Recently, the Huckebein Familiy (and the main character) in Magical Record Lyrical Nanoha Force does this with Anti-Magic. And boy, do they give our favorite characters a tough time. They had to do a complete switch of their armament from normal Magical Girl equipment to something more futuristic.
Detroit Metal City offers this less-than-subtle Shout-Out - Krauser attempts to push his record of yelling 'rape' ten times a second Up To Eleven.
How did Naruto take an idiot ninja with a perverted transformation and his plucky sidekicks to a world war where the fate of the entire ninja world is at stake, with the same ninja at the head, leading his own inner demon into combat against five other inner demons?
GaoGaiGar went this route in the FINAL OVA, since the enemy at the end of the series proper was so powerful it could take out Jupiter the folks at the Gutsy Galaxy Guard decided they needed a weapon that could out do it. 3G's weapon can Extinguish the Sun
Mahou Sensei Negima! starts using this a lot in its more recent chapters, most notably with Jack Rakan, who exists solely to continually ramp up the amount of 'AWESOME' the series contains. He starts with summoning a sword the size of a building, and only gets more ridiculous from there. He also seems to be rubbing off on Negi, as the entire Negi/Kotaro vs. Rakan/Kage fight in the tournament was essentially a contest to see who could turn the awesomeness knob higher. After five separate I Am Not Left-Handed moments from Negi, Kotaro turning into a Big Bad Ass Wolf, and Rakan nearly destroying the arena with one punch, the knob gets broken off and the match ends in a draw.
Ku Fei starts the series as the most badass of the human characters going toe to toe with demons in the Kyoto arc (as a human mind you just with badass martial arts) and then she learns to harness her Ki and succeeds in reducing a mountain into a fine dust. Seems level ten just wasn't enough for her.
At one point in the Digimon series, the protagonists considered it "cheating" when the main antagonist reached a power level one higher (Mega) than the one they had been told was the apex (Ultimate). Since then, we've had DNA Digivolution of two Megas, Mega Mode Change, Ancient Spirit Evolution (the fusion of ten Ultimate-equivalent level Digimon), Burst Evolution and Digi Xros.
Younger Toguro raises his strength in percentage. He reaches 100%, and then pulls out his 100%'s 100%, or 120%. The Updated Re-release of a recent YYH videogame added "120%" to its title in a reference to this.
In the Pokémon episode "A Promise is a Promise", Dr. Namba tells his Electabuzz to "turn it up to eleven," as he turns up his rage machine to greatly increase the Pokémon's power.
Done earlier, with speakers, when the Team Rocket trio were dressed as rock stars with This Is Spinal Tap accents.
Seto no Hanayome has a tendency to make things as absurd as possible (like an Unknown Rival declaring war on another girl), but the Finale takes the cake. It involves...well, just read this.
In the manga adaptation, Soniel yet again BackStabs Fou-lu with the Evil Weapon—and Fou-lu proceeds to manifest an energy sword by will, decapitates Soniel in a spray of gore whilst still having the Dragonslayer sticking through him, and then proceeds to shove the Dragonslayer out of his midsection by hand as Soniel's body sprays blood like a fountain.
Eyeshield 21 takes every Jerk Jock stereotype you can think of and stretches it to logical limits in the form of Agon. Over-developed sense of entitlement? Said to be the most talented athlete of the century and believes anyone who lacks natural talent (even if they work hard) doesn't deserve to exist. Gets away with anything? Car jacked a woman without getting so much as a scolding. A bully? Aimed a football at the head of a little boy in a wheelchair and seems to mug people on a regular basis. Popular with the ladies? Popular enough to get away with car theft. Chauvinistic pig? Is only relatively nice towards pretty girls, and sees nothing wrong with kicking an ugly girl in the back of the head. And if you're a pretty girl who ignores him, he isn't above using violence to get you to notice him. Jerk is an understatement (to say the least), he's practically a sociopath.
Although he can't get away with everything. The cops left him alone because Hiruma had the threat notebook out.
Bleach: Ulquiorra defeats Ichigo with his released form. However, he still takes on a second release, something no other arrancar has been seen to possess, to not only kill him, but to defeat him with pure despair. Ichigo's hollowfied response takes this even further, beyond anything even Ulquiorra has seen a hollow be capable of doing.
The Deicide arc has Aizen and Ichigo's power levels going beyond eleven, the with both their reiatsu becoming unsensable to every other being in the series...and the latter becoming unsensable to the former.
Yamamoto's Zanka no Tachi takes all of the tropes associated with Playing with Fire and Power Of The Sun and turns them up to their logical conclusion: a sword that blows away everything without a trace and a armour of reiatsu emitting temperatures up to 15,000,000 degrees Celsius, the same as the Earth's core. If left active for too long, it could destroy Soul Society and Yamamoto himself.
Toriko does this with food. It's as awesome as it sounds. One of the chapters is even titled "Beyond 10".
Ishiyama High, the school of Beelzebub, is noted repeatedly to have a delinquency rate of 120%.
Tsubasa Reservoir Chronicle starts out as story of three guys a girl and a thing travelling worlds.....then it gets more and more mind-screwing, and the mind-screwing is taken Up to Eleven in the last 5 or so volumes.
That thing has the most mentions of mind-screw on its page.
Yu-Gi-Oh! R has this in one of the cards of its Villain Sue Tenma Yako: The Devil's Avatar. Its main ability is that its attack power is always one higher than that of the strongest monster on the field (changed to +100 in the actual card game). Yugi eventually defeated this creature by attacking it with Obelisk the Tormentor, using Obelisk's effect to make its Attack Score infinite. Try as it could, the Wicked Avatar could not make its Attack Score even higher, because infinity plus 100 is still the same as infinity by all mathematical definitions, and could only manage a draw with the Egyptian God Monster.
In the final round of Kaiser's second duel with Judai in the first season finale of Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, he used Power Bond to summon Cyber End Dragon, which doubled its power, then used Limiter Removal to double it again. Judai responded by activating Battle Fusion to increase the power of his monster by that of Kaiser's monster, to which Kaiser responded by actiating HIS Battle Fusion. The end result was Cyber End Dragon having over 36,000 Attack Points when the two monsters finally collided. Judai still was able to end the duel in a draw by using Final Fusion.
Truthfully, Kaiser tends to show off a lot during the run of the show.
Ranma 1/2 goes beyond any sane limits all over the place. Crazy martial arts? It starts off with martial arts figure skating and only gets nuttier from there, and while martial arts rhythmic gymnastics doesn´t sound so bad, martial arts cheerleading or eating certainly does. Then there's Principal Kuno´s obsession with haircuts, Happosai's lechery, Mousse pulling out more and more insane weapons from his hyperspace -including a multiple ton bomb and a training potty.
InuYasha: The story is absolutely full of youkai, ranging from mooks to very powerful beings who are established and dangerous threats. However, there are a couple of youkai that go well beyond this level to become beings so incredibly powerful that they're officially known as "daiyoukai". The only two youkai referred to as daiyoukai early in the manga are Inuyasha's father and Ryuukossai, the youkai that killed him. Sesshoumaru, who's far more powerful than almost anyone else in the story reaches daiyoukai distinction later in the manga when he achieves his full power and just before the Final Battle, it's revealed that Shippou will one day be able to become one as well, although as a Bratty Half-Pint, he still has a long way to go. Youkai are hard to kill, Daiyoukai almost impossible. Ryuukossai could not be killed by stabbing him through his heart, only sealed into stasis. Sesshoumaru also couldn't be killed by stabbing him through the heart. However, unlike Ryuukossai, it won't even seal him into stasis. It'll just annoy him.