Useful Notes: The Arab Spring

aka: Middle East Uprising 2011
الشعب يريد إسقاط النظام‎ Romanization , Translation 
— The motto of the uprising

In December of 2010, a young merchant immolates himself to death in protest of the thuggish policies of the Tunisian dictatorship. This soon leads to protests and, eventually, the resignation and flight of the dictator...and the beginnings of a revolutionary wave not seen since the end of the Cold War. The sheer size, importance, multitude of methods, and brutality of the unrest has made it a modern real life showcase of many tropes, listed below.

Unlike the revolutionary wave at the end of the Cold War, though, only one of the revolutions—the one in Tunisia—has successfully established a democracy. However, social changes are taking root across the Arab world as people begin to question, and some regimes have made changes to prevent damage; comparisons to Europe's Revolutions Of 1848 have begun to appear in the literature.

In General

  • Ax-Crazy: Many many examples throughout the Spring. Gaddafi, Baghdadi, numerous field commanders. Too many to list. Suffice it to say, there are many, and no sides are spared.
  • Reasonable Authority Figure: In stark contrast to majority of the countries in which it happened, Oman got off rather lightly, as Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said made economic concessions and government reshuffles, as well as granting lawmaking powers to the national legislature. In Morroco's case, King Muhammad VI's government wisely (from its perspective anyway) ordered the security forces not to fire on protesters, preventing the revolution from reaching critical mass. The King nevertheless saw the writing on the wall and granted significant constitutional reforms.
  • The Revolution Will Not Be Civilized: Sadly, the initial aspirations of the Arab Spring have, due to a confluence of realpolitik from the major powers, chaos of the revolts, and a lack of thinking through attainable solutions, the entire Arab Spring has become this, leading some to say that it has become the Arab Winter.
  • Spreading Disaster Map Graphic: Has become extremely common since the beginning of the Spring, mostly in areas where the protests devolved into open war.
  • Urban Warfare: The Spring in general has become one of the primary examples of this type of conflict, running the gamut from riots and protests to running street battles with police and paramilitary units to WWII style sieges. Some of the longest sieges in modern military history have occured during this revolutionary wave.
  • Vehicular Turnabout: In the beginning, the rebels, whatever the country, started out with mere AK-47s and petrol bombs. Now? They drive the government's looted tanks and AP Cs....


  • Icon of Rebellion: The death of one young merchant became the signal that started the revolt in Tunisia and then across the region.


  • Full-Circle Revolution: Started under a military dictatorship, then went under an Islamist government, now it's back under a military dictatorship.
  • Meet the New Boss: The Egyptian Army following the peace treaty with Israel busied itself with taking over Egypt's economy and politics. The notion that they are to remain in their barracks and defend Egypt's borders when needed might have seemed alien after 30 years of being in the thick of Egyptians' life. When the Muslim Brotherhood government made noises about abrogating that treaty, not very credible noises at that, the military got rid of them.
  • Alternative Character Interpretation Was Mohamed Morsi an aspiring tyrant who intended to destroy Egypt's newfound democratic system and replace it with a Sunni theocracy/dictatorshio, or was he a man trying to do his best in a difficult situation with many powerful and deeply entrenched forces both inside and outside the country arrayed against him
  • Let Me Be Evil: The view of many Muslim Brotherhood supporters after Morsi was ousted. Having been denied the use of the political system to achieve their goals,they turned to violence.


  • Civil War
  • Get Back Here Boss: After the fall of Tripoli when Gaddafi fled, the war effort to sweep up the remaining resistance from that point on was just as importantly an effort to chase down Gaddafi before he escaped/regrouped.
  • Glass Cannon: The loyalist town of Bani Walid wound up being this. After NTC forces pushed through the town's defenses, they managed to capture 95 percent of the town very quickly.
  • Path of Most Resistance / Revealing Cover Up: Making headways into Sirte with no sign of Gaddafi, the rebels begun speculating that he might have already left the country. And then they stumbled on a loyalist safehouse that put up a much tougher fight.
  • And There Was Much Rejoicing: Gaddafi's death.
  • Arch-Enemy: Gaddafi seemed to particularly dislike United States President Ronald Reagan, who gave him the nickname "the mad dog of the Middle East". The rebels held this view of Gaddafi himself.
  • Bald of Evil: Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam. And possibly Gaddafi himself.
  • Big Brother Is Watching: While in power, Gaddafi put surveillance in government, in factories and in the education center to keep an eye on them, ordered assassinations and placed bounties on critics around the world, forbade anyone from forming political parties, made it illegal for Libyans to engage in political conversations with foreigners, and removed foreign languages from school curricula.
  • The Caligula: Gaddafi showed many signs of this, infamous for his extravagant clothing and speeches during his four decade reign. What makes this notable is he was still doing this even at the height of the civil war.
  • Calling Your Attacks / Nice Job Fixing It, Villain: What eventually got Gaddafi overthrown, when he announced to Libya and the world that he would massacre any who stood against him in Benghazi and everywhere else. That had acted as the catalyst the UN needed to authorize a no fly zone and have NATO carry out an aerial intervention.
  • Co-Dragons: Gaddafi's sons in general, but Khamis and Saif al-Islam in particular. The former was the leader of Gaddafi's Elite Mooks who besieged Misrata for most of the war, while Saif was Gaddafi's heir apparant.
  • Elite Mooks: Besides Gaddafi's female bodyguards, there's also the infamous "Khamis Brigade" named after one of his sons.
  • Emergency Presidential Address: The famous "Zenga Zenga" speech he issued in response to the initial protests.
  • Evil Overlord: Gaddafi was closest thing to one.
  • Evil Is Hammy: Sort of Gaddafi's thing.
  • Four-Star Badass: Averted. For all the resistance his loyalists put up in the battle for Sirte, Gaddafi himself went down rather quickly when the rebels captured him (in fact, his death process was probably extended by the rebels deciding to beat the hell out of him rather than just straight-out killing him).
  • Hoist by His Own Petard: The rest of the world really got physically involved in the 2011 uprising after Gaddafi started threatening to blow passenger jets out of the sky if the UN didn't butt out, resulting other countries actively helping the rebels' attempt to bring him down.
    • Doubly so, since Libya has actually done this before.
    • He was reportedly fearful of military coups against him and deliberately kept his army weak to prevent this.
  • It's All About Me: Gaddafi plastered the capital with enormous posters of himself (they were cheerfully torn down and burnt when the rebels captured the city). Reportedly he gave a gift to his underlings of watches with his face on the dial.
    • Indeed, most of these very tropes are more to do with Gaddafi himself than the Libyan state...because by 2011 he WAS the state.
  • Kill It with Fire: One of his many Kick the Dog moments during the war was to round up several dozen of his opponents in a cell and execute them with grenades, strictly For the Evulz.
  • Last Stand: Benghazi, just before the NATO intervention.
  • Last Villain Stand: After the brigade in charge of defending Tripoli surrendered without a fight, Gaddafi was considered an Anticlimax Boss for a time, until his remnant made their stand in his hometown of Sirte, where they resisted the rebels for nearly a month. He was killed as the city fell.
    • The loyalists sure put up one helluva fight - according to That Other Wiki, the total number of rebel casualties is six times higher than that of the loyalists. And the loyalists were greatly outnumbered, too (1,000-5,000 vs. 16,000 rebels).
  • Mouth of Sauron: Moussa Ibrahim was Gaddafi's chief spokesman, and often spoke on the Colonel's behalf during most of the conflict, only disappearing when Tripoli itself fell....leaving the reporters he used to brief every day at the mercy of the loyalist guards at the hotel, who held them hostage for days until the Red Cross negotiated their collective release.
  • Near Villain Victory: His forces were at the outskirts of Benghazi before the NATO airforce showed up.
  • Permanent Elected Official: Averted. Gaddafi served as Secretary-General of the General People's Congress (or Head of State) after the revolution in 1967 but resigned from the post in 1977. Part of his argument against standing down (the demand of the initial protests) was that he didn't have an official office to resign from.
  • Rasputinian Death: The precise details are uncertain, but apparently this is how things went: his convoy was strafed by French warplanes, he was hit in the legs, he fled and was captured, and was shot at least two more times in the torso and head. It's not known if he was hit by stray fire or just executed.
  • The Siege: The city of Misrata, third largest in Libya, was under siege by Gaddafi's forces for most of the war. Not only was it one of the most iconic events of the war itself (with many comparisons to the likes of Stalingrad at the time), but the rebels breaking of that siege was the turning point of the whole war, with Gaddafi on the retreat from then on.
  • Villainous Breakdown / Sanity Slippage: Just when the world thought the guy couldn't get any crazier, he started ranting about the uprising against him by his own people being fueled by Zionist agents, imperialist foreign powers and LSD,note while accusing the Western countries of orchestrating the whole thing in an insidious plot to destroy Libya's air conditioners.
    • This was just the tip of the iceberg for this trope. The more his power slipped, the more his sanity devolved. Many dictators get hit by this pretty hard when their power is threatened, and Gaddafi just fell significantly faster than most.
    • Of particular interest is the speech he gave while sitting in a broken car in a blown up building holding an umbrella, a large part of which was him commenting on the rain. No, we don't get it either.
    • After being deposed, he issued an epic rant which just screams this trope. In it he made three very conflicting points at once, including basically saying "fuck you" to Libya while encouraging them to rise up and rebel against the, well, rebels.


  • Anarchy Is Chaos: The revolt against President Saleh distracted the military enough that there is now a four way war between Al-Qaeda, the Houthis, the Southern separatists, and the government.
  • Rock Beats Laser: The Houthis in particular have managed to pull this off for years, even before the Spring, but they really showcased this when they managed (with help from Saleh, their former foe) to continue a massive advance into hostile southern Yemen while Saudi Arabia was bombarding almost no effect. It was only when the Saudis and Emiratis sent in their own troops into the fray that any headway was made at all.
  • The Quisling: What many, if not most, Yemeis view President Hadi as,especially since the Saudi air campaign began.
  • Enemy Mine: Before his ouster from power Salah and the Houthis had been at each others throats. After he lost the Presidency he allied with them, and brought the military units still loyal to him to fight for them, the results were their rapid advance across the country.


  • Aggressive Negotiations: In what was known as "Kneel Or Starve", Assad would surround a rebellious neighborhood or town, pummel them with artillery, and prevent any food from getting in or any people from getting out...until the rebels in question, starving and no longer able to fight, surrendered. Sometimes the rebels (without weapons) would be allowed to leave, and sometimes they'd be locked up instead, in a Fate Worse Than Death, given the nature of Syrian prisons. This tactic was later used by the rebels themselves, whenever they'd takeover a loyalist or ISIS-held town.
  • Amazon Brigade: The Syrian Kurdish militias have made it a point to show that a LOT of their fighters are women. They fight in their own units as well as with the men.
  • Civil War: And one of the most brutal ones in recent memory, with at leasr a quarter million dead and 11 million chased out of their homes (and half of THEM are now refugees elsewhere.
  • Elite Mooks: Hezbollah and the Iranian Quds Force for Assad, former Saddam-era Iraqi military and Chechen militants for ISIS, and Al-Qaeda for most of the rest of the rebels.
  • Government in Exile: Technically has one, called the Syrian National Council, but no one has really paid them any heed since it became clear early on that negotiations would be fruitless and the SNC had no connection to (or loyalty of) any rebel forces in the field.
  • A Lighter Shade of Grey: The YPG, than again when your list of opponents includes a genocidal terrorist organization and a Dictatorial government that used chemical weapons on it's own citizens it's not that hard to be morally superior to them.

The Arab Spring in fiction:

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    Live-Action TV 
  • NCIS: Los Angeles:
    • The episode "Deadline" featured the team trying to track down a Libyan nationalist who was broadcasting pro-rebel television spots. Ironically, by the time the episode aired (October 11, 2011), Gaddafi had been overthrown two months earlier, and was killed a little more than a week later (October 20).
    • Another episode featured industrial espionage in the form of Turkey attempting to steal tech for communications satellites, apparently spurred on by fears the Arab Spring could spread to Turkey (they were hoping to derail such grassroots movements by interfering with communications).
  • The Castle episode "Pandora" states that Dr. Nelson Blakely's used his "linchpin theory" (finding a small event that will set dominoes falling on a larger one) to start the Arab Spring.

    Web Original 
  • An as-of-yet unpublished prequel to the YouTube series The Road Gypsy stars an inexperienced Francis Easton and Cecil Banning as they travel to Egypt just before the uprising, then find themselves trying to get out before they are killed.

Alternative Title(s):

Middle East Uprising 2011