out of the CCA. Dell believed their company brand and reputation would reassure parents, as per their slogan, "Dell Comics are Good Comics." Neither publisher's lack of a CCA stamp harmed their profits for most of the Comics Code's heyday; in an ironic twist, this situation allowed Dell (and Gold Key Comics, which "spun off" from Dell in 1962) to occasionally publish comics the Code would not allow, such as an adaptation of Dark Shadows featuring vampire Barnabas Collins.note The first serious challenge to the Code's effectiveness came in 1971, when Marvel Comics' Stan Lee wrote "Green Goblin Reborn!", a Spider-Man story that not only portrayed drugs in an extremely negative light, but had even been written on the explicit recommendation of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. All of that made the CCA look more than a bit foolish when it refused to place a seal of approval on the story because it showed a character using drugs.note By this time, Marvel had the clout to defy the CCA entirely—it removed the Code Seal from the issues containing the storyline, which duly appeared in Amazing Spider-Man #96-98. The story received considerable public appreciation and critical acclaim; the CCA found out just how far it had fallen out of touch with its own industry. In an attempt to catch up, subsequent major revisions to the Code (first in 1971, then in 1989) either relaxed or outright dropped many of the Code's more archaic rules. The 1971 version attempted to update the original Code without altering its basic structure; the 1989 revision combined notably fewer and looser restrictions with Politically Correct injunctions against stereotyping minority characters. But none of these changes did enough to prevent the Code's eventual lapse into complete irrelevance. As "direct market" comic book specialty stores (which the Code didn't cover) cut into the sales of newsstand comics (which were all covered by the Code) and "direct-only" comics from the established publishers became more common, existing comics companies published more comics without the Code Seal. Newer publishers who needed a way to stand out from the existing pack often produced comics aimed at older teens and adults and flat-out ignored the Code. DC Comics dropped the Code Seal from the majority of its titles shortly after the turn of the 21st Century, while Marvel Comics withdrew from the CCA entirely at around the same time. According to some sources, the CMAA barely existed in its final year or two. One person would check the few DC books that still used the code, while Archie assumed their comics would always pass muster because... well, why wouldn't they? It wasn't like they were ever going to star their iconic uber-wholesome teenage cast in a zombie horror spinoff, or anything. In January 2011, DC abandoned the Code entirely in favor of its own in-house rating system. Archie Comics, the Code's sole remaining participant and administrator, figured the Code no longer served a purpose in light of its publishing standards—"We aren't about to start stuffing bodies into refrigerators!"note —so it abandoned the Code just a day after DC. That move ended the Comics Code once and for all. In the grandest of ironies, one of the first new titles Archie debuted after killing the Code was Afterlife with Archie, their first direct market (as in, comic book store-only) title, which depicted a Zombie Apocalypse, one of things the Code had insisted on forbidding. Even worse (for the Code), the first issue sold out. Twice. On the 29th of September 2011, the CMAA announced it had sold the intellectual property rights of the Comics Code seal to the Comic Book Legal Defense Fund (a U.S.-based non-profit organization that helps to protect the First Amendment rights of comic creators, publishers, and retailers by covering legal expenses). In a nice little twist, the sale coincided with the annual Banned Books Week campaign. To learn more about the Code, its origins, and its impact on the comic book industry, check out The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America by David Hajdu. Oh, and one more thing: Dr. Wertham, whose book started the whole moral panic in the first place, later denounced the Code as a whitewash that made comics worse—by causing violence to be depicted without realistic consequences.
— Jonathan Ross on QI.note
The Code (1954 version):
- "Crimes shall never be presented in such a way as to create sympathy for the criminal, to promote distrust of the forces of law and justice, or to inspire others with a desire to imitate criminals."
- (Law enforcement officers were not allowed to seem incompetent or corrupt, and there was no such thing as an antagonist who dabbles in villainy only as a hobby.)
- "If crime is depicted, it shall be as a sordid and unpleasant activity."
- (Villains popped up out of nowhere with little backstory.)
- "Criminals shall not be presented so as to be rendered glamorous or to occupy a position which creates a desire for emulation."
- (Criminals were not allowed to be portrayed as persistently successful, cool, or sexually desirable.)
- "In every instance good shall triumph over evil and the criminal [shall be] punished for his misdeeds."
- (This "The Good Guys Always Win" restriction limited the potential of story arcs.)
- "Scenes of excessive violence shall be prohibited. Scenes of brutal torture, excessive and unnecessary knife and gunplay, physical agony, gory and gruesome crime shall be eliminated."
- (Comics couldn't show blood, gore, or judicious use of guns, which placed limits on action scenes and the weapons a hero could use.)
- "No comic magazine shall use the word "horror" or "terror" in its title.
- (This is the pettiest provision of the Code; this rule was intended, so far as anyone can tell, specifically to put EC Comics—known for its horror comics—out of business.)
- "All scenes of horror, excessive bloodshed, gory or gruesome crimes, depravity, lust, sadism, and masochism shall not be permitted."
- (Villains could not torture, murder, or sexually assault their victims; they had to resort to a lot of gloating and outrageous schemes to Take Over the World. Comics also couldn't run stories centered on sexual perversion, consensual or otherwise.)
- "All lurid, unsavory, gruesome illustrations shall be eliminated."
- "Inclusion of stories dealing with evil shall be used or shall be published only where the intent is to illustrate a moral issue and in no case shall evil be presented alluringly, nor so as to injure the sensibilities of the reader."
- (This rule forced the use of Black and White Morality.)
- "Scenes dealing with, or instruments associated with walking dead, torture, vampires and vampirism, ghouls, cannibalism, and werewolfism are prohibited."
- (Comics couldn't run zombie stories.)
- "Profanity, obscenity, smut, vulgarity, or words or symbols which have acquired undesirable meanings are forbidden."
- (Comics couldn't use bad words or offensive imagery.)
- "Nudity in any form is prohibited, as is indecent or undue exposure."
- (Comics couldn't show nudity or have characters dress in skimpy outfits.)
- "Suggestive and salacious illustration or suggestive posture is unacceptable."
- (Comics couldn't even show characters sitting around and look sexy.)
- "Females shall be drawn realistically without exaggeration of any physical qualities."
- (Comics couldn't have large-breasted female characters—the CCA decided what was "large", of course—nor could they focus on breasts.)
- "Illicit sex relations are neither to be hinted at nor portrayed. Violent love scenes as well as sexual abnormalities are unacceptable."
- (This rule limited who the hero could have a romantic relationship with and what kind of relationship it could be. Comics couldn't show homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality, pedophilia, open relationships, sadomasochistic relationships, incestuous relationships, relationships with transvestites or transsexuals, or interracial relationships—even if the bad guys were the ones in such relationships.)
- "Seduction and rape shall never be shown or suggested."
- "Sex perversion or any inference to same is strictly forbidden."
- (Gay characters flat-out couldn't exist, though comics could get around this with an occasional case of Ambiguously Gay.)
- "Nudity with meretricious purpose and salacious postures shall not be permitted in the advertising of any product; clothed figures shall never be presented in such a way as to be offensive or contrary to good taste or morals."
- (This rule was a forced aversion of Sex Sells.)
The Code (1971 revision):
- "Scenes dealing with, or instruments associated with walking dead, or torture, shall not be used. Vampires, ghouls, and werewolves shall be permitted to be used when handled in the classic tradition such as Frankenstein, Dracula, and other high calibre literary works written by Edgar Allan Poe, Saki, Conan Doyle and other respected authors whose works are read in schools around the world."
- "Narcotics or Drug addiction shall not be presented except as a vicious habit."
- (This restriction came With a list of specified ways drug addiction could be presented. The rule boiled down to, "The portrayal of drug use is okay, so long as you portray it in a negative light and don't glamorize it.")
- "Seduction may not be shown."
- "Policemen, judges, government officials and respected institutions shall not be presented in such a way as to create disrespect for established authority. If any of these is depicted committing an illegal act, it must be declared as an exceptional case and that the culprit pay the legal price."
- (Corrupt government officials and cops are allowed, but they must always be caught so they can't become recurring characters, and they must be depicted as isolated aberrations in a mostly-honest system.)
- "Instances of law enforcement officers dying as a result of a criminal's activities should be discouraged, except when the guilty, because of their crime, live a sordid existence and are brought to justice because of the particular crime."
- (Before this revision, the Code was interpreted as prohibiting the death of any law enforcement officers in any situation.)
- While there's no specific language about it, the 1971 revision was interpreted as allowing Anti-Hero or Anti-Villain characters up to a point (e.g. the Western Anti-Hero Jonah Hex; Marvel's supervillain Sandman, who was often portrayed as a Punch Clock Villain).
- The wording of prohibitions against "excessive" violence and bloodshed didn't change, but the interpretation apparently did. Under the 1954 Code, practically any depiction of blood was considered "excessive." After the 1971 revision, it was possible to show, for example, Superman bleeding on the cover of the June 1972 issue of ''World's Finest'' (not a major wound, but given his Nigh-Invulnerability, an image that would have surprised readers at the time).
The Code (1989 revision):
- "In general recognizable... social, political, cultural... groups will be portrayed in a positive light. These include... social groups identifiable by lifestyle, such as homosexuals...."
- "Stereotyped images and activities will be not used to degrade specific national, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups."
- (Essentially: "Don't use racial or ethnic stereotypes.")
- "Costumes in a comic book will be considered to be acceptable if they fall within the scope of contemporary styles and fashions."
- (Stripperific looks are fine...so long as the story justifies them or they reflect contemporary fashion/culture.)
Media referencing the Comics Code:
- She-Hulk frequently lampooned the Comics Code:
- In one cover from John Byrne's run (which is the image for the Fanservice page), the naked She-Hulk covers herself up with a giant "Comics Code Approved" stamp.
- In Dan Slott's run, the Comics Code is an essential in-universe part of the narrative. Marvel Comics exists within the Marvel Universe—yes, really!—and it publishes comics of the "real life" superheroes and their true adventures. Because their comics are screened by the CCA, said comics are recognized as legal government-approved documents...which means comic books can be used as evidence in a trial.
- Oddly enough, for being a company that followed the Comics Code pretty well, Archie Comics lampshaded it in one "Jughead's Diner" issue where Jughead and his friends in Dinersville are interrupted at occasional bits in the story by a representative from the Comics Code Authority claiming that what they've done in the comic (talking about burgers in the presence of a cow, sumo wrestling, hang gliding, among other things) couldn't be shown. The representative then gets brutally injured by stepping into a sumo wrestling match.