The 16-bit era, or Fourth Generation, kicked off with the release of the NEC's Turbo-Grafx 16
in 1987. With this new era came hardware more powerful than their 8-bit
counterparts, able to handle more colorful and detailed graphics and more complex games.
However, the first 16-bit system to truly gain momentum worldwide was the Sega Mega Drive (Sega Genesis
in North America). As it was feasible to make 16-bit console hardware based off their Sega System-16
arcade hardware, Sega
released this console in order to compete with the aging 8-bit Nintendo Entertainment System
. The Mega Drive did only fairly well at first with games like Altered Beast
, but then it really
took off with Sega's Breakthrough Hit
, Sonic the Hedgehog
saw its almost monopolistic dominance erode with the competition's more advanced hardware, and they responded with the Super Nintendo Entertainment System
. The fierce Console War
between the Mega Drive and the SNES defined the era, with both parties in a huge race for dominance of the industry.
In terms of actual game design, the 16-bit era wasn't as big of a leap as the 8-bit era was to the Golden Age
. However, one notable technological improvement that sets this generation apart from 8-bit is the advent of "faux-3D" scrolling (i.e. Mode 7
). The most successful games of the 16-bit era were often fleshed out and refined versions of their 8-bit counterparts design-wise. Many successful series from the 8-bit era threw of their Early Installment Weirdness
and gained many of their standards in this era, such as The Legend of Zelda
in A Link to the Past
. The industry made much bigger leaps in the graphics department. Games like Sonic the Hedgehog 1
, Ecco the Dolphin
, and Yoshi's Island
were shining examples of Awesome Art
with their well-drawn sprites and detailed environments. The releases of Mortal Kombat
and Donkey Kong Country
sparked a craze in Digitized Sprites
on consoles, with notable games following suit including Vectorman
and Super Mario RPG
. The era also produced early experiments with Polygonal Graphics
on home consoles, most notably Star Fox
but also including arcade ports.
The Platform Game
's popularity from the 8-bit era
continued into this generation, highlights including the Super Mario Bros.
' series fourth installment, Super Mario World
and the aforementioned Mega Drive Killer App Sonic the Hedgehog 1
. One genre that was born, so to speak, in this generation was the Fighting Game
. Spurred on by the revolutionary Street Fighter II
, many studios responded to capitalize on its success, with Mortal Kombat
being a notable entry for its pioneering violence which would lead to an eventual debate on the effect of violent video games on young society. The Fighting genre wouldn't see as big of a revolution until Virtua Fighter
in the Fifth Generation
. The JRPG
genre also hit its stride during the 16 bit era
, with Square
making some of the most well-loved titles in the genre of all time, such as Final Fantasy VI
, Chrono Trigger
, and Super Mario RPG
; the success of these titles helped pave the way for wider mainstream success of the JRPG
genre overall in the next generation.
Also in this generation, portable gaming systems began to gain traction with the release of the Nintendo Game Boy
and Atari Lynx in 1989 and the Sega Game Gear
in 1990. While the Lynx failed to gain much success, Nintendo and Sega's efforts gave gamers versions of their favourite franchises to take with them when they were away from their televisions. While Sega's system certainly benefited from its coloured screen, it was ultimately the Game Boy that would win out by a considerable margin, boosted by the inclusion of Tetris
as a pack-in game making the system more appealing to those who weren't already interested in video games than Super Mario Land
might (sound familiar?
), though the fact that it was significantly cheaper, more pocket-able and had much better battery life also helped. Its success would continue into the next generation.
One might say this generation ended when the Super NES was officially discontinued in 2000 (having lasted a few years longer in Japan than America and elsewhere). But the Mega Drive, officially discontinued in 1998, has had an active afterlife; licensed games by third party developers have been sporadically released into The New '10s
, and licensed Mega Drive units with built in games are still being sold today
. The Super NES would later see similar plug-and-play units being released, if only for a limited time.
Consoles of this generation
Handhelds of this generation
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New IPs of this era
Games of older IPs