It has been estimated that some 30% of all Roman Emperors were brought low via this trope, the most famous probably being the death of Emperor Caligula, who reportedly made the Praetorian Guard snap and kill him and the rest of his family after he raped their wives and constantly insulted them.
The Vlasov's Army. During World War II, a whole army corps of Soviet conscript prisoners of war, led by Major General Andrei Vlasov, turned their weapons against their own and fought on side of the Germans. Needless to say, Josef Stalin wasn't amused.
An act of this caused the Montgomery Bus Boycott; Rosa Parks recognized her driver on December 1, 1955, as the same one who had committed highway robbery against her 12 years before, and she refused to budge from her seat when told to.
During The American Civil War, President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis had house slaves. Did the man waging war to perpetuate black enslavement think that maybe, just maybe, his slaves might not be the best people to discuss his war plans in front of? Of course he didn't. His coach-slave, William A. Jackson, eventually fled Northwards with a good chunk of his secret war plans.
This often happens when cases of bullying have gone on for too long, even if it's done in cyberspace. Worryingly, said victim can end up responding so harshly that tales of them then becoming a bully are common.
At worst, school shootings have resulted from this. The Columbine massacre is often highlighted as the exemplar of such an incident, though the truth is a bit different from the pop-history version. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were often bullied by their classmates, true, but they (especially Harris) gave as good as they got, with their diaries describing in detail how they themselves bullied underclassmen and kids they suspected to be gay.
Much less heard of, but this also happens between an abusive parent and the child they abused when said child finally becomes big enough to fight back or defend him/herself.
Similarly, much like the above, this is sadly the case for most domestic abuse victims. If they take too much abuse, this will result in the victim fighting back against the abuser. In some extreme cases, killing the abuser is the only option. Apparently, let's leave it that way.
The Nazi German ambassador to London, Joachim von Ribbentrop, had an extremely rude habit of hiring the best London tailors, painters, and decorators, making them wait for hours, then not seeing them with instructions to return the next day (thus costing them time and money). They - collectively - retaliated by telling all their other high-up and influential clients that he was impossible to deal with and a bully, which greatly damaged his reputation in British high society and contributed to his drastic failure as Ambassador to Britain.
Nicolae Ceaușescu's last throw of the dice in his attempt to stay in crumbling "socialist Romania" was to stage a "popular demonstration" in Bucharest, as had worked for him many times before: the workers of Bukarest were threatened with firing if they didn't show up and put on a good show of cheering their beloved leader and his government. Ceaușescu managed around two and a half minutes before workers from a power plant began shouting anti-Ceaușescu slogans. The blackmailed crowd erupted, shots were fired, and Ceaușescu's shocked, stunned face, and his bleating into the microphone for quiet as his people ignored him were broadcast all over Romania and the world.
Fairly laidback Honey bees have been common prey for the much bigger, stronger, and nastier Japanese hornets for ages, with hornets often slaughtering honeybee hives to steal the bees' larva for food. This video showcases both this brutal assault, and the better-adapted Japanese honeybees' defense, which allows them to bite back big time. Namely by Zerg Rushing any hornets unlucky enough to come near their hive and vibrating so much it generates a mass of heat that roasts the hornet scout alive!
This happens a fair amount with abused animals that are strong enough to fight back, particularly with actual dogs.
At least one story on the website deals with attempted rapes that went horribly, horribly wrong, like the story of the woman who bit her assailant's balls off, then took off with them, and handed them in to the police, which meant her assailant was arrested when he checked into the hospital with a matching injury. The evidence proceedings for that case must have been interesting.
This even happens with machines, as an inevitable side effect of using Percussive Maintenance too liberally. You'd think more people would figure out that hitting something too much might cause it to do something regrettable, such as blowing up in your face.