Bad Export for You - Life Force (NES) only allows two options per ship, while its Japanese counterpart Salamander (FC) allows three.
No Export for You - A few games remain Japan-only. Gradius II (Famicom)note although Gradius II is available in some form in all three major gaming markets, the Famicom port deviates in stage design pretty strongly and Salamander 2 are two such examples.
Subverted for games that never got released in North America, but did in Europe, even though North America often gets priority over Europe with exports. The MSX-exclusive games (Salamander, Gradius 2 / Nemesis II, Gofer no Yabou Episode II / Nemesis III) come to mind.
The original Gradius II, released in 1988, remained out of the reach of the North American market until 2006 (as part of Gradius Collection)—that is, for eighteen years. Its PC Engine port followed suit in 2009 with a Virtual Console rerelease.
Sequel First - Gradius II was released in 1988 in Japan and Europe, but not in North America, where it was officially unreleased until its appearance on Gradius Collection in 2006. Gaiden is a milder example; IV and Galaxies came after it and were released here before Collection (which included Gaiden as well).