Der Freischütz — literally, "The Free-shooter," i.e., a marksman who uses magic bullets — is an 1821 Singspiel (an opera with spoken sections rather than recitative) by German composer Carl Maria von Weber, to a libretto by Friedrich Kind, based on a tale from August Apel and Friedrich Laun's Gespensterbuch (The Book of Specters). The opera is one of the most important works of the German Early Romantic movement (it is often considered the musical equivalent of the paintings of German master Caspar David Friedrich), and soon gained widespread popularity throughout the Germanys, as well as abroad, with productions in England and America within five years of its premiere. The score is notable for its early use of Leitmotif, including the famous "Samiel diminished seventh" and of Agathe's aria, „Leise, leise, fromme Weise" to characterize the forces of Evil and Good, respectively. It was almost certainly a source of inspiration to the young Richard Wagner, who adored Webernote and who, as Kapellmeister of Dresden, presided over the ceremony welcoming the return of Weber's body from London, where he died, to Germany.A Rock Opera adaptation of this work, entitled The Black Rider: The Casting of the Magic Bullets, was created through the collaboration of theatre director Robert Wilson, musician Tom Waits, and writer William S. Burroughs. A number of younger fans have learned of the original opera through the use of its music in the AnimeHellsing, or possibly through the use of its translated Japanese title for the character Xigbar in Kingdom Hearts.
Holy Roman Empire: Strictly speaking, the setting is in the Bohemian Forest, but in this case "Bohemian" is not to be taken as "ethnically Czech". Kind deliberately left the exact setting vague, although it would most likely be geographically Czech or Hungarian today (possibly what would later be known as the Sudetenland). Nevertheless, the opera was definitely intended as a celebration of German nationalism, of which Weber was an ardent supporter.
I Just Shot Marvin in the Face: Seems to have happened, but actually averted. Max is an excellent shot, and aims carefully, but he is using a bullet controlled by the Devil. Fortunately, the devil's power cannot prevail against the powers of Good, and the bullet hits the villain, instead.
Karmic Death: Caspar suggests that Samiel use the cursed seventh bullet to kill Agathe. Wanna guess whom it hits instead?
Leitmotif: A number of themes recur as emotional markers, though the only true Leitmotif is the famous "Samiel diminished seventh"note Put very simply, a seventh is a chord consisting of two notes seven steps apart on an octave (e.g., A ["la"] and G ["sol"]); a diminished seventh lowers one of the notes half a tone (e.g., A and G flat). You may know it as the "heroine tied up on the train tracks" sonority., which heralds the devil's arrival.
Max Trope: Not Maximillian or Maximus or anything else. Just Max, apparently.
Music of Note: Several of the musical numbers (perhaps most notably the Huntsmen's Chorus) took on life as "folksongs," while the Overture became one of the commonest war-horses of the concert-house.
Numerological Motif: Invoked in the counting down of the magic bullets, and the ominous and repeated phrase, „Sechse treffen — sieben äffen!" ("Six strike true — seven mock you!"), i.e., six of the magic bullets hit whatever the marksman wishes, but the seventh is aimed by the devil.
Ominous Owl: A monstrous owl watches over the Wolf’s Glen, and others appear during the incantation.
Our Demons Are Different: The devil Samiel in this, though he takes his name from ancient Hebrew sources, is based in character more on the legendary Teutonic "hunting devil" which is probably derived from the god Wôdan / Oðinn and his "wildes Heer" (or "furious host"), which actually appears in the Wolf's Glen scene.
Take That: In an uncharacteristically snarky move, dramatist and Austrian national bard Franz Grillparzer (1791-1872) wrote a brief parody of the Wolf's Glen scene, which struck him as unduly hamfisted and crude. Subtitled "a romantic opera", Der Wilde Jäger (The Wild Huntsman, 1822) takes some of Der Freischütz's more visceral elements and turns them up to eleven, while also sending up the slapstick theatre that was wildly popular with Viennese audiences at the time. Its only speaking character, Sirocco, expresses himself largely through inarticulate grunts and random cries of "Murder! Death! Poison!" between stage directions calling for frequent "dreadful" thunderclaps as he vainly tries to summon his demonic master and live bulls stampede across the stage. The ending takes it up a notch:
Fifty infantrymen enter, load their weapons with live ammunition and take aim at the audience, duly terrifying whoever had not yet been frightened. Note: All exits are to be barricaded beforehand
Sirocco: I hereby blaspheme God, curse myself, kill myself, damn myself and everyone and everything!