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'''''The Crucible''''' is a play by Arthur Miller that was published in 1953. It and ''Theatre/DeathOfASalesman'' are easily Miller's most well-known plays and are both regarded as some of the most classic plays of the 20th century.

The play is a semi-fictionalized account of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692-93 in Massachusetts, although Miller takes real people and puts them alongside his own fictitious characters for dramatic purposes and because not much is known of the actual personalities involved.

In Salem, the villagers' way of life is deeply rooted in Puritan ideals, and the townspeople firmly hold to the conviction that anyone who opposes them is Satanic and must be purged of the devil. Ironically, the same Puritans who escaped religious persecution in England enforce it here.

One night, some girls, led by Abigail Williams, sneak out into the woods to engage in witchcraft. The girls are caught in the act, and when one goes into shock after the whole ordeal, Abigail is cornered; she, consequently, blames Reverend Samuel Parris' slave, Tituba, for perpetrating the acts. Tituba catches on to Abigail's ruse and blames a bunch of townspeople in order to save her own skin. Soon, [[SharedMassHallucination every girl blames someone she dislikes, claiming she saw Satan]]. Deputy Governor Danforth, Reverend John Hale, and Judge Hathorne, all of whom are respected men in Massachusetts, are called to try those indicted for committing the crimes and to purge the evil of Satan within the town.

''The Crucible'' was written in response to the activities of Senator Joseph [=McCarthy=], who became notorious for his excessive zeal in rooting out communist sympathizers. Miller [[LampshadeHanging lampshades]] the irony in the fact that [[BlackAndWhiteMorality the dichotomy between good and evil]], throughout history, transcends religion and manifests itself into various ideas, including the {{red scare}}.

Miller says that he has no doubt that people practiced witchcraft in Salem; however, much like the fear of communism, [[PropagandaMachine mass hysteria is perpetuated through propaganda]] and turned into something worse than what it really is.

''The Crucible'' received two film adaptations: a Franco-East German adaptation in 1957, and an American adaptation in 1996. The latter had an adapted screenplay by Miller himself which received an UsefulNotes/AcademyAward nomination; Joan Allen's role as Elizabeth Proctor also received a nomination for Best Supporting Actress. Despite having $25 million put into the film, it was an extreme disappointment at the box office, only recouping $7.3 million.

If you were looking for the non-related Korean film titled ''The Crucible'', [[Film/TheCrucible click here]].
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!!''The Crucible'' provides examples of:
* AdaptationalVillainy: In the original play, although he is the GreaterScopeVillain in there as well, Danforth comes off as a conflicted {{well intentioned extremist}} who only refuses the pardons because he believes it would cause a panic and lead to anarchy, and upholding the law is of the utmost importance to him. In the film, however, he's a psychotic {{knight templar}} {{hanging judge}} who blatantly enjoys sending people he ''knows'' are innocent to their deaths, and openly insults anyone who questions him or sympathizes with the people he murders. In this case, it is due his characterization [[CompositeCharacter was merged with the character of Judge Hathorne in the original play]], whose personality was like that. Although Hathorne is in the film as well, he is a total nonentity since his characterization has been taken on by Danforth.
* AdultFear: At a young age, Abigail had to watch her own parents being killed in front of her.
* AntiHero: John Proctor himself, considering he's had many an affair with Abigail and starts off the play as a jerkass.
* ArtisticLicenseHistory: At the very beginning of the screenplay, there is a disclaimer that Miller changed things around and dismissed several facts from the original events for [[RuleOfDrama dramatic effect]]. For example, Abigail and Proctor are 17 and 35 in the story, and had an affair. In reality, Abigail was 12, while Proctor was 60.
* TheAtoner:
** Proctor, for his affair with Abigail. [[spoiler:He redeems himself by the end when he willingly allows himself to be hanged.]]
** Hale at the end, for his part in the trials.
* AwLookTheyReallyDoLoveEachOther: John and Elizabeth realize this at the end.
* TheBadGuyWins: {{Subverted|Trope}}. Yes, [[spoiler:Abigail does get away at the end]], but if you read the epilogue "Echoes Down the Corridor", you'll find out that [[spoiler:Abigail eventually turned to prostitution, and it's safe to guess that that wasn't a real 100% pure victory.]]
* BasedOnATrueStory: Yes, the witch trials did happen. Also, everyone in the play did exist in real life during said trials.
* BigBad: Abigail. Just about everything that goes wrong in the story is caused by her. Pretty impressive for a teenage girl...
* BigShutUp: Judge Danforth does this to Reverend Parris when he's about to question Mary Warren.
-->"EVERYONE SHUT UP!"
* BettyAndVeronica: Prior to the start of the play, John (Archie) was married to Elizabeth (Betty) while having an affair with Abigail (Veronica).
* BreakTheCutie: In the beginning, Reverend Hale is full of exuberance and intellectual glee, which fade significantly by Act Two. This is shattered completely by [[spoiler:Proctor's death]].
-->"Let you not mistake your duty as I mistook my own. I came into this village like a bridegroom to his beloved, bearing gifts of high religion; the very crowns of holy law I brought, and what I touched with my bright confidence, it died; and where I turned the eye of my great faith, blood flowed up."
* BrokenBird: Abigail. She saw her parents murdered right in front of her when she was just a child. After that tragedy, she was raised by her greedy uncle (who just so happened to be the clergy) and was used by a man she was in love with, only to be later told by said man that she was nothing to him. Not to mention that with the rumors of her no longer being a virgin, she would have never been married or hired.
* BurnTheWitch: Averted. The suspected witches are hanged. This is accurate, as the suspected witches were indeed hanged in real life.
* ChewbaccaDefense: When George Jacobs, a feeble, elderly man incapable of walking without sticks, is accused of climbing into a girl's room and performing witchcraft, he states that this is impossible given his health. The court then states he could have very well sent his ''spirit'' into the room using witch powers. Jacobs has no idea how to respond to that, which they claim proves his guilt.
* ChewingTheScenery: Proctor gets a few of these in the movie. Fittingly, he is played by Creator/DanielDayLewis.
** "I say GOD IS DEAAAAAAAAAAD!"
** [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kb-dhzSPFiU&feature=related "BECAUSE IT IS MY NAAAAAAAAME!!"]]
* ChildrenAreInnocent: This is used as a plot point. The children would never lie about who the witches of Salem are, right? Not even if one of them's 17 and wants to be with the main character, and [[spoiler: [[EvilPlan concocts the entire crisis]] in order to [[MurderTheHypotenuse take his wife out of the picture]].]] The reality was even worse: the aforementioned 17 year old was actually ''12''.
* CompositeCharacter: Danforth's a mix of several judges.
* ConsummateLiar: Abigail.
* CoolOldGuy: Giles Corey, both here and in {{real life}}.
* CoolOldLady: Martha Corey and Rebecca Nurse.
* CorruptChurch: Well, when you have a guy like Parris in charge...
* CorruptCorporateExecutive: Thomas Putnam, who profits from his daughter's accusations by purchasing the then-forfeited property of the accused.
* DarkMessiah: Abigail.
* DeadpanSnarker: Proctor. Danforth too:
--> '''Giles:''' This is a hearing; you cannot clap me for contempt of a hearing.
--> '''Danforth:''' Oh, it is a proper lawyer!
* DefiantToTheEnd:
** Giles ([[FamousLastWords "More weight!"]]). This happened in real life, too.
** Rebecca, Martha, and Proctor all refuse to plea guilty and opt to hang, instead. In the film, they go out reciting the Lord's prayer.
* DeliberateValuesDissonance: Proctor attempts to puncture Abigail's veneer of righteousness by telling Danforth that she and her fellows were found dancing in the woods; a mortified Danforth repeats "dancing" as if he had accused her of murder.
* DoomedMoralVictor: All of the people accused of being witches who decline to save themselves by "confessing" are this.
* DownerEnding: [[spoiler:Proctor, Martha, and Rebecca are hanged, Giles is pressed to death, their loved ones are left behind, Tituba, Sarah Good and Mary are driven to madness, Hale fails to save a single life and blames himself for each one taken, and Abigail, who caused the whole mess in the first place, [[KarmaHoudini gets away with everything]]]]. Not exactly the happiest ending. This could be seen as a {{bittersweet ending}} as well, since Proctor ultimately [[TheAtoner redeems himself]] (and the text version ends by stating that the power of the theocracy that made this possible was effectively broken by the aftermath).
* DyingMomentOfAwesome: [[spoiler:Giles]], who had stones pressed onto his chest to try and get him to squeal; the only thing he would say was, [[DefiantToTheEnd "More weight."]]
* EnfantTerrible: Abigail. In the play, she's 17, but in real life, she was ''12''.
* EvilPlan: Abigail plans to use hysteria powered {{Batman Gambit}}s to secure her crush and a powerbase. She loses both through overreaching.
* FanDisservice: The film's opening scene has some slight female nudity from behind, but it's not played to any real titillating effect and is as a result quite offsetting.
* FailureHero: Reverend Hale. Despite his reputation as a witchcraft specialist and his being called to Salem in the hopes of disproving any notion of supernatural activity, he is duped by Abigail and the other girls into believing it. As a member of the court, his role is to provide wisdom and knowledge, but his advice falls on deaf ears due to Abigail's manipulations, and he quits when he sees the innocent Proctor accused. By the final scene, his only goal is to have the condemned prisoners falsely confess so that they might live, [[spoiler:but he fails to convince a single one of them. He fails completely, and doesn't even get to be a DoomedMoralVictor, but rather lives on with the guilt of knowing he played a major part in so many deaths.]]
* {{Foil}}:
** Abigail is bad and beautiful while Elizabeth is good, plain, and follows her Puritan beliefs. Mary contrasts Abigail in terms of plainness and weakness.
** Hale and Parris as well. Parris is sycophantic, corrupt, greedy, and self-serving, while Hale is empathetic, compassionste, and selfless. Ironically, by the end of the play they are working together for the exact same goal, for entirely different reasons.
* FragileFlower: Mary has a ''very'' high tendency to break down weeping.
* AGodAmI: Abigail refers to herself as "God's Finger."
* GodIsDead: Proctor declares this near the end during his breakdown in a very [[LargeHam hammy manner]].
* GoneHorriblyWrong:
** The trials started because a bunch of girls tried to cover up some dancing they did.
** Abigail's plan. She wants to be with Proctor again. When she turns on Mary for testifying against her, Mary accuses Proctor of witchcraft.
* GoodCopBadCop: Hale and Parris, respectively, take this role when questioning Tituba in the first scene. Parris is verbally abusive and even threatens to whip Tituba to death before Hale tries a calmer approach.
* GoryDiscretionShot: In the film, the hangings aren't necessarily glorified, but they're not entirely sugarcoated either. Usually, we get a quick cut away right when a body drops, and the only time we see suspended bodies are for quick bursts of time and from obscure angles. The hanging at the end of the film, [[spoiler:Proctor]]'s hanging, has the body dropping out of frame entirely, only showing us a taut rope.
* GreaterScopeVillain: Danforth. Even [[WordOfGod Miller himself]] thinks so.
* HangingJudge: Danforth and Hathorne become something very similar over the course of the play. Danforth is even called out as such by Giles:
--> '''Giles:''' He means to hang us all!
* HappilyMarried: The Nurses. The Coreys seem to be as well, despite Giles' [[NiceJobBreakingItHero innocent accidental accusation of witchcraft against his wife.]]
* HeelFaceDoorSlam: Mary tries to testify against Abigail, but her weakness wins out and she ends up accusing Proctor of witchcraft instead.
* HeelRealization: Hale once he witnesses the outcome of Proctor's trial.
* TheHeroDies: [[spoiler:Proctor is hanged at the end.]]
* HeroicBSOD: Mary gets two. She's actually able to fight off the first one, but the second one completely breaks her and makes her testify against Proctor.
* HistoricalHeroUpgrade:
** Proctor, who wasn't anything special in real life.
** Averted with Giles, as he really did die in real life as the play portrayed, allowing his sons to keep the land that he would leave to them. By confessing or denying the accusation, his land would have been forfeit, but instead he kept silent, never confirming or denying the accusations, only asking for more weight to be pressed on him, until he was crushed to death.
* HistoricalVillainUpgrade: Danforth is a composite of several judges, while ironically the one actually named Danforth fell more on Hale's side of things and helped to ''stop'' the witch trials.
* HopeSpot: When Proctor admits to adultery with Abigail, Danforth briefly shows willingness to reconsider. Then Proctor's wife lies to protect his reputation...
* HystericalWoman: Mary. She has emotional breakdowns so often that you could make a pretty hazardous DrinkingGame out of it.
* InfantImmortality: The court can't legally hang a pregnant Elizabeth until she has her baby.
* InsaneTrollLogic: Quite a bit against the people accused of witchcraft. For example, George Jacobs, a decrepit old man who can't walk without sticks, is accused of having enter the girls rooms through their windows. He points out that this is impossible given his health. The court responds by pointing out that ''his spirit'' could have done it. Sadly, this is TruthInTelevision; many people during the Salem Witch Trials, and any witch trial in general, had to contend with insane logic that couldn't be argued with.
* InspectorJavert: Danforth, who vows he would hang 10,000 men for challenging the law and never be swayed.
* {{Irony}}: As noted above, the Puritans were doing the same religious persecutions in Salem that caused them to leave England in the first place.
* IWontSayImGuilty: Elizabeth attempts to do for John, claiming that he [[spoiler:didn't have an affair with Abigail.]] This plan backfires when she learns that [[spoiler:he had already confessed prior to her taking the stand.]]
* {{Jerkass}}: Proctor starts out this way. However, he ends up being so broken that it ironically turns him into a far nobler man.
* KangarooCourt: The entire witch trials were this.
* KarmaHoudini: [[spoiler: Whether or not Abigail is this is debatable. For being the ring leader of the affair that ruined many people's lives and killed several others, permanent exile from Salem sounds like a minor punishment. On the other hand, it is implied in the play that Abigail prostituted herself and didn't live to see the age of 18. The real Abigail was very young and died at a young age.]]
* KarmaHoudiniWarranty: See directly above.
* KidsAreCruel: It is this aspect that started the witch trials.
* KilledMidSentence: The movie ends with [[spoiler:Proctor]] being abruptly and forcefully hanged before he can finish reciting the Lord's Prayer alongside Rebecca and Martha.
* KnightInSourArmor: [[spoiler:Hale]] by the end of the play. Starting off an intellectual, he changes from idealistic to completely cynical. In the end, [[spoiler:he attempts to convince Goody Proctor to persuade John to abandon his moral ideals so that he may live, reflecting Hale's own change in paradigms from valuing religious law to simply valuing that a human being makes it out alive, regardless of the moral cost. It doesn't work.]]
* KnightTemplar: Danforth and the judges.
* LastKiss: [[spoiler:John and Elizabeth, immediately before he is escorted out of the prison and hanged.]]
* LoopholeAbuse: Giles knows that he will be put to death if he confesses, and that if he pleads innocent, he will not be believed. Therefore, he refuses to plead at all, knowing that he will die regardless, and that by refusing to plead, his land will not be forfeit, and instead his sons can inherit.
* LoveTriangle: GoneHorriblyWrong.
* MadnessMantra:
** "I saw X with the Devil!" from the end of the first act.
** Mary's "I cannot, I cannot, I cannot..." from the end of the second act.
* ManipulativeBitch: Abigail.
* MayDecemberRomance: Arguably Abigail and Proctor, since it's hinted that Proctor did actually have feelings for Abigail at one point.
* MetaCasting: The film version casts Paul Scofield as Danforth; Scofield's most famous film role was as Sir UsefulNotes/ThomasMore in ''Theatre/AManForAllSeasons'', who faced much the same choice between moral compromise and death as Proctor and the others do at Danforth's hands.
* MortonsFork: Nearly anything you might have done wrong, wittingly or not, is evidence that you're a witch. If you confess to witchcraft, you'll be burned. If you deny it, you'll be hanged.
* MurderTheHypotenuse: Abigail attempts this on Elizabeth.
* {{Narcissist}}: Abigail's ego makes Jupiter look like a speck of hydrogen.
* NudeNatureDance: At least one of the girls at the beginning dances naked in the woods, and several other girls are accused of doing this as well.
* OhCrap: [[spoiler:Elizabeth says that John didn't have an affair with Abigail, thus undercutting his attempt to undermine Abigail's credibility. As they lead her out, John tells her this, as ''he'd already confessed to it''. Elizabeth's response is a horrified "Oh, ''God''."]]
* OneSteveLimit:
** Ann Putnam is renamed to Ruth due to her mother also being named Ann. In the original play, she becomes a {{he who must not be seen}} because of this despite being one of the more famous accusers. Strangely, Betty Parris' name is unchanged despite Elizabeth Proctor being a main character (they do, however, take care to refer to each always as Betty and Elizabeth respectively).
** Averted in the film, where Putnam and Danforth share the first name Thomas.
** Averted with the name John: John Proctor, John Hale, John Willard, etc.
* OnlySaneMan: Proctor and Rebecca.
* OurActsAreDifferent: There are fours acts in the play, and {{intermission}} is taken in between Acts Two and Three. However, there is also a short scene, sometimes cut, between Proctor and Abigail that takes place in between Acts Two and Three. When included, it is frequently placed right after the intermission.
* RageAgainstTheHeavens: Proctor after the arrest of his wife. MilkingTheGiantCow has been used as well.
* ReasonableAuthorityFigure: Hale, who listens to Proctor and the other townspeople at every turn, and even tries to back them up when they appeal to Danforth in Act Three. Even after this fails, he genuinely tries to get the convicted to confess purely because he wants to save them.
* RulesLawyer: Danforth mocks Giles as one, which later [[LoopholeAbuse turns out to be true]].
* ScrewTheRulesImDoingWhatsRight: Hale reaches this point at the end, actively advising the accused to confess to witchcraft so that they'll live, even though he knows they're innocent.
* ScrewThisImOuttaHere: Hale after Proctor's "God is dead" line.
-->'''Hale:''' I denounce these proceedings, I quit this court! ''*leaves and slams the door behind him*''
* SmugSnake: Which characters fit this depends a lot on the actors and director, but it's hard to imagine Parris as anything except this.
* TheSociopath: Abigail again. Given her past, it isn't too surprising she'd be completely messed up in the head.
* StalkerWithACrush: Abigail just can't listen when Proctor tells her the affair is ''over''.
* ATasteOfTheLash: In the movie adaptation, this is used on Tituba in front of Abigail and others.
* ThanatosGambit: Giles intentionally keeps on saying "more weight" while pressed so he won't lose his property, so he gave his life to protect his name for his children To make it more awesome, his ThanatosGambit broke the XanatosGambit of his accusers. If he confessed, then as a witch his property is confiscated, but if he denied it and was still convicted (almost certain to be the case) then he'd also lose his property. [[TakeAThirdOption His third option]] exploits a loophole. He didn't break it entirely because he still died but he destroyed the main goal. What makes this truly awesome is that this particular part of the story ''really did happen''.
* TortureIsIneffective: Giles is tortured to death by having stones piled onto him but refuses to give either a plea or a confession, meaning that his property would pass to his children.
* VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory: While parts of the play are very historically accurate, many significant details were changed, such as the fact that Abigail was 12, Proctor was 60, there was no affair between them, and Proctor was hanged before Giles was pressed.
* VillainousBreakdown: Parris has one when Proctor refuses to sign a confession.
* WellIntentionedExtremist: Danforth and the judges start out this way, and it all goes downhill from there...
* WhamLine: "I say-I say [[GodIsDead GOD IS DEAD]]!!!"
* WitchHunt: Literally.
* WithUsOrAgainstUs: "A person is either with this court or he must be counted against it."
* WoundedGazelleGambit: Abigail sticks a needle in a poppet (doll) and tells Mary to give it to Elizabeth to frame her for using witchcraft (though Mary's involvement is left ambiguous). She goes as far as to ''stab herself with a needle'' to make it believable.
* {{Yandere}}: Abigail.
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-->''THE CURTAIN FALLS''