The biggest name in biology, period.
Everything we know about life, Darwin essentially explained.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was an English naturalist who first put forward the theory of evolution due to natural selection, stating that the spectrum of differences seen in life on Earth were due to a slow accumulation of change over many generations, selected via environmental pressures. This theory, though it has been significantly fine-tuned since Darwin's day, is the cornerstone of modern biology.
Darwin was not the most interesting of children. By all accounts he was quite lazy
, more interested with foxhunting than anything else. He flunked out of medical school because he couldn't stand the sight of blood
. He eventually settled down to study theology at Cambridge for becoming a country parson, a job that would have given him the easy living that he wanted. There he became a protege of John S. Henslow
, who sparked Darwin's lifelong fascination of biology and geology.
By 1831, Darwin was all set for a life of peace and obscurity when he received an invitation
to join a two-year around the world voyage on the HMS Beagle
as the captain's companion (not like that
, or that
; at the time, being captain on a small surveying ship like the Beagle
was a lonely job, as they could not fraternize with the enlisted crew, and with few officers aboard, a companion was usually hired to provide a source of intelligent conversation). Captain FitzRoy was particularly keen to have a companion, since the previous master of the Beagle had committed suicide
. During the trip, he sent back massive amounts of fossils and specimens, and filled journal after journal with the observations (especially those on the Galapagos Islands) of common traits that would eventually lead to his initial theories. Despite all this, the trip was not that pleasant for Darwin, as he spent most of his time on the water violently seasick, contracted a debilitating disease, and fell out with FitzRoy on several occasions. Despite their arguments, Darwin and FitzRoy remained friends for years after the voyage - when FitzRoy committed suicide, Darwin contributed the equivalent of about £10,000 (in today's money) to assist his wife and orphan daughter. The disease Darwin contracted was possibly Chagas disease
, as he studied the feeding habits of bloodsucking Asassin Bugs by letting them bite him
. Whatever the illness was, it plagued him for the rest of his life.
It took Darwin about 20 years of work before he would publish his theory of evolution. He had completed several drafts of On the Origin of Species
, and made arrangements for it to be published after his death, but was spurred to action when another scientist, Alfred Russel Wallace, having arrived at a very similar idea, wrote to him to ask his advice on it. Darwin forwarded Wallace's paper to Charles Lyell with a letter remarking of the similarities, "he could not have made a better short abstract! Even his terms now stand as heads of my chapters ... he does not say he wishes me to publish [Wallace's paper], but I shall, of course, at once write and offer to send to any journal." Distraught and distracted over the illness of his baby son, Darwin put the problem of assigning credit into the hands of his friends Charles Lyell and Joseph Hooker, who proposed that Wallace's essay be put forward in a joint publication with unpublished work by Darwin, highlighting the fact that Darwin had got there first, and presenting the article to the Linnean Society in May of 1859. When the reaction to the presentation and publication was muted, sparking no great controversy, Darwin proceeded with publication, and before 1859 was out, the first edition of On the Origin of Species
The book was an instant bestseller, and debates over God, creation, science, ethics, the place of man, the meaning in life and other such philosophical concepts began almost immediately, continuing to this day.
Darwin never actively joined in with the debate, leaving the fighting to his more pugnacious friends; T.H. Huxley was dubbed "Darwin's Bulldog" for his staunch defence of the theory, leading eventually to Richard Dawkins
being dubbed "Darwin's Rottweiler" by some. Interestingly, the initial
controversy over the theory had little to do with religion directly, and focused more on the revelation by Darwin that the green and pleasant scenes so familiar to the English country gentleman of the time were, in fact, vast battlefields where species and individuals were locked into an unending cycle of conflict; if this seems surprising to you, consider that the issue of the evolution of mankind as a species was barely touched on in Origin
, that subject being tackled instead by a later volume, The Descent of Man
(Not to be confused with The Ascent of Man
, which evolved
its title from that work). His name has also been associated with Social Darwinism
, which is the application of his ideas to nations and the human race, notably advocated by his cousin, Sir Francis Galton, as well as Herbert Spencer.
Darwin would be absolutely disgusted by these Social Darwinists
misinterpreting his work for use in Realpolitik
, and was
disgusted and horrified by the slave trade, as had been his grandfather Erasmus Darwin and wife Emma's grandfather, Josiah Wedgewood, both prominent abolitionists. He considered this interpretation impractical, and disagreed with it on scientific grounds, as well as moral ones. Although he analyzed the supposed negative effect that the "weak" caused by "propagating their kind," he cautioned that to allow hard reason to override sympathy would have an even worse effect: "A deterioration in the noblest part of our nature." At any rate, the idea that certain types of people were "superior" to other types wasn't exactly a new idea (remember that whole slavery thing?). Darwin's studies just gave some people the chance to claim that biology supported such views.
His ideas did not
inspire either the Soviet Union or the Nazis. Well, they did and they didn't. On the one hand, the Nazis banned his work
(On The Origin Of Species
was one of the first books to be burned by them), and the Soviet denounced it as "bourgeois science", instead promoting a neo-Lamarckian view of evolution
, which hampered their biological research for decades, until they had to abandon it (they also attempted something similar with Albert Einstein
's theories, but thanks in large part to Vladimir Fock, it didn't stick). On the other hand, it is true that the Nazis were seriously influenced by Social Darwinism, particularly German racist Social Darwinism—which, as we've noted already, twisted Darwin's work in a matter that utterly disgusted him. On the other end of the spectrum, Karl Marx
saw a resonance between Darwin's ideas and his own, which saw the impersonal forces of Nature (in Darwin's case)/History (in Marx's case) driving change; Marx moreover pulled that idea over into believing that the proletariat was best fit to the new industrial world, and would therefore be the "champions" of the social "evolutionary race." Friedrich Engels, in his eulogy for Marx, explicitly called Marx the Darwin of the social sciences, for bringing materialism and data into what had previously been a realm of pure speculation. However, Marx misunderstood Darwin only a bit less than the German racists did—had he been a true Darwinist, he would have realized that evolution doesn't have a "goal" or "winners," only survivors, and would've been more circumspect about predicting the future.
He and Emma were first cousins
- Darwin felt guilty about this because he believed it might have led to their children being weak, one daughter dying tragically of illness while very young. He is usually seen in fiction as an old man with a Badass Beard
, but he wasn't always like that. The picture at the top of the page shows he was a bit of Mr. Fanservice
in his younger days (think Nerds Are Sexy
). Darwin was also an expert in pigeon breeding, orchids, earthworms and (of all things) sea barnaclesnote
It is held by certain (ill-informed) persons that he recanted his theory on his death bed, in the presence of a woman named Lady Hope. This is wrong on two distinct levels: strictly on a factual basis, the woman calling herself "Lady Hope" was not present during his last illness, or indeed any
of his illnesses, according to the testimony of Darwin's daughter. Secondly, even if Darwin did
recant (which he showed no sign of doing) to Lady Hope (who he may never have actually met), Science strives to operate on evidence rather than personal opinion; The evidence gathered in the century and a half since Origin Of Species
has so far failed to produce any indication that the basic premises of Darwin's theory are wrong.
The 2009 film Creation
is a dramatisation of part of his life, with Paul Bettany
as a younger Darwin.
The 2009 TV documentary series Jimmy Doherty in Darwin's Garden
offers a detailed look on how Darwin conducted his evolution-related practical research in his garden
and in the English countryside. Most of Darwin's experiments in botany, genetics, geology and zoology are recreated within each episode.
Darwin provides examples of:
- Adventurer Naturalist / Bold Explorer: In his earlier years, when he set off on the HMS Beagle expedition to explore the geology and species of South America and the Galapagos Islands. Given how relatively unexplored many of the regions he visited still were, it certainly took quite a bit of guts to travel them and conduct field research.
- Afraid of Blood: He had a phobia of blood, which was part of the reason he dropped out of medical school (he didn't really want to be there in the first place but only was because his father wanted him to become a doctor like he was).
- Ass Pull: As Darwin did not know about genetics (Mendel's work was extremely obscure at that point), he presented an extremely half-baked, and obviously wrong, hypothesis about the blending of traits from the two parents. He basically followed this with a brief spiel about everything wrong with this idea and asking someone to do something better.
- Badass Beard: When he was older.
- Badass Grandpa: If science is badassnote , Sir Charles had one in Dr. Erasmus Darwin, Britain's most-renowned physician of the 18th century, and a brilliant scientist and poet in his own right, and a member of the Lunar Society (which met on the nights of the full moon so that its members could travel to the meetings in relative safety) which boasted such luminaries as James Watt (developer of Steam Engines and the reason why the unit of Power is called a Watt) and Joseph Priestley (generally credited with the discovery of Oxygen). Had he not also been a Lamarckian, Erasmus would have scooped his grandson's theory by a hundred years.
- Brilliant but Lazy: His childhood, but he grew out of that.
- Broken Base: There are some religious sects (not just Christian, but mainly) that have no problem with the idea of evolution, and some that refuse to even entertain that it might be true. Then there are some that accept it may be true, but God did it. The debate over it is not likely to end any time soon.
- Bunny-Ears Lawyer: Liked to play backgammon with his wife Emma in the evenings.
- Darkness-Induced Audience Apathy: Some people were turned off of the idea that nature is just a constant struggle between competing species (or members of a species) for survival and reproduction.
- Deathbed Confession: Averted, despite the lies spread by one Lady Hope. What makes her story even more ludicrous was how she said that Darwin first saw the light when he read through the New Testament on his deathbed. Darwin trained to be a clergymen, which diminishes the likelihood of this final reading revealing something new to him.
- Exotic Entree: Darwin was the founding member of the Glutton Club at university, where he and his fellow Cantabrigians feasted upon animals like hawks (tastes terrible), owls (stringy), and armadillos (surprisingly delicious).
- This may also be Irony as he had famously bad digestion in later life, among other chronic (likely stress-related) health problems.
- Gentleman and a Scholar: You bet. And a Nice Guy to boot.
- He Also Did: You can be forgiven for not having heard of his other book The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms. At the time, though, it sold more copies than On the Origin of Species.
- Irony: He was training to be a clergyman before embarking on the voyage that would ultimately lead to his being attacked by the church. He notes the irony in his autobiography.
- The Klutz: Except not really, but there was this funny story in Voyage of the Beagle about the time he accidentally lassoed his own horse, while he was still sitting on it. After his Gaścho guides have finally stopped laughing, they told him that none of them knew doing something like this was possible.
- Tripped it up with his own bolas, actually. Fortunately, no harm done (except to his pride). Considering that bolas are a set of fist-sized rocks on cords that you whirl around your head and throw at animals likes rheas to tangle their legs, he could just as easily killed himself.
- Quote Mine: A frequent victim of this, to the point that The Other Wiki has a list of notable misquotes.
- Reclusive Scientist: In his later years at Down House, he installed a mirror in his garden so that he can see when people were coming up the road and retire unnoticed.
- Science Marches On: While we now know the basic idea behind evolution is correct, it was decades before it could be supported with the study of genetics. The so-called "Eclipse of Darwinism" was the period between the publishing of On the Origin of Species and the first few decades of the 20th century, where evolution was accepted but not natural selection; it had died away by the 1940s.
- Vindicated by History: His theory garnered a lot of criticism at the time and there were fierce debates even in scientific circles, but today the question is settled, at least in the academic world.
- "Well Done, Son!" Guy: His father didn't approve at all of his interest in biology and tried to talk him out of joining the HMS Beagle voygage, and straight-up told him he was a disappointment when he was a teenager. Although he did change his mind later and financially supported Darwin so that he can work as an independent gentleman-scientist.
- What Could Have Been: Armchair scientists have often expressed regret at the fact that Darwin was never shown Mendel's work on genetics. But considering it took a good 30 years before geneticists and evolutionists managed to weld the two subjects together (neo-darwinian synthesis), most are not sure he could have done much on his own.
- Also rates as a Missed Him by That Much, as a copy of Mendel's manuscript was included in one of the scientific journals found in Darwin's study after his death. The pages were uncut, indicating Darwin had never gotten around to reading it.
- Although it may be an aversion, as the manuscript was reportedly in German, a language Darwin read poorly.