Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire is a 1947 play about a hundred different things. Reality vs. the imaginary, the old US vs. the new, insanity, abuse, violence, appearances and purity. Most people are familiar with the 1951 movie directed by Elia Kazan and starring Vivien Leigh, Marlon Brando, and Kim Hunter, which was of course Oscar-tacular.note Although the best remembered performance - Marlon Brando as Stanley Kowalski - was passed over on Oscar night in favour of Humphrey Bogart in The African Queen. But there have been many adaptations including a made for TV movie starring Alec Baldwin and Jessica Lange, an opera and even a ballet. Stuffed full of imagery and complex characters, it may be considered Williams' best known work, and the character of Blanche has been considered the most difficult female role in all of English literature.The plot revolves around Blanche DuBois - a beauty in her youth who has now begun to fade - coming to stay with her pregnant sister Stella in New Orleans. Blanche has lost the women's ancestral home, Belle Reve, due to the financial strain of caring for their dying relatives, and has quit her job as a school teacher due to her nerves. Blanche meets Stella's husband Stanley and the two develop an almost instant disliking. Blanche finds Stanley vulgar and common, while Stanley hates Blanche's continual snobbery, despite the fact she is now just as poor as them. He is also suspicious of his sister-in-law, thinking that Blanche may have cheated Stella out of her share of the inheritance.Throughout the play we start getting glimpses that Blanche is hiding something, and when her secrets are revealed, things get worse. Really worse.
Ability over Appearance: Stanley was originally written as an older man, but Elia Kazan realized Brando would be perfect for the part and Tennessee Williams agreed, saying it gave the character more dimension for his violence to seem to come from youthful ignorance rather than aged spite.
Author Appeal: An entire paragraph devoted to Stanley's handsome looks, great physique and animalistic drive? Tick. Young gay man struggling with his sexual identity in a repressive society that maligned any sign of cultural or sexual diversity to the point where it was taboo? Tick. Young woman with mental illness issues who finally had to go to a mental institution? Tick. So we've got wish fulfillment, personal projection, and taking inspiration direct from your family. Yep, it's a Tennessee Williams play, all right.
Bait the Dog: Stanley is not only charismatic, but the way Blanche looks down on him makes him easy to sympathize with (at least at first), especially given how nasty Blanche can be.
Bittersweet Ending: The film teeters between this and Downer Ending. Blanche is still dragged away to the asylum and Mitch is helpless, but Stella realizes how much of a horrible human being Stanley is, and appears to leave him, taking the baby with her.
Break the Haughty: Blanche. After the penultimate scene, you can't help but see her as The Woobie. In fact, the whole point of the play is that Breaking The Haughty is not justice.
Cloud Cuckoolander: Blanche. She prefers the world of her own creation, where she still is a chaste lady of refinement and she still can win the favors of men like Shep Huntleigh (whom we never meet and might not exist). This is highlighted when Stanley is revealing her falsehoods to Stella and Blanche is singing in the bath: "Say, its only a paper moon/Sailing over a cardboard sea/But it wouldn't be make-believe/If you believed in me." Unfortunately, by the end of the play this make-believe world is the only world she can stand to live in.
The first time you see Blanche she's all in white. Hell, even her name means "white."
Also of note is the men's poker game, which Williams emphasizes should be lit in raw, primary colors. And there are big ripe watermelon slices on the table.
Another example is Williams' direction for Stella's kimono in the Act 4, Scene 1 - it should be bright blue, a departure from her usual color scheme. This is just after that scene, which implies that Stanley and Stella have just had sex.
Deconstruction: Williams' play scrutinized gender and class roles in the emerging postwar America.
Dissonant Serenity: Blanche heads to the asylum as if for a coronation. Reportedly, this was a last-minute change during rehearsal. In the film, Blanche goes psycho whens he realizes where she's going, but with the orderly indulging her fantasy, she's convinced she's off to the cruise again.
Downer Ending: For the play: Blanche is dragged off to an insane institution after her rape, completely destroyed, while Mitch can only simmer in anger at what he's done. Stella stays with him, despite it clear from Stanley fondling her at the end that he now only sees her as a sex object. There's also something not obvious to modern audiences: back then, the number-one treatment of insane people was lobotomy.
Eating the Eye Candy: Blanche when she first meets Stanley. She even stops talking mid-sentence when she sees him taking off his T-shirt, although you can tell she really, really, does not want to be looking at him.
Insistent Terminology: Stanley, in general, doesn't mind it when Blanche insults him because of his ethnicity; he does get irritated when she calls him a Polack, and he insists that she should call him a Pole instead.
It's All About Me: Stanley's whole investigation into Blache's past (and general dislike of her) is provoked because, due to New Orleans being run under the "Napoleonic Code", he might have indirectly lost a little bit of money if Blanche made a bad deal when selling her childhood home.
Jerkass: Stanley fits the bill; he's definitely worse than a Jerkass by the end of the play.
Jerkass Has a Point: Stanley is The Chessmaster of this trope. While he is an overall aggressor both drunk and sober, much of what he says about Blanche is the truth which makes tearing her up more painful to watch.
Karma Houdini: Stanley effectively gets away with rape. Less so in the film.
Leitmotif: Blanche is represented by a blue piano coming from the bar around the corner, while Stanley is usually associated with a more boisterous jazz. Memories of Allan are accompanied by the Varsouviana polka.
Interestingly, the Varsouviana actually plays in Blanche's head during those scenes.
Meaningful Name: Blanche DuBois means "white woods" in French - a dreamlike and old-world scene. Belle Reve is French, too - for "beautiful dream." Also, Blanche's closeted husband was named Allen Grey. Remind you of anyone?
Or rather "white of the woods". Also, Belle is feminine whereas rÍve is masculine (it should be "Beau RÍve").
More so in the film, when Stanley sobers up, he's saddened with guilt after realizing that he hit the mother of his unborn child.
Blanche suffers from this through most of her life for indirectly killing her childhood love.
Not Distracted by the Sexy: While Stanley certainly notices sexiness, it does not distract him, much to Blanche's chagrin when she tries her usual tricks on him.
Blanche: Yes, I flirted with your husband, Stella! [...] He's just not the sort that goes for jasmine perfume!
Obfuscating Stupidity: Stanley is more smart than he lets on. He knows the laws of New Orleans like the back of his hand. Rather than simply accept Blanche into his home he does a background check, uncovering her sexual history in the process. He even manages to have Stella wrapped around his little finger and fools Blanche into thinking he is a common ape. He later reveals everything he knows about her before the rape scene. To add insult to injury, he violently corrects Blanche verbally when she called him a "Pollack" one too many times.
Stanley:I! AM NOT!! A POLLACK!!! People from Poland are Poles, not Pollacks!! But what I am is 100% American, born and raised in the greatest country on Earth and proud as hell of it, so don't ever call me a Pollack.
Rape as Drama: The climax of the film/play revolves around Blanche going insane after being raped and Stella's decision to exile Blanche to a mental institution rather than believe her husband raped her sister (while she was giving birth to their first-born son no less)!
There is a strong implication that Stella knows that Blanche is telling the truth and that she is constantly trying to make herself believe the lie that Blanche had imagined the entire thing. She can't do much else, because she has nowhere else to go, especially with a newborn baby, and she couldn't stay with Stan if she admitted the truth. The entire affair of Blanche being taken to a mental hospital was arguably more traumatic for Stella than Blanche by this point (as Blanche had already made the dive into her delusions and she was calm leaving with the doctor).
Rape Discretion Shot: The last scene we see of Blanche before her complete nervous breakdown and regression is Stanley hitting her and dragging her into the bedroom. In the film, it's Stanley striking her, causing a mirror to shatter and broken pieces reflecting Blanche's unconscious form
"The Reason You Suck" Speech: Near the end Stanley delivers an epic one to Blanche that would have made us cheer for him. That is if he didn't rape her afterwards.
The Reveal: Oh, so many. Interestingly, few - if any - of them serve as a climax: rather, they are used to both forward the plot and build up to the actual climax.
Revised Ending: The 1951 film implies that Stella has finally had it with Stanley, and that she and the baby are leaving him. Whether it'll stick or she'll end up going back eventually is another question...
Say My Name: If you got two guesses, you'll only have one.
Slobs Versus Snobs: The delicate, cultured, and slightly arrogant residents of Belle Reve versus the gritty, rude, and down-to-earth residents of New Orleans. (In itself probably something of a symbolic look at the Old South-New South conflict that was affecting the South at the time.) Most obviously, Stanley vs. Blanche.
Soundtrack Dissonance: The Varsouviana is a happy, upbeat polka tune. It is Blanche's "crazy music" and plays whenever she is losing it and[/]or her husband's suicide comes up.
Spotlight-Stealing Squad: Not for nothing does everybody remember Brando's Stanley — not Blanche, the alleged star. The film version didn't help; Vivien Leigh is all nervous tics, while Brando dominates every scene.
Blanche is defined by this trope, though. The thing with her husband when she was a teenager broke her permanently, and she has been empty ever since, circling the drain around neurosis and finally psychotic delusions.