Beamspam McMuppet — Attenborough, the Gonkish weapons officer of the DaiGurren, who loves his work a little too much.
Also known as Button Smash McMuppet.
Captain Garlock — the captain in the prologue to the first episode, who resembles Captain Harlock. He is believed to be an alternate version of, and should not be confused with, the much less arrogant Post-Timeskip Simon, who is referred to as Captain Starlock.
Likewise the Petting Zoo Person assistant standing next to him is referred to as Bootaide. An uplifted Boota shows up in the later episodes as well.
Cotton Hill — Makken of the Team Dai-Gurren, who resembles Hank Hill's father.
Doombitch — Yoko, who gave a Last Kiss to two characters, Kamina and Kittan, who then died of Retirony.
In her defense, Kittan was the one who kissed Yoko, and that was AFTER he decided he was going on a suicide mission to give Team Dai-Gurren the chance they needed to win.
Professer Midrift — Otherwise known as Leite. Named as such due to nearly every scene she's featured in displaying her nerdy abs.
Startits- Yoko earns this one for the literally star-studded bra she wears as part of her space-faring outfit. Just watch Kittan's first reaction to it and you'll know why.
Bruce Ironstaunch — An otherwise unnamed background character who only appears in one scene in the series, making a supportive, strong-armed gesture to Rossiu during the speech where he gives news of Simon's death sentence and word of an escape plan to save the city's population from their planet's moon, which is set to collide with the planet. In Western culture, however, Bruce's gesture translates roughly to "fuck you," and as such several fan artworks of Bruce have been created by Western viewers, depicting Bruce beating on Rossiu or just being manly in general.
The same memetic Fanon holds he's the one who threw that anonymous rock at Rossiu. But, whoever it was, there is at least one fan club dedicated to them.
Kamina-sama: adding 'the great' as a prefix optional. — Kamina. Let's face it; the man deserves it.
Lulussiu and Spinsimon: Rossiu and Simon, respectively after the Time Skip, because the same English voice actors voice bothpairs, and because of both pairs' similar actions and relationships. Also note the oddness that each voices the generally like main character in one series, and The Scrappy in the other.
Namely, Rossiu's penchant for Xanatos Gambits and Simon's Uhhh. Spinning.
The Anti-Spiral King: To diferentiate this Walking Spoiler from the Anti-Spiral Race. Though they do overlap.
The Other Darrin: The reason Bridget Hoffman took over the role post-Time Skip was because Hynden Walch had personal matters to sort out and had to drop out of the show. It works better than most examples, since Nia is a slightly different character now that she aged.
A bit of a subversion. In the original TV series, there just wasn't enough time or money for the animation team to put in everything they wanted, which is why so many of the cast were killed off. Thankfully, the series was successful enough to warrant film adaptations, and the second film includes all of the content they originally wanted to add in.
If ADV had finished the dub, Simon would've been voiced by Josh Grelle and Viral would've been voiced by Vic Mignogna!!
When ADV was handling the dub, Brett Weaver (the voice of Nabeshin and Gai Daigoji) was set to play Kamina. Much disappointment was expressed when ADV's collapse meant this was no longer possible.
Steve Blum also intended to play Kamina. Then he saw a picture of Leeron. The producers were unsure about having Blum cast for Leeron, but let him auditioned for him and were blown away at how great of a fit Blum was for the role.