Banned in China: The film was initially banned in Israel, due to Gert Fröbe having been a member of the Nazi party. However, it was then revealed that he used his connections to save several would-be Holocaust victims, and everything was cleared up.
The Danza: Martin Benson as Martin Solo, one of the gangsters in Goldfinger's rumpus room.
The actor who played Oddjob was more of an athlete than an actor, and did not master the cinematic art of pulling back one's blows. When he injures James' neck in one scene, Sean Connery was actually hurt, and his discomfort was real.
Also, during the infamous laser scene, the special effects team (positioned beneath the table, using a flamethrower to guide the laser light) did not stop torching the laser where they intended. Connery's visible distress is genuine, and he complained when shooting was over.
And finally, a mook is splashed with scalding hot water early in the movie, and was actually burned.
German actor Gert Fröbe as Goldfinger. He was a member of the Nazi Party, and the film was consequently banned in Israel for many years until it was revealed that he secretly helped Jews flee the country. He was also uncomfortable at the idea of playing a German character who gasses to death a large number of people.
Harold Sakata as Oddjob too; Sakata had a reputation as a gentle giant off screen.
The Other Darrin: The start of a long chain of Other Darrins for Felix Leiter, as Cec Linder takes over the role from Jack Lord (who wanted too much money to return to the role).
Science Marches On: Jill's death by "skin suffocation" was based on an erroneous belief of the time. Basically, she wouldn't have suffocated as long as she could still breathe from her mouth or nose, as obvious as that sounds. MythBusters also got in on the debunking. And even MythBusters didn't get it quite right the first time; they didn't confirm the myth, but Jamie seemed to have a bad reaction to it, so they considered it plausible. Only after doctors contacted them did they do it again (this time with Adam) and get it right.
Averted so far considering how the gadgets in this film have aged surprisingly well and still look believable and practical. For instance, the personal tracer looks about the right size that such a device might look if made today and its hiding place in the heel of Bond's shoe still looks neat.
The aversion has reached its ultimate conclusion and started looping around with the personal tracer in Skyfall doing the same thing, looking very similar, but somehow being larger.
Originally, Orson Welles was considered for the Goldfinger role, but proved too expensive. (He would later play Le Chiffre in the Bond satire Casino Royale.) Folk singer and actor Theodore Bikel also tested for the role.
The original plan for the climax was to have the climactic battle happen on the gates of Fort Knox, but it was decided that it would be much cooler to actually get to see the vault from the inside.