"I Like Ike!"Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) was a five-star general during World War II and later the 34th President of the United States (1953-1961). He took office after Harry Truman and was succeeded by John F. Kennedy. He was the last President born in the 19th century and was the 13th from the Republican Party. Eisenhower was the first President who was limited to two terms by the 22nd Amendment (Harry Truman was grandfather-claused). He's famous for his nickname “Ike,” which he got from his parents. In fact, all of his brothers were nicknamed Ike, which doesn’t make a lot of sense. For some reason, it only stuck with him for the rest of his life. Ike was actually first named David Dwight Eisenhower; his mother changed the order of his names when he was a year old because having three Davids in the family was confusing everyone. One gets the feeling from all of this that his family had trouble with names. To this day, some people believe that she did it so he wouldn't have a nickname - this despite the fact that she was the one who thought up Ike! Despite his deeply-religious mother’s beliefs on war, Eisenhower went to West Point and graduated in 1915; this class is famous for producing 58 future generals (including Omar Bradley, another major World War II General and Ike’s good friend) and has been nicknamed “the class the stars fell on” by military historians. During World War I, Eisenhower trained tank crews at Gettysburg, though, to his disappointment, he never saw action. Between the wars, he studied military history and strategy, rose up the ranks to lieutenant colonel, and served for a few years under Douglas MacArthur (who was already a four-star general and Army Chief of Staff, before serving as a general in World War II) in the Philippines. All of this proved to be invaluable for preparing him for his future leadership in the next world war. Eisenhower saw a number of promotions throughout World War II, eventually reaching the ranks of General of the Army (five-stars) and Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. He was one of the most brilliant strategists on the Allied side, and was responsible for some of the most important American victories in the European and North African theaters. He was the commander of both Operation Torch (the Allied landings on North Africa) and Operation Husky (the invasion of Sicily). President Franklin D. Roosevelt then chose him to plan the Allied invasion of northern Europe. Codenamed Operation Overlord, but best known as D-Day, the Allied landings on the beaches of Normandy (part of northern France) were a very risky move (he actually had a speech assuming full responsibility ready in case it failed) that, luckily, paid off. Eisenhower continued to supervise the western front and was present at the German surrender. He was also one of the first Allied leaders to see the concentration camps in Germany, and he ordered both the military and news crews to document everything they saw knowing some would deny it really happened. He famously wrote "We are told the American soldier does not know what he is fighting for. Now, at least, he will know what he is fighting against." Eisenhower was made the Governor of the American Zone in Germany, where he helped bring in food and medicine for the German citizens. He served as Chief of Staff for President Harry Truman and, later, as the first supreme commander of NATO during the beginning years of the Cold War. He was courted by both major parties in 1948, but declined to run. He was "drafted" by Republicans in 1952 and won the general election in a ten-point victory and Electoral College landslide. It was the first time a Republican nominee won since 1928.note Additionally, he won reelection in 1956 by an even larger margin. His campaign slogan was "I Like Ike", which was meant to be worn on buttons and bumper stickers to show support. The unpopular and sour-faced Richard Nixon, then a commie-fighting Senator from California, was his running mate; Ike tried to make Nixon a Cabinet member during his second term, but Tricky Dicky insisted on staying on as the VP. Eisenhower was also president of Columbia University from 1948 to 1953, which gave him administrative experience for his years as the nation's president. Eisenhower proved to be a very moderate President, upholding the surviving New Deal agencies of Roosevelt and Truman and even expanding Social Security. For most of his two terms, Congress was controlled by the Democrats (future President Lyndon Johnson was the Senate Majority Leader), and he established a good record of bipartisan compromises and maintaining friendly relations between both parties. Indeed, many voters at the time thought that Eisenhower rose above the petty political squabbles of Washington and maintained his integrity. While Eisenhower was President, infamous Senator Joseph McCarthy was leading a witch-hunt against (mostly imaginary) communists in the federal government. When McCarthy began to target the Atomic Energy Commission, Eisenhower ordered that its employees not reveal anything for the sake of "public interest", technically making him the father of executive privilege. Despite being criticized for failing to stop McCarthy, Eisenhower worked behind the scenes to get the McCarthy-Army hearings televised, leading to McCarthy's downfall when the public got a look at how utterly unlikable and out-of-touch with reality he was. He made five appointments to the Supreme Court, including California governor Earl Warren as Chief Justice and William J. Brennan, Jr., as an Associate Justice, the latter man a Democrat nominated by Eisenhower in a bipartisan move. Despite expectations that Chief Justice Warren would lead the Court in a conservative direction, the Warren Court gave many liberal rulings on topics as varied as civil rights, the rights of accused citizens, the supremacy of federal laws over state laws, and education. Eisenhower called his nominations of Warren and Brennan to the Court his "great mistakes as President." Most historians disagree, for the record. The unanimous Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) ended school segregation and seriously kicked off the Civil Rights Movement. Supporting their ruling, he ordered the desegregation of DC schools (per Bolling v. Sharpe) and would later send down the 101st Airborne Division to enforce the inclusion of black students in the high school at Little Rock, Arkansas. He also proposed two Civil Rights Acts to Congress in 1957 and 1960, which were the first passed since Reconstruction ended in 1877, created the Commission on Civil Rights, and completed Truman’s process of desegregating the military. Eisenhower has often been criticized for not doing enough to support the Civil Rights Movement; he did personally support it, but he believed that the President could only help them to a limited extent and that changing things suddenly would lead to some people taking violent action to try and stop it. Other notable moments of the Civil Rights Movement during his time include the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the murder of black youth Emmett Till, African American student Autherine Lucy's admittance to the University of Alabama via court order, and the start of the sit-in movements. In 1958, Eisenhower met with notable African American leaders in 1958, including Martin Luther King, Jr. He also supported the very unfortunate policy of "termination," where Native Americans were forced to move off of reservations and into cities in order to assimilate into white culture. Like nearly all things the federal government has done to Native Americans, this did not help them in the slightest. Ike also signed the act creating the Interstate Highway System; largely inspired by the German Autobahnen he saw during WWII, it authorized the building of tens of thousands of miles of new freeways across the nation. Most people today forget that they were created in case the Soviets invaded and troops needed to be moved very quickly across the country; instead, it led to the rise of Suburbia and made the automobile industry even more powerful. It remains the largest public works program in American history. He also signed the National Defense Education Act, which gave funding to all levels of education and provided financial assistance to thousands of college students. His administration saw the first serious federal action taken against illegal immigrants from Mexico, and nearly 1 million were rounded up and sent back during his presidency.note The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was created during his time; it’s now the Department of Health and Human Services, after Education was given its own Department. Outside of three stinging but very brief recessions, Eisenhower’s two terms oversaw a period of excellent economic outgrowth, and he managed to significantly reduce federal deficits. Three of his eight years actually saw a balanced budget. The Bureau of Labor Statistics gave out its lowest ever unemployment rate during his presidency - 2.5% during May and June of 1953. "White collar" workers surpassed "blue collar" workers for the first time in 1956, signifying that America was now a post-industrial economy, and union membership reached its peak in 1954 before slowly declining. This is partly because of corruption and connection to organized crime in many unions, including Jimmy Hoffa's notorious Teamster's Union. Eisenhower signed the Landrum-Griffin Act to combat the illegal activities of such labor leaders. Despite the growing Civil Rights Movement and the Cold War paranoia, the Eisenhower years are remembered as a period of peace and prosperity following almost 25 years of depression and two wars. The 1950's are often known as the Eisenhower Era. On the foreign policy front, Eisenhower’s “New Look” policy supported the containment and, eventually, the “rolling back” of communism throughout the world. To do this, he used a method of Peace Through Superior Firepower, massively increasing the number of nuclear weapons owned by the United States. Eisenhower didn’t seem to ever want to use these weapons, though; he repeatedly turned down any attempt by his advisors to use them against Red China or other communist nations. Some historians have theorized that Ike actually built so many nukes in order to prevent World War III by the concept of mutually-assured destruction - if both sides had enough nuclear power to pretty much destroy all human life on Earth, they would do everything in their power to not go to war and, eventually, the Cold War would end. If this is true, history has proven that he was right. Additionally, he openly promoted the use of atomic and nuclear power for peaceful purposes, such as energy, rather than the creation of weapons. However, Ike wasn't opposed to using conventional weapons for the same purpose. His administration established and operated under the "domino theory", which stated that if one country falls to communism, its neighbors would eventually fall too if significant anti-communist support was not given. One of the unfortunate effects of this was the beginning of American involvement in The Vietnam War during his time in office, though he only sent a few hundred troops there and the next few administrations were the ones to expand it. Relations with the Soviet Union proved to be very testy during his eight years. During his first year in office, Josef Stalin died. Eisenhower met with Soviet premiere Nikita Khrushchev a few times with the hopes of slowly ending the Cold War, but these conferences only produced a few results. The USSR's brutal crushing of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 was one of the tenser moments of the Cold War, but Eisenhower kept his head and refused to risk causing a nuclear war. Following Nixon’s visit to the Soviet Union and Khrushchev’s visit to America, the chance for peace started to look better. However, on the eve of another summit in Paris, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over USSR territory. Eisenhower begrudgingly admitted to an outraged Khrushchev that he ordered this flight as well as others, embarrassing the American government. Khrushchev left the summit in protest, Eisenhower had to cancel his planned trip to the USSR, and relations between the two countries returned to their previous state. Speaking of the Cold War, The Space Race started when the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite into space in 1957. He responded by creating both NASA to lead the American space program and DARPA to expand scientific knowledge and technological progress. The Nuclear Navy also got its start during the 1950's - under the leadership of Hyman G. Rickover, it had a record of zero reactor accidents with continues to this day. Eisenhower visited the Korean peninsula in 1952 after winning and concluded that the stalemate in The Korean War was not worth the money being poured into it. Upon entering office in 1953, he negotiated an end to the fighting with an armistice. (Technically speaking, America is still at war with North Korea because a peace treaty was never signed.) That same year, he authorized a CIA-led coup d’etat in Iran to overthrow the (pro-oil nationalization, anti-Soviet but pragmatically aligned with them, mind you) prime minister and reinstate the Iranian monarchy. This was the start of major American involvement in the Middle East and would eventually lead to the spectacular embarrassment of the Iranian hostage crisis during Jimmy Carter’s presidency. When Israel, the UK, and France invaded Egypt in 1956 to seize the Suez Canal, Eisenhower ordered them to leave Egypt and return the canal. He also sent troops to Lebanon two years later to prevent the nation from falling to revolutionaries. The CIA led other covert operations, including in Guatemala and the Congo. Cuba fell to communism in 1959, and Eisenhower ordered the CIA to plan an invasion of Cuba that would end up happening during John F. Kennedy’s time in office. The Formosa Resolution, which promises Taiwan that America will provide military defense against Red China, was passed in 1955 and continues to this day. During the Eisenhower administration, America and Canada worked together to create the St. Lawrence Seaway and The Franco Regime in Spain was recognized by the United States government. Eisenhower changed the name of the presidential retreat from "Shangri-La" to "Camp David" in honor of his grandson. Air Force One started to be used for security purposes after a rather embarrassing incident where a plane Eisenhower was on and a commercial flight with the same call sign entered the same airspace. He was also the first President to appoint a White House Chief of Staff and the first to appear on color television. A heart attack in 1955 left him in the hospital for six weeks, but he recovered soon enough that it was forgotten in time for the 1956 election. The phrase "under God" was controversially added to the Pledge of Allegiance in 1954. Alaska and Hawaii were both admitted to the Union in 1959, bringing the number of states to 50. He endorsed Nixon’s first run for President in 1960 and wasn’t happy when Kennedy won, but he did live long enough to see Nixon enter the office at the end of The Sixties. Eisenhower gave a famous televised farewell speech when he warned the nation of what he called “the military-industrial complex”, or a partnership between government forces and the defense industrial base. What most people tend not to remember was the fact that he also warned against those seeking to impede its' place as a legitimate part of the American arsenal as well as those who sought to have it gain too much power. He had to resign his position as General of the Army when he entered office, though he was recommissioned after leaving it. Ike died in 1969. He was seen for a while as a "do-nothing" who was more interested in golfing than the presidency, but he is today recognized for ending the Korean War while preventing others, overseeing a time of economic prosperity, creating lasting and highly influential government agencies, and slowly starting government support of the Civil Rights Movement. On a less political note, he was known also for having a very warm, kind, and gentle sense of humour. At his 77th birthday party, he quipped, "Well I've heard the expression, 'Who wants to live a hundred years?' I can tell 'em for sure there's one man, that's a man who's ninety-nine." Historians now usually place him in the top 10. He has an aircraft carrier named after him, and his place of meditation at his grave in Kansas is really cool. He donated his farm in Gettysburg to the National Park Service before he died. Currently, plans are underway for building the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial in Washington, D.C..
—Eisenhower campaign slogan
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