Oh, you couldn't use a calculator on the final exam? Neither could we.
"We reach for new heights and reveal the unknown for the benefit of humankind."
— The NASA Vision note
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the U.S. government agency concerned with space exploration. It is not
a military agency; it's a civilian agency (although some personnel, particularly astronauts, may be military officers on special assignment to the agency as a tour of duty). Much of the "military vs. civilian" confusion is likely due to the frequent misconception of NASA's responsibilities, as the agency is frequently portrayed as conducting activities—such as tracking objects in Earth orbit, or launching and controlling secret satellites, for example—that generally fall within the purview of military or intelligence communities (most often the United States Air Force). Furthermore many astronauts (especially in the early daysnote
) were military officers when they flew.
Generally, a radio transmission addressed to "Houston" (especially from anyone in space) is a reference to NASA's Mission Control Center at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in the Texan city of the same name. And no, JSC (or KSC) is not the only NASA center in existence, nor it is the NASA headquarters.
In fact, there are nine
main NASA facilities note
alongside Jet Propulsion Laboratorynote
in Pasadena, CA, Deep Space Network,note
two other tracking stations, two abandoned tracking stations in Australia, the NASA infrared telescope at Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii, and finally, the NASA Headquarters, located in a fairly nondescript building around the corner of 300 E Street SW, Washington, DC
The Mercury Program
The Russians had put Yuri Gagarin
in space, so the US played catch-up. The goal of this program was simply putting Americans in orbit. After a test flight involving Ham the Chimp, Alan Shepard (who went into space on a ballistic arc without actually orbiting) and John Glenn (the first American in orbit) made their famous flights.
The Right Stuff
is a movie about the Mercury astronauts, based on a nonfiction book by Tom Wolfe.
The Gemini Program
Within three weeks after the first successful Mercury flight, in mid-1961, President Kennedy announced that the United states should commit to the goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" before the end of the 1960s
. This, of course, meant that they needed a lot of practice. The Gemini Program focused on staying in space for long periods of time in two-person capsules, spacewalking, and rendezvous and docking in orbit.
Despite its crucial importance to the space race, Gemini is the forgotten middle child of the space program. Outside of non-fiction books, the most exposure it's gotten is half of an episode of the HBO Docu Drama Mini Series From the Earth to the Moon
. There were some proposals to use Gemini as a quicker means of getting (fewer people) to the Moon, or using it as the basis for a larger orbital ship called Big Gemini - these tended to be suppressed by NASA after they had committed to Apollo.
The Apollo Program
NASA's most famous program. The Apollo spacecraft was a three-person vessel that had three main parts: the Command Module, a squat cone where the crew spent most of their time and which was the only bit that would survive re-entry; the Service Module, a big cylinder where all of the life-support equipment was kept, and the Lunar Module, the funny spidery thing that actually landed on the Moon. Missions to the Moon were propelled by the Saturn V, America's largest ever rocket, and the largest rocket ever successfully used (the Soviet N1 and Energia rockets were larger, but the N1 was a catastrophic failure
and kept secret until 1990, and Energia was too expensive to be useful
, especially after The Great Politics Mess-Up
resulted in a near-bankrupt Russia
). Notable missions include:
Skylab and the Apollo Applications Program
- Apollo 1: caught fire during a "dry run" for the launch, killing the three astronauts on board.note
- Apollo 7: first successful manned flight of an Apollo spacecraft (Apollo missions 2 to 6 were unmanned)
- Apollo 8: the first mission in human history that went to the Moon. This was the first time that Humans had left near earth orbit. The flight did not land. Arguably the defining moment where the United States overtook the USSR in the Space Race.note Also notable for the Christmas Eve broadcast, in which the astronauts read from Genesis during a scheduled television broadcast, and the famous Earthrise photograph. Many professionals think of this as more significant than even.......
- Apollo 11: first manned mission to land on the Moon. Neil Armstrong gets to say his famous lines. Gently parodied by The Dish, which loosely follows the tale of the radio observatory in Australia responsible for tracking the mission. NASA erased their recordings of the event.
- Apollo 13: the "successful failure". Several critical equipment failures meant that the craft could not land on the Moon, but due to the tenacity of both the astronauts in the craft and the controllers, astronauts, scientists and engineers on the ground, all three crew members made it back alive. Made into an excellent novel and movie.
- Jim Lovell, who went past the Moon twice on Apollo missions 8 and 13 but never got to land on it, deserves a special mention here.
- Apollo 15: the first of the J-missions. Changes to the launcher and its trajectory allowed a heavier payload, including a lunar rover, and total EVA time was about double that of Apollo 14. The Genesis Rock was discovered on this mission, which is probably one of the reasons NASA still considers it the most successful manned space mission ever, the infamous postage stamp incident notwithstanding.
- Alumni of the University of Michigan are likely to gloat about Apollo 15, as all three crew members had spent time in Ann Arbor (Worden and Irwin had Masters' in engineering from Michigan, while Scott had spent his freshman year as an undergraduate there before he was appointed to West Point as a transfer).
- Apollo 17: the last mission to the Moon (Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, and 16 were successful manned landings and 18, 19 and 20 were cancelled). The only time where a civilian scientist (Harrison Schmitt) has been able to walk on the Moon.
From the beginning of the Apollo program, NASA had been looking into using spare Apollo hardware for a number of other scientific missions. This outgrowth of Apollo was called the Apollo Applications Program, which proposed a number of ambitious ideas. These included plans for a manned orbital observatory, a Venus flyby using the third stage of the Saturn V as a "wet workshop" and various lunar habitats. The only one of these ideas to reach fruition was Skylab, a space station built into an empty stage from a spare Saturn V. Skylab suffered severe damage during its launch in 1973, but the crews that followed it up managed to repair it, and it was inhabited for most of the next nine months. Early shuttle missions were planned to resuscitate the station, but before the shuttle could be launched it fell out of orbit and crashed into Australia.
A successful docking of a an American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in space in 1975. Generally considered the formal end of the space race and is significant for many reasons:
The Space Shuttle
- It ended the first phase of US manned spaceflight, there would be no further manned launches for nearly 6 years. Fittingly the crew included a Mercury astronaut (Deke Slayton) and was commanded by Tom Stafford, a Gemini and Apollo veteren (and commander of Apollo 10).
- It is at this point that the Superpowers space ambitions and aims diverged. NASA concentrated on science missions in a reusable spacecraft as well as sending of probes to other planets. The Soviets on long term manned spaceflight, which they became very very good at.
- If Apollo 8 was the start of the US lead in manned spaceflight, ASTP was the end, the Soviets would take it back in the late 70's with the Salyut space stations, which found their ultimate expression in Mir. The Russians remain the worlds premier spacefaring nationnote
- It was the start of the era of space cooperation, which has never really ended and found its ultimate expression in the ISS (below)
Designed to be the opposite of the Saturn V, the Shuttle has been described as a "do anything vehicle, but not a go anywhere one": it is a versatile vehicle and was designed to be an economical one. (That's by the standards of space flight to begin with, and it actually ended up costing a *lot* more per launch than envisioned.) It cannot, however, get further than low Earth orbit. The Shuttle was originally proposed as part of a complete infrastructure of American Earth-orbit facilities, including the Space Station Freedom (see below); budgetary cutbacks meant that only one portion of the proposal could be funded, and the Shuttle was selected. Somewhat ironically, it is only in the final stages of its life-cycle that the advent of the International Space Station has allowed the Shuttle to be used in the capacity for which it was originally designed.
Strictly speaking, the big black-and-white thing that looks kind of like an airplane is called an "orbiter"; the space shuttle consists of an orbiter, a large external fuel tank (which is not recovered—a new one must be used every time), and two Solid Rocket Boosters. Six orbiters have been built in total:
- Enterprise (after that Enterprise, seriously!note ). Built primarily for testing purposes, Enterprise is not actually capable of spaceflight (as it is missing several minor things like heat shielding or engines), though there were originally plans to refit it for such.note
- Now housed at the USS Intrepid Air and Space Museum in New York City. Go see it!
- Columbia (after the first American vessel to circumnavigate the world, and also the Apollo 11 Command Module). The first space shuttle launched (in 1981). Slightly different from later shuttles due to design changes. Columbia remained in service until 2003, when it broke up during atmospheric reentry.
- Challenger (after the ship used for the Challenger expedition). First launched in 1983. Sadly, Challenger is best known for its destruction in 1986 just over a minute after liftoff.
- Discovery (after quite a few different ships of exploration). First launched in 1984. Discovery was used to launch the Hubble Space Telescope, was the first American spacecraft to carry a Russian into space, and was the first shuttle to be launched after the destructions of both Columbia and Challenger.
- Also the Orbiter with the most flights and longest cumulative time in space.
- Now housed at the National Air and Space Museum's Udvar-Hazy Center.
- Atlantis (after an oceanographic research vessel). First launched in 1985. The final orbiter to be decommissioned, it took off on its final mission on July 8, 2011, about half an hour before noon Eastern Daylight Time.
- Currently on display in a dedicated building at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex.
- Endeavour (after James Cook's ship and also the Apollo 15 Command Module; Americans normally spell the word "endeavor"). First launched in 1992. Constructed as a replacement for Challenger.
- Currently being prepared for display at the California Science Center in Los Angeles.
The entire space shuttle fleet was decommissioned in 2011, in favor of a new system known as Orion
that could have, when using the new Ares-class rockets, been able to go back to the Moon. This new system was soon cancelled. See "Project Constellation" for more details.
The International Space Station
An outgrowth of a design project known as Space Station Freedom, which was initiated under the Reagan administration. By the 1980's the Soviets had wrested back the top dog position in manned spaceflight with the Salyut series of stations. The launch of Mir cemented this. note
Space Station Freedom was supposed to be the US's answer. Following a series of budget cutbacks (and a trimmed-down redesign, jokingly known as "Space Station Fred"), the Freedom proposal was abandoned in favor of the ISS, a collaborative project between NASA, the Russian Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the multinational European Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This orbital science research facility is commanded from mission control centers in Houston, U.S. (which typically has overall operational control); Moscow, Russia; Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany; and Tsukuba, Japan.
It has been said not entirely inaccurately, that the ISS came about because each member had something they lacked. The Russians lacked money, NASA expertise and the Canadians, Japanese and Europeans a human spaceflight program and ISS rectified thisnote
. Launched in 1998 and permanently manned since 2000 it is now the size of a five bedroom suburban house; in living space alone and nearly a million kgs in mass. The ISS essentially two stations, the Russian Orbital module (the larger part), which is basically Mir mark 2 and the US Orbital Section, which is a mish mash of sections built by the other partners.
NASA's latest manned spaceflight project calls for the Shuttle to be retired some time around 2010 and replaced by the Orion spacecraft, a semi-reusable capsule similar to the Apollo spacecraft. New rockets are being developed, Ares I and V. The Orion spacecraft, together with the Altair lander, will be capable of manned lunar missions, near-Earth asteroid encounters, and potentially even interplanetary travel. The first test launch of the program, Ares I-X, took place on October 27, 2009.
In a development that has been controversial to say the least, the 2011 federal budget proposed by President Barack Obama on February 1, 2010 does not include any elements of Constellation, effectively canceling the program to develop the boosters and redefining the Orion capsule as a "Multi-Purpose Crew Module." In its place, the administration has proposed a stronger focus on education and research to develop "game-changing technologies" before continuing with a manned exploration agenda, with American access to the International Space Station delegated to an as-yet non-existent commercial spaceflight industry. This has garnered a mixture of both approval and criticism within NASA and within Congress (which has final authority over the budget) - some say that previous exploration goals were too ambitious for current technology, while others insist that if a clear-cut goal for exploration is defined, the required technology will be developed as it is needed (as it was during Apollo). Time will tell what the final outcome is.
Space Launch System
To replace the Ares boosters as the primary launch vehicle for the Orion/Multi-Purpose Crew Module, NASA is currently working on a new booster called the Space Launch System. Reusing as much Space Shuttle hardware as possible, including the solid rocket boosters and a five-engine configuration of the RS-25 main engines used by the Space Shuttle, the SLS continues the Ares concept with all flight-tested hardware.
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services
With the bureaucratic mess involved in developing any kind of American-operated flight hardware for getting to the International Space Station (or beyond) in the post-Shuttle era, NASA has smartly hedged its bets by developing the COTS program to help support private companies to develop, build and launch cargo and man-rated launch vehicles and crew/cargo spacecraft for ISS
. Many companies are participating. One company has a remarkable lead overall: SpaceX
. Founded by Paypal billionaire Elon Musk, the company has developed its Falcon launch vehicles and its crew/cargo module, the Dragon, and are the first private company to launch a spacecraft to the ISS on May 22, 2012, and dock their vehicle to the ISS, returning the Dragon safely on May 31. They started operational flights in October 2012. The Dragon and Falcon are designed to almost-fully reusable, with extremely cool recovery/abort modes that may ultimately bring a manned Dragon spacecraft
or expended Falcon boosters
back to Earth via a powered rocket landing, Space1999
A few other companies are also making progress. Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser mini-shuttle, which would take off using a human-rated version of an off-the-shelf commercial booster (most likely the Atlas V) and land on a fairly ordinary runway like the Shuttle, is on track to restoring NASA's ability to send up to seven people at a time to space (as they had in the days of the Shuttle); it's going sufficiently well that in 2014 the Europeans decided to buy in, although as NASA decided not to proceed with further funding that same year, its fate is rather in limbo. The CST-100, a Boeing-led project that looks a lot like a cut-down version of Orion but really has nothing to do with Orion, is also intended to be launched from an Atlas V, and is also making pretty sound headway. Also of note is Orbital Sciences' Cygnus unmanned resupply craft, the first US-based craft of its type (for a long time, there was only the Russian Progress, and then in the mid-2000s the Japanese and Europeans followed up with the H-II Transfer Vehicle and Automated Transfer Vehicle, respectively) and one of only three going forward (the ATV is being retired, although it will live on as the Supply Module for Orion). (Cygnus is also interesting because it is being launched on the kinda-sorta new launcher Antares—"kinda-sorta" because it was basically made by cutting off the upper part of a Ukrainian Zenit booster and strapping the first stage of an LGM-118 Peacekeeper ICBM
to the top.)
of these, given that robotic probes are much better at traveling far and wide to explore the solar system, not needing any life support, fuel to accelerate astronauts and their support systems to reasonable speeds, more fuel to accelerate that
fuel, protection from cosmic rays, landing craft that can take off from other planets/moons, methods of surviving on said other worlds, and usually, no need for return journeys. Also, no lives to be lost, of course. Since mindless robot explorers are not as glamorous or exciting to watch as astronauts, the probe fleet is obviously not as well known as, say, Apollo, but some of them have leaked into the public consciousness nonetheless.
- Mars Missions:
- A few of the early Mariner missions targeted Mars. (Mariner missions 4, 6 and 7 flew by; Mariner 9 orbited.)
- Mariner 9 was especially important because it disproved the idea that Mars was little more than a big moon, which had been cultivated by the barren, cratered landscapes imaged by the previous missions.
- Viking landed two big stationary probes on Mars in the mid-1970s. Looked for life signs, found nothing. Also had two orbiters which mapped the planet in more detail than the previous Mariner 9 mission, provided data on Martian weather, and looked at near-Martian conditions.
- After Viking, there weren't anymore successful Mars missions until the mid-1990s with Mars Global Surveyor, an orbiter (usually called MGS), and Pathfinder a lander with a small rover called Sojourner. These reawakened interest in Mars exploration, leading to the large number of more recent probes: the European Mars Express and American 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiters, the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), and 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
- The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity deserve a Moment Of Awesome. Initially designed to last a minimum of 90 days and not expected to survive that long, as of April 2010, they were both still running. Although Spirit is stuck in some sandy soil and is now classified as a "stationary observational point" instead of a rover. Unfortunately in May 2011, Spirit stopped working completely, but Opportunity is still chugging along just fine, with no sign that it's going to stop any time soon, Martian weather permitting.
- As of May 16, 2013, Opportunity is also in second place for the longest distance driven on Mars or the Moon by a vehicle at 35.76 km. Just below it at 35.74 km is the Apollo 17 lunar rover (eg a vehicle actually designed for long distance travel) and just above it at 37 km is Lunokhod 2 from the USSR in 1973.
- There are currently plans to launch quite a few more probes to Mars, including sample return missions and more and bigger rovers. The Mars Science Laboratory or "Curiosity" rover landed on the planet in 2012. It's landing heralded a few remarkable "firsts", including the use of a "sky crane" a powered rocket frame that lowered the Mini Cooper-sized rover to the surface, rather than using previous landing methods. Oh, just go to the remarkable page on TheOtherWiki for the grandeur of this rover.
- The cheap spider-bots they're currently building (not to be sent up for another decade, probably) can dance.
- After the rovers, the Phoenix lander program occurred during 2008. Due to landing near the polar locations, Phoenix was not expected to last very long as the harsh Martian winter would end up destroying or damaging much of its exterior. Nevertheless, as with Spirit and Opportunity, it provided volumes of data on the red planet. On November 2, 2008, Phoenix made it's final message back to Earth, a single word in binary: Triumph.
- MAVEN, a probe on its way to Mars to study the Martian atmosphere. Notable for having its preparation halted due to the 2013 Government Shutdown just mere weeks before the launch window, which, if missed, means that they have to wait two more years. An emergency measure was passed so MAVEN could launch on time.
- Not all of the Mars missions were successful. Two of the unmanned Mars probes — the Mars Climate Orbiter, and the Mars Polar Lander — have gone down in infamy as two of NASA's biggest failures. The Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere because the output from one piece of Earth-based software was in pound-seconds and the program that used it as input expected Newton-seconds. The Polar Lander crashed on landing because onboard software detected a jolt while extending its landing gear, interpreted this jolt incorrectly as the landing pads touching the ground, and shut off the engines.
- Venus Missions: This was more the Soviets' thing, but the US did have a few notable Venus missions.
- Mariner 2 was the first successful interplanetary mission done by any human probe; it flew by Venus in 1962 and established that it was really really hot (about 450 degrees Celsius)
- The next Venus missions launched by NASA were the Pioneer-Venus probes in the late 1970s. There were two probes, one designed to go through the atmosphere and look at its composition, and another designed to orbit, relay telemetry from the landers, and make radar maps of the surface. The probes successfully mapped a large part of Venus' surface and gathered data about the atmosphere.
- The most recent American Venus mission was the Magellan probe, designed to map the entire surface of Venus using radar. Very successfully generated a high-res 3D map of almost the entire Cytherean (the proper adjective relating to the veiled planet) surface. Notable for being made on the cheap out of spare parts from Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, and Mariner 9.
- The Outer Solar System: The outer solar system probes are generally fly-bys, with a few orbiters and one lander to date. Five of them (The Pioneers, the Voyagers and New Horizons) have achieved escaped velocity for the solar system and are headed out into interstellar space, where they'll roam for millions of years unless picked up by a faster spacecraft at some far future date. None, however, are headed for any nearby star and at the speeds at which they are traveling, they'd take tens of thousands of years to cover the distances to the stars anyway. Most of these probes rely on RTGnote units to power themselves; however, the combination of more efficient solar cells and increasingly expensive nuclear fuel has lead to solar power becoming a viable option (such as with Dawn and Juno).
- Pioneers 10 and 11 gave us our first close-up looks at Jupiter and Saturn. Since their trajectories will take them into interstellar space, both Pioneers carry a plaque containing some information about Earth, just in case. They were followed by...
- Voyagers 1 and 2, some of the most famous spacecraft of all time, launched in 1977, the farthest and fastest machines ever built by humanity to date. They explored Jupiter and Saturn in greater detail than the Pioneers, using gravitational slingshots to propel them from planet to planet on their tour of the outer solar system. Voyager 1's mission ended at Saturn, but Voyager 2 went on to study Uranus and Neptune (on a extended journey that took the entire decade of the 1980s). Like the Pioneers, they are headed out of the solar system, so they carry golden phonograph records designed by Carl Sagan carrying the sounds of Earth, including music and greetings in dozens of human languages and one whale language, with them out into the great void. In 1991, at Sagan's request, NASA had Voyager 1 turned its cameras back on the solar system to take a family portrait of the planets, including the iconic Pale Blue Dot, an image of its home world the Earth from almost 4 billion miles out. In 1999, Voyager 1 became the most distant object ever created by the human race, a lead it is currently continually increasing. As of 2013, the Voyagers are still sending back data, taking readings of the solar wind as it drops away behind them. (No, there were only two Voyagers. A sixth Voyager spacecraft will not get an incredible upgrade and come back to a future Earth as a solar-system-sized machine-cloud and try to assimilate us—we think.)
- Currently, assuming nothing bad happens, Voyager 1 has enough available resources to power itself until around 2025 - 2030, giving it a mission life of about 50 years.
- Galileo, a dedicated Jupiter mission. Named for the famous Italian who got in trouble when he trained a telescope on Jupiter for the first time. Originally schedule for launch in 1982, due to delays in the Shuttle program and the Challenger disaster it was finally released from the cargo bay of Atlantis in 1989. It arrived at Jupiter in 1995 after swinging by Venus, Earth (twice) and two asteroids (safety concerns after Challenger necessitated the use of a less powerful solid-fuel booster and multiple gravity assists), and it successfully carried out an extensive survey of Jupiter and its moons despite its main antenna not opening properly. It dropped a probe into Jupiter's atmosphere (no cameras, sorry), found evidence for a liquid ocean underneath Europa, and observed a lot of volcanoes on Io and (fortuitously) the impact on Jupiter of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. After suffering years of cumulative damage from Jupiter's hellish radiation belts, it was intentionally deorbited and burned up in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter in 2003 to avoid contaminating the Jovian moons with Earth bacteria (important because Europa in particular is thought to be one of the best candidates in the Solar System for extraterrestrial life).
- Since 2004, the Cassini orbiter has been studying Saturn and its moons and rings. It deployed the European-built Huygens miniprobe (which did include a camera) which landed on the surface of the mysterious moon Titan, and confirmed the presence of hydrocarbon lakes on that moon, and active water ice volcanoes and a subsurface ocean on Enceladus. Current plans are to deorbit the craft into Saturn a la Galileo around 2017 after a "Grand Finale" of risky but scientifically valuable maneuvers, but other options exist.
- The New Horizons probe, launched in 2006, will be the first to study dwarf planet Pluto and its moons when it arrives in July 2015; after its flyby, it can be potentially targeted to other nearby Kuiper Belt objects (three possible targets have been identified). The fifth spacecraft on a trajectory to leave the solar system, Horizons derives its velocity from a more powerful launch rocket and one gravitational assist from Jupiter. It carries the ashes of Clyde Tombaugh, the discoverer of Pluto. Cue jokes about how Tombaugh is powering up New Horizon by rolling in his box.
- The Dawn mission, a probe propelled by ion engines, on a mission to the asteroid Vesta (already completed) and dwarf planet Ceres (arrival scheduled for April 2015). The solar-powered ion engines have lower thrust than normal rockets but are very efficient and can fire continuously for long durations to achieve an overall greater velocity. Dawn is a hybrid of a fly-by craft and an orbiter, as its ion engines permit to enter orbit, then exit and head to a different location.
- The Stardust-NExT mission, a comet-chasing probe that flew through the tail of comet Wild 2 and brought back samples to Earth before being sent on another mission to revisit and reanalyze comet Tempel 1, which had been hit by a kinetic slug several years earlier by another probe, Deep Impact.
- The Juno mission, launched in 2011, is on a mission to study Jupiter, and scheduled to arrive in orbit in July 2016, before being deorbited into Jupiter, as Galileo had been, 15 months and 33 polar orbits (to avoid Jupiter's radiation belts, which badly damaged Galileo) later.
- OSIRIS-REx, a sample return mission planned to be launch in 2016 to study an asteroid called Bennu and learn about their origins.
- Solar Missions:
- Ulysses: A joint project with the European Space Agency, intended to look at the Sun from all latitudes—Earth-based observation can't observe the solar poles all that well. Launched aboard Discovery in 1990 because the planned launch aboard Challenger in May 1986 was nixed by the loss of Challenger that January. The process needed to get into a high-inclination polar orbit around the Sun was long and complicated—it involved flying by Jupiter so the probe could play with the giant planet's gravity—which is how it got its name (indeed, the original idea was to call it Odysseus until the Europeans insisted on the Latin term to reference Ulysses' appearance in the Inferno). Even after that, Ulysses' orbit was very wide—it never got closer to the Sun than the Earth does, and at its most distant it went to 5 AU (i.e. 5 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun). Ulysses survived for over four times its designed lifespan, with communications finally being terminated in June 2009 as its RTG heating units could no longer keep the hydrazine fuel for its attitude control system from freezing.
- Earth Science Missions: NASA also looks down at Earth. After all, the Earthrise is a major symbol of environmental protection. Although not as prominent as other unmanned probes, NASA's Earth science probes had contributed a lot to the climatologist community, looking at things such as deforestation, the ozone holes, ice cap melting, tracking hurricanes, etc. Here is a handy list of all of the Earth science probes.
The first "A" in NASA stands for Aeronautics, after all. Although NASA's manned space missions get most of the attention, and NASA's unmanned space missions get most of the attention not already garnered by the manned missions, NASA also engages in and/or encourages research into improving flight within
It was NASA's predecessor, NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), for example, who contracted the development of the Bell X-1 rocket plane to purposely break the sound barrier. NASA also led the way with research into the Scramjet for the (now cancelled) National Aerospace Plane, and is looking into laminar airflow to allow supersonic aircraft to cruise more efficiently. In other words, NASA is trying to restart the supersonic airliner industry.
Aeronautical researches are mainly conducted in the original NACA centers - Glenn, Ames, Armstrong, and Langley. Chances are, if there is a modern aircraft buzzing overhead, it contain an airfoil from the NACA airfoil series. Famous figures such as Orville Wright and Charles Lindbergh
once chaired NACA. A few years before the start of WWII, it was one of NACA's European "spies" that noticed Hitler is a little
too suspicious with the constructions of new aeronautical laboratories, all of which have technology that greatly dwarfed
NACA's ability. NACA applied to Congress for more research funding, when the Great Depression is still rampaging, so that went nowhere until the war started. Nevertheless, NACA's research helped the development of warplanes during the war.
The geek side of The Internet
likes to remind any willing audience that modern NASA doesn't just do spaceflight, manned or unmanned. And they will be right—federal charters mandates NASA to perform bioengineering, renewable energy, and climate research, sometimes as complementary to spaceflight research. The details to those "other" researches are outside of this wiki's scope, so here is a brief rundown of what one would expect to turn up when modern "NASA" is mentioned on the Internet:
- Spinoff: The standard rebuttal to "NASA's a waste of money" argument. NASA defined spinoffs as "commercialized products that involves NASA technology in any ways", which in its broadest appliances includes most of the post-1915 aircraft, all post-Apollo processors, modern weather prediction techniques, all First Person Shooters, to name a few. Tang, Teflon, and Velcro are not NASA spinoffs, and NASA did not deliberately make spinoffs.
- NASA's budget, or the lack thereof: Another standard rebuttal, this time mentioning how little budget NASA has. For years NASA's budget has stayed at below 0.5% of the overall federal budget, and this isn't likely to change in the near future. Space advocates would like to raise it back to Apollo era level (4.41%), or lessen Congress's control over NASA's missions and strategies. Few would like to abolish NASA all together.
Appearance in Media and Fiction (beside those already up there)
Anime and Manga
- In Twin Spica, Asumi trains hard to be an astronaut. NASA naturally comes up. Shu, Asumi's friend, was accepted to an internship program at NASA. However, he died before he got there. In the live adaption, Asumi took Shu's spot.
- In Uchuu Kyoudai, Mutta's brother Hibbito was a JAXA astronaut under training from NASA and the first Japanese to land on the moon. Mutta follows closely behind.
- Rocket Girls: Yukari met the ISS astronauts on a service mission.
- Robotics;Notes: NASA was involved in a mind control conspiracy. Except it was all made up.
- Jiro Horikoshi in The Wind Rises compared a fish bone to a NACA airfoil, and found that they are exactly the same shape.
- Orbiter, a comic by Warren Ellis, present a world where KSC is now an abandon fort. The aliens were so happy for the creation of NASA, but, well, scroll up.
- Brian Azzarello's Spaceman: NASA is abolished after a public outcry against their genetic engineering program.
- Ms. Marvel worked for NASA as a security chief in her first appearances. In the early issues of the 2012 Captain Marvel series, she travels back to the Mercury program as part of a weird Time Travel mix-up.
- Wonder Woman was also an astronaut for a while, back in The Bronze Age of Comic Books.
- Condorito: Parodied it as "MASA" (which means "dough" in Spanish) in several jokes.
- They have their own website. Notable for horrible infrastructures * and one of the earlier websites. Go check it out.
- Keith Cowing's NASA Watch is a site offering a cynical view of news about NASA and its activities.
- The Onion has had many stories about NASA, including:
- Quite a few XKCD strips reference various NASA programs and missions, given that the cartoonist is a former contractor.