The article on Ellens Air Base Scully reads from microfiche was written by a ChrisCarter.
The episode is slightly similar to The Night Strangler where a serial killer rises from the Seattle Underground every twenty some years and strangles his victims and use their blood to keep himself alive for over a century.
Colton’s comment “lucked into the World Trade Center bombing” refers to the first attack on the World Trade Center in New York City on February 26, 1993 when a car bomb was planted in the underground garage by Islamic extremists.
Both Mulder and Scully are discussing Eugene Tooms’ lack of family history:
Lieutenant colonel Marcus Aurelius Belt is named for Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161-180 AD and the last of the "Five Good Emperors."
Marcus Aurelius Belt decides to jump off his hospital room window to kill the ‘spirit’ possessing him like how Father Damien Karras jumps out a window to prevent his possessed self from killing Regan.
Deep Throat’s warning to Section Chief McGrath “Always keep your friends close, Mr. McGrath, but keep your enemies closer is a paraphrased quote from Michael Corleone. The phrase is often believed to have originated from Chinese general and military strategist Sun-tzu who actually said "If your enemy is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him. If your opponent is temperamental, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them. If sovereign and subject are in accord, put division between them. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected."
There is an actual small town called Townsend in northeast Wisconsin though it’s likely the town in this episode was based on the City of Tomahawk, a large town not far from Townsend where unusual phenomena have been reported, including aerial objects and the local cryptozoological Hodag mascot.
Dr. Oppenheim’s name is an allusion to Robert Oppenheimer, nuclear physicist and chief of the Manhattan Project.
The Ms. Pac-Man arcade game is visible at the roadside diner.
The line “I am her, she is me and we are all together” said by Eve is a reference to a lyric from "I am the Walrus" by The Beatles.
Phoebe mentions a “three-pipe problem,” an expression used in The Red-Headed League that refers to the idea that a person has to sit and smoke at least three pipes in order to solve a case with the gathered information.
Scully asks if the game is afoot, an expression used many times in the Sherlock Holmes novels.
Scully calls Mulder Sherlock and he calls her Watson in return.
After Luther Boggs slumps down in his chair after an impassioned revelation about the kidnapped couple, Mulder slowly walks over to him and kneels down in front of his face, taking a cloth out of his hand and holds it up:
Mulder: I tore this off my New York Knicks t-shirt, it has nothing to do with the crime.
Lee Harvey Oswald has long been thought a pawn in some conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy.
Missing In Action (MIAs) are the ones still thought to be missing in Vietnam that the government did nothing to find.
Radiation experiments are believed to have been carried out on all sorts of people without their knowledge.
The Watergate Scandal being the biggest political scandal to hit the United States where five men were arrested for breaking into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee on June 17, 1972 at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, DC.
The Iran-Contra Affair was an elaborate three-way deal between the CIA, Iran and a band of Nicaraguan rebels where the CIA illegally sold weapons to Iran in exchange for cash and hostages and then funneled much of the proceeds into the pocks of the Contras.
The Roswell Incident where personnel from the Roswell Army Air Field recovered materials from a ranch outside Roswell, New Mexico on June 7, 1947 and their initial press release stated the materials resembled a flying disk though they issued a correction that it was in fact a weather balloon the same day.
The Tuskegee Experiment refers to a program whereby US Health Officials enrolled 399 very deprived and uneducated African-American men suffering from syphilis in a testing process but never told what they were suffering from, thus not getting aid for syphilis, which even at the time the experiment was performed was treatable, just to see what effect the disease would have as time went on for over forty years. By the end in 1972, twenty-eight men died of direct related consequences, one hundred died from complications, forty of their wives been infected with the disease and nineteen children born with congenital.
Upon entering the sideshow tent, Mulder mentions seeing Woodstock.
Character name 'Manitour' is used to designate the spirits among many Algonquian groups.
Ish mentions being at Wounded Knee, the seventy-one day standoff between the federal authorities and militants of the American Indian Movement at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Wounded Knee holds some significance in American Indian history as it was the site of the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the USA in 1890.
The phrase 'darkness falls' has been used in poetry for hundreds of years.
Ranger Larry Moore is part of Feral Forest Service. The Feral Forest Service is part of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) along with the National Parks Service.
Moore mentions a man caught in some kind of insect cocoon, an occurrence that happens in nature though usually not to humans. Spiders trap and drink their prey in similar, but not in identical fashion. Female spiders do spin cocoons but to hold egg sacs not to immobilize prey. Spiders also drink their food, but don't just drain all the fluids out of it, instead predigesting like most other arachnids.
As explained liberally in the episode, 'ecoterrorists' are environmentalists who have decided to take it one step further and begin sabotaging logging equipment and driving spikes into trees which are illegal acts in most places.
The name on the door adjoining Eugene Victor Tooms' cell is L. Robbie Maier, Rob Maier is the construction coordinator.
During Tooms’ sneaking into Mulder’s apartment and fakes an assault from the FBI agent, The Fly with Vincent Price can be seen on Mulder’s television as he sleeps on the couch.
Detective Sharon Lazard mentions Mr. Greenjeans in regards to Detective Barbala bringing the fact he’s good with kids.
While discussing Charlie Morris:
Scully: You think he’s back like Peter Proud to avenge his murder?
The plaque with Charlie Morris’ picture contains names of previous rewarded recipients who actually work on the show’s production. The 1985's recipient was Ken Hawryliw, the prop-master for the show, the 1986’s recipient was Robert Maier, the construction coordinator, the 1989's recipient was Judy Fairly, the script coordinator and the 1992's recipient was Jim Pate, the assistant prop manager.
'Born Again' is usually used to describe someone who has found religion.
In discussing the manner of Dr. Keats’ death:
Scully: An organic object exposed to liquid nitrogen at minus 320 degrees will become frozen, exhibiting great tensile strength, but is vulnerable to stress from compression or impact. Now, I've seen this demonstrated on a fish before.
Mulder: I don’t think they’ll be performing this experiment on Beakman's World
As Mulder and Scully walk down the hallway, leading to the wind tunnel control room, Scully notices a folder in Mulder’s hand:
Scully: So is that what you couldn’t talk to me about over the phone? Mulder: (hands her the folder) The project that everyone says doesn't exist, does exist. Scully: (reading the label) The Icarus project?
Dr. Nollette quips famous quote “If I've seen further than other men, it's because I have stood on the shoulders of giants” from a line Sir Isaac Newton wrote in a letter to Robert Howe.
The Erlenmeyer Flask
The 'Erlenmeyer flask' is a common laboratory container.
At the start of the episode, a scene from Journey to the Center of the Earth can be seen and heard on Mulder’s TV where he awakens on his couch to answers a phone call from Deep Throat.
Scully mentions the 'Human Genome Project (HOP)' initiated in 1989 and still continues today as an effort to map the human genetic code.
In regards to Dr. Terrance Allan Berube’s death.
Mulder: The man we met yesterday kept this place like he was waiting for the people from Good Housekeeping to show up. I would never pegged him as someone to do all this, or a Greg Louganis out the window...
The 'wow' signal' Dr. Troisky mentions was a mysterious radio signal received at an Ohio state radio telescope on August 15, 1977. Though the signal’s source was never identified, astrophysicist jerry R. Ehman was so impressed by the transmission readout on a print out, he wrote “wow” in the margins.
Young Mulder and his sister play Stratego right before her abduction.
Young Mulder tells his sister he wants to watch The Magician.
The Offspring along with their song "Come Out and Play" are mentioned.
This episode begins with Mulder’s voiceover about the Voyager project. Voyager 1 and Voyager II were a pair of NASA space probes launched in 1977 to study the solar system and the galaxy beyond, each carrying an universal message intended to any alien life they might encounter. Having finished the study of planets around our sun in 1989, the two probes have continued to travel further than ever before, eventually passing Neptune and leaving the solar system.
Member of the Men in Black and Mulder’s informant X or Mr. X is based on another character also known as X from JFK.
The look of the fluke man appears to be strongly based on a birth defect known as 'harlequin type ichthyosis' where babies with this birth defect are born with extremely dry skin resembling scales or armored plating and a mouth pulled into a wide circular gape due to the tightly pulled skin.
Edward Funsch climbing the Franklin Community College clock tower overlooking a blood drive to carry out his shooting spree is based on an actual incident where Charles Whitman went to the observation deck on the twenty-seventh floor of the clock tower at the University of Texas, Austin campus August 1, 1966 and began a ninety-two minute shooting spree leaving sixteen dead and many wounded, finally ending when Whitman was shot by police.
After Larry Winter angrily walks out a room of the Franklin Community Hospital where Scully is finishing taking Mulder’s blood after saying there’s no proof of the spray caused violent behaviors:
Scully: I’m sorry Mulder, he’s right. I’d love to tell you that I flew three-hundred miles In the middle of the night to perform tests that prove that you’re about to become the next Charles Manson but I find little physiological evidence that L.S.D.M. has toxically affected you even after massive ingestion.
Sheriff Spencer leaves the room.
Mulder: He's probably one of those people who thinks Elvis is dead.
The nurse buzzing the doorbell is writing “KILL” in Morse Code.
One of the television sets at the supermarket is featuring an episode of Bobby’s World.
At the end of the episode, Tony Todd’s character Cole contemplates suicide by jumping onto a rusting sharp pole from forty feet, the exact same way his character Captain Darrow dies in The Rock.
Saul Grissom shares the last name as American astronaut Virgil Ivan “Gus” Grissoom. Both died after being trapped in a blaze of fire, Saul Grissom being trapped in his own apartment and Gus Grissom being trapped in Apollo 1 with two other astronauts.
While performing an autopsy during her class, Scully receives a phone call from Mulder, calling himself “George Hale,” name of the visionary behind the Palomar Observatory in California.
Just before Duane Barry’s 1985 visit by aliens, he is napping in front of his television where the clip of accidental time-traveler Hank Martin being brought before King Arthur is visible.
Scully explains to Agent Lucy Kazdin that Duane Barry was shot in the line of duty where the bullet pierced his
Scully: Now, almost a hundred years ago, there was a famous case. A man named Gage had a blasting rod pierce the same region. Kazdin: And what effect did it have? Scully: He became a pathological liar, suffering from severe delusions. His behavior was characterized as bizarre and violent was a tendency to act out his fantasies.
'Ascension' is the act or practice of ascending.
The song playing while Duane Barry is driving through Virginia on his way to Skyland Mountain but is pulled over by a cop is "Red Right Hand" by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds.
In regards to asking Duane Barry about Scully, Alex Krycek said he started whistling Led Zeppelin’s "Stairway to Heaven"..
Krycek mentions Chernobyl, Exxon and Valdez all being linked to sleep deprivation.
Chernobyl is the site of a nuclear power plant that exploded in 1986.
Exxon Valdez is the name of an oil tanker which caused a massive oil spill in 1989 after hitting Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef before the coast of Alaska
Three Mile Island is the location of a nuclear power plant which suffered a partial core meltdown in 1979.
The scene in "One Breath" where Mulder goes to the CSM's apartment is basically a re-creation of the scene on The A-Team where Murdock gets onto Stockwell's private jet. They're both faced with the possibility of losing someone they care about (for Mulder it's Scully, for Murdock it's the rest of the team), they both get access to a powerful, manipulative man who is supposed to be untraceable, burst in brandishing a gun, and demand information. Also, both are met with a calm, unfazed response from said powerful men.
Stockwell: Whoever judged you insane, Captain, should have his license lifted.
The silicon based fungi which influences its hosts into infecting others has a real life carbon-based analogue known as 'Cordyceps.'
Mulder’s comment “I think the Spur Posse just rode into town” refers to a group of high school boys known as 'The Spur Posse' from Lakewood, California who kept a score system to compare their sexual conquests.
Gird Thomas, the peeping tom who writes 'he/she is one' on the backs of kids, shares his name with the original and famous Peeping Tom of Coventry - the original peeping tom.
Rick Mazeroski calls a teenager Aladdin because he looks like the protagonist.
The band playing in Rick's truck is Corrosion of Conformity.
Scully mentions Carlos Castenada, an author of controversial series of books that described his training in Native American Shamanism.
Mulder mentions Swiss psychiatrist Jung, considered the father of analytical psychology who believed one could understand the psyche through extensive analysis of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy.
Of French origin, 'Aubrey' is a given name and surname that comes from the Germanic 'Alberich' or 'Albrich' and possibly out of Old English 'Ælfric.'
Agent Bocks’ comment “People wondered why it took them so long to catch this kid in Milwaukee. Thought someone should have noticed he was killing all those young boys. The truth is, no one ever believed it could happen” is most likely in reference to Jeffrey Dahmer.
'Die Hand Die Verletzt' is German for "The Hand that Wounds," a part of the satanic prayer spoken in the teaser by the members of the PTA
When the teens hold their “ritual” in the woods, they call upon Azazel, a name appearing in The Bible that refers to a fallen angel and a cliff from which sacrificial animals were thrown.
Mulder mentions Megadeth and song "The Night Chicago Died" by British band Paper Lace.
The conference of teachers and parents are discussing plans for the school’s spring production.
Peter Calcagni: Yeah, I got word that for the spring drama productions, Howard Roberts intends to put on Jesus Christ Superstar. Ms. Deborah Brown: Um... I don’t think that play is appropriate for this high school. Paul Vitaris Well if he wants to be young, I have no problems with, uh, Grease or Annie or- Calcagni: Doesn’t Grease have the “F” word?
Drama teacher Howard Roberts may be named for the stage name of real-life drama teacher Bob Howard who teaches at El Cajon Valley High School.
Howard Roberts is also the name of an American jazz guitarist, educator and session musician.
Jim Ausbury tells Mulder his step-daughter confused reality with the reports on Geraldo.
Colonel Wharton trapped inside a coffin mirrors Dennis Alan’s moments in a coffin.
The cemetery groundskeeper's Rottweiler was named Wong, after writer James Wong
'Colony' refers to 1) a body of people living in a new territory or a territory inhabited by these people. 2) a localized population of organisms. 3) a group with common interests situated in close association or an area occupied by such a group.
Alien Bounty Hunter uses the alias CIA Agent Ambrose Chapel, a church in London, to speak with Mulder and Scully.
'End Game' refers to a chess game and a one act play by Samuel Beckett.
Mulder’s first name Fox refers to the company 20th Century Fox that owns the rights to the show.
The elephant's name, Ganesha, is the name of the elephant-headed Hindu god.
The trailer park is named Gulf Breeze, a suburban town.
The song Hepcat Helm listens to is "Frenzy" by Screamin’ Jay Hawkins.
A 'humbug' is 1) a hoax or a fraud. 2) a deception. 3) one who attempts to trick or deceive.
The situation with Lanny and his brother is known as 'asymmetric conjoined twins' or 'parasitic twinning'. In some cases both twins survive though in other cases the lesser twin is absorbed.by the other called 'inclusion twinning'. In real life, there are no recorded cases of a parasitic twin’s ability to leave the host twin.
As Sheriff James Hamilton takes Dr. Blockhead to the station with Mulder and Scully following.
Dr. Blockhead: This has all the makings of one of those mistaken identity, miscarriage of justice things that prove so popular on 60 Minutes.
When Scully visits the museum and ends up paying extra to see an empty box, that was, in-fact, a real P.T. Barnum exhibit. Barnum displayed a sign that proudly pointed visitors to "The Egress", which people assumed led to another of the many oddities in the museum, but which actually led to an exit. Once outside, visitors had to pay again to re-enter the museum.
Scully’s statement “Do you recall what Barnum used to say about suckers?” refers to the “There's a sucker born every minute...and two to take 'em” saying attributed to showman Phineas Taylor Barnum. It also been variously attributed to con-man Joseph “Paper Collar Joe” Bessimer, banker David Hannum, circus owner Adam Forepaugh and Chicago gambler Michael Cassius McDonald.
Charles Burk remarks witnessing a guru named Sai Baba creating an entire feast out of thin air in 1979. The original Sai Baba of Shirdi was an Indian guru and fakir who died in 1918, considered a saint by his many Hindu and Muslim followers. Today, several Indian gurus claim to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba.
'The Căluşari' were members of a Romanian fraternal secret society who practiced a ritual acrobatic dance known as “căluş.”
'F. Emasculata' refers to genus/species name name of the insect carrying the 'Faciphaga emasculata' infection and, though this particular insect in the episode is fictional, there are diseases with symptoms which resemble those depicted here.
The phenomenon that Mulder and Scully observe where the ends of the bones are smooth is commonly referred to as 'pot polish' by archaeologist, owing to the ends of the bones rubbing the inside of the pot as it is stirred.
The 'Majestic 12' files supposedly document the existence of a secret organization dedicated to the concealment of extraterrestrial contacts that purport to have been compiled for Harry Truman soon after the 1947 Roswell crash.
'Anasazi' was an Indian tribe that disappeared without a trace.
As Mulder peruses the un-translated text on his computer screen, five lines under the Department of Defense heading is the line “do-ray-me-fa-so-la-todo," a reference to show tune "Do-Re-Mi" from The Sound of Music.
The X-Files Game
Craig Willmore’s love interest and supporting character Detective Mary Astadourian is named after the vice president Mary Astadourian, the chief researcher and office manager of the company Ten Thirteen Productions that produces the show as well as Chris Carter’s personal assistant.
There’s a mathematics reference to Napier’s Contant in which mathematical constant e is the base of the natural logarithm. It is occasionally called Euler's number after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler, or Napier's constant in honor of the Scottish mathematician John Napier who introduced logarithms.
There is a scene where Clyde Bruckman is playing cards with Scully and the camera briefly shows his cards which is two black aces, the ace of hearts, and the two black eights. That hand is a variation on the so-called Dead Man's Hand that Wild Bill Hickok was holding when he was shot in the back of the head in 1876 while playing poker. Four of the five cards in Hickok's hand were the two black aces and the two black eights.
Death row inmate Napoleon Manley’s nickname “Neech” is very similar to the pronunciation of Prussian philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
Virgil Incanto’s name may come from the first part of The Divine Comedy divided into three long sections called 'cantos', where Roman poet Virgil is Dante’s guide through the first two books Dante’s Inferno and Purgatorio.
Mulder comments “Looks like she took her pound of flesh” when he finds skin under Holly’s nails is from The Merchant of Venice in which Shylock demands Antonio give him a pound of flesh to repay a debt.
Mulder’s line “What destroyed those parts of him that make us human beings, those better angels of our nature?” comes from the ending of the sixteenth president’s inaugural address:
Abraham Lincoln: The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.
Meaning “second generation,” 'Nisei' is a Japanese word meaning “second generation” for a person born in America or Canada to Japanese parents born in Japan.
Agent Pendrel’s last name comes from a street name in the west end of Vancouver where the series is filmed.
The number appearing on the alien autopsy boxcar “82517” refers to the date August 25, 1917, the start of the Bolshevic Revolution.
The Japanese scientists once worked for the infamous '731 unit' during World War II. 'Camp 731' was a a germ warfare research station in Manchuko where Japanese chemical and biological army unit performing horrific experiments on prisoners of war during WWII.
'731' refers to 'Camp 731', a germ warfare research station in Manchuko where Japanese chemical and biological army unit performed horrific experiments on prisoners of war during WWII.
Doctor’s name Takeo Ishimaru and his alias Shiro Zama is an amalgamation of the name of the real head of Unit 731, Dr. Shiro Ishi.
'Revelations' refers to 1) the Book of Revelations, the last book of the New Testament. 2) an act of revealing. 3) an enlightening or astonishing disclosure.
Kevin Kryden having stigmata along with others claiming to have it was inspired by Pio of Pietrelcina.
'Stigmata' is a term used by member of the Christian faith to describe body marks, sores or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ such as the wrists and feet.
About a composite sketch:
Mulder: Looks like Kevin was abducted by Homer Simpson’s evil twin.
There’s a picture of Bert and Ernie visible at Ridgeway Middle School.
War of the Coprophages
Mentioned by Scully as a reference to the stoner guy's belief he has cockroaches inside him, 'Ekbom’s Syndrome' is a very real syndrome sometimes called 'cocaine bugs' but more medically known as 'Delusional Parasitosis' when people think they have parasites inside their body, usually insects or worms being exacerbated by use of certain stimulant drugs, most commonly cocaine or methamphetamine.
Dr. Jeff Eckerle is named after an actual Jeff Eckerle who served as a creative consultant for Secrets of the X-Files, Part 2
Sheriff Frass’ last name means caterpillar dung or any insect feces.
Dr. Bambi Berenbaum’s last name comes from famous entomologist Dr. May Berenbaum of the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign and author of many books on insects who also keeps live insects in her desk.
The song playing during the Keystone Cops on all channels of the motel room televisions as well as later during the mayhem at the police station is “‘The Sabre Dance’” Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian.
The song playing during the birthday party is Live’s "All Over You".
There are a couple references to The X-Files Game: The motel in the game is the Comity motel. One of the basketball players during practice is named Craig Willmore, the lead character.
There are numerous similarities between this episode an the events that occurred in the Salem Witch Trials which was used by Arthur Miller in his The Crucible play as an allegory of the McCarthy trials.
When Terri Roberts and Margi Kleinjan go into the bar to tell their latest prey Scott Simmons they’re not dressed up for the funeral, Terri mentions they are there to give him a good time that evening, ending the sentence with “carpe pm”, a pun of Latin phrase 'Carpe Diem' for seize the day.
'Syzygy' is an astronomical term for an alignment of three bodies of the solar system along a straight or nearly straight line, usually the sun, the Earth and the moon or planet..
'Grotesque' means 1) fanciful or bizarre. 2) absurdly incongruous. 3) eccentric.
The concept of a man coating human corpses with clay to make sculpture was used prominently in A Bucket of Blood.
Agent Nemhauser is named after post-production supervisor Lori Jo Nemhauser.
Episode title and the French salvage ship 'Piper Maru' is named after the daughter of Scully’s actress Gillian Anderson.
In Japanese, “Maru” means flower.
“Piper Maru” is the name of the ice-breaking ship used by Weyland Corporation’s retrieval team.
French deep-sea diver Gauthier is named after the show’s special effects coordinator David Gauthier.
'Apocrypha' means writings that are not considered genuine.
Well-Manicured Man mentions “foo fighter”, a term used in World War II to refer to the types of aerial sightings that, in the postwar period, became known as UFO's, usually assumed to be some sort of enemy secret weapon or experimental aircraft, or the name of an alternative rock band.
In the same scene, Well-Manicured Man tells Mulder that "anyone can be gotten to," possibly referencing .
Pusher, aka Robert Modell is very similar to Andy McGee.
Former Nirvana drummer and Foo Fighters member David Grohl and his wife, Jennifer Youngblood-Grohl, can be seen in the background as Modell enters the foyer of the FBI building.
FBI Agent Holly who beats up Skinner woes her name to Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice, Vince Gilligan’s girlfriend.
The Loudoun County Courthouse was named for writer Vince Gilligan's actual home town.
Detective Frank Burst mispronounces “rōnin.”
Mulder: (correcting him) Ronin Rōnin, it’s a samurai without a master. (Scully gives him a weird look) What? You never saw Yojimbo?
The opening sequence where what appears to be the underside of a huge spaceship moving slowly across the screen is taken from A New Hope’s beginning.
Lieutenant Jack Shaeffer molds his mashed potatoes shaped just like the Devil’s Tower.
The teen boy who gets abducted along with his girlfriend Chrissy is named Harold Lamb.
The witness to Harold’s and Chrissy’s abduction is Roky Crickenson, a similar name to psychedelic lead singer Roky Erickson of Roky Erickson and the Aliens who claims to be an alien abductee.
According to Mulder, Chung’s publishing house is owned by Warden White Incorporated, a subsidiary of MacDougall-Kessler,” the last two names a reference to Heather MacDouglall who edited this episode and Sue Kessler, an assistant editor.
Skinner keeps seeing an old woman actually his wife Sharon in a red raincoat.
'Avatar' refers to the human incarnation of a deity.
When Skinner talks about his past in Vietnam, he says "I wasn’t a choir boy; I inhaled," a reference to Bill Clinton's answer when asked if he tried marijuana once in college, but he swore he didn't inhale.
A 'quagemire' is 1) land with a soft, yielding surface. 2) a difficult or irksome situation.
The boat that sinks out from under Mulder and Scully is called Patricia Rae, named after writer Kim Newton’s mother.
A reference to Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel is the name of the fast food restaurant Brothers K.
The name Jeremiah for Jeremiah Smith could be a reference to the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah who was imprisoned and feared for his life for telling God's inconvenient message that shed light on Jerusalem's wicked ways and announced a coming captivity.
The Peacock family’s last names were named after former neighbors of Glen Morgan’s parents.
'Home' is defined as 1) one’s residence or house. 2) the social unit formed by a family living together. 3) a congenial environment or habitat. 4) a place of origin. 5) the objective in various games. 6) to go or return home. 7) processing to or toward a source of radiated energy used as a guide.
Mulder pouts upon finding a newspaper with headline "Elvis Presley dead at 42" when he and Scully go through the Peacock’s house.
Scully refers the kids who found the buried infant as the Sandlot Gang.
The genetic deformities Scully observes in the dead infant are the quite rare 'Neu-Laxova syndrome,' 'Meckel-Gruber syndrome' and the 'extrophy of the cloaca'.
During the primal beating of the deputy, the sheriff and the sheriff’s wife, Johnny Mathis’s "Wonderful! Wonderful!" plays prominently on the radio of the Peacock family’s Cadillac.
Scully mentions 'albinism', a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin from Latin word 'albus' meaning 'white' that’s also called achromia, achromasia or achromatosis.
Episode title is also similar to the last name of mass murderer Howard Unruh.
Brand of film ETAP is the last name spelled backwards of assistant prop master Jim Pate.
A Polaroid camera taking pictures of something other than the intended subject is the basis for Stephen King’s novella The Sun Dog.
Scully says "Ich habe keine Unruhe" to Gary Schnauz literally meaning “I do not have anxiety” in German.
The drug 'scopolamine' is an actual drug causing people to quickly become unconscious and twilight sleep, a condition that can render people unconscious following great moments of pain.
The Field Where I Died
Vernon Ephesian's name combines real-life cult leader David Koresh's real name Vernon Howell and the title of a book from The Bible.
There are similarities to the Waco massacre involving Vernon.
Another massacre this episode shares similarities to is the Jonestown Massacre.
The American Civil War battles described through the cult member were the Battle of Missionary Ridge and the Battle of Ringgold Gap.
An hypnotized Mulder recalls himself in a past life dying on the field during the Civil War where his and Melissa Riedal-Ephesian's personas are Sullivan Biddle and Sarah Kavanaugh, names taken from real life Civil War soldier Sullivan Ballou who wrote a now-famous and very moving letter one week before he was killed in the First Battle of Bull Run to his wife Sarah, in which he assured her his love for her was 'deathless' and even though he might be killed in the war, he would always be with her, would wait for her and that 'we shall meet again.'
The poem Mulder recites at both beginning and end is taken from Paracelsus by Robert Browning.
The words "sometimes I remember" which Mulder pronounces at the end belongs to Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poem Prometheus Unbound.
Nurse Rebecca Waite’s name most likely comes from Arthur Miller’s character Rebecca Nurse and nineteenth century Occultist Arthur Edward Waite.
The words 'vanitas vanitatum' scrawled in blood on Dr. Franklyn’s mirror means 'vanity of the vanities'.
'Sanguinarium' is Latin for 'place of blood'. 'Sanguinary' means carnage, bloodthirsty or consisting of blood. 'Sanguinaria' means bloodroot.
The book Mulder reads and learns witches can make people vomit needles is Encyclopedia of Witchcraft & Demonology by Russell H. Robbins.
Musings of a Cigarette Smoking Man
Magazine title to which Cigarette Smoking Man submits his stories is “Roman à Clef,” French phrase meaning "novel with a key" where real events are written up as fiction and the key referred to is not in the text, but in the reader's knowledge of the actual events being described under the guise of fiction.
Dialogue spoken in the scene with the military men is lifted from Apocalypse Now.
Cigarette Smoking Man’s first novel is called ‘Take a Chance,’ a catchphrase.
Certain cases considered “classified compartmentalized” is a level of secrecy invented for the show.
Name of the main character in Cigarette Smoking Man’s novels is named Jack Colquitt, a soldier appearing in the episode Who Monitors the Birds?.
When young Cigarette Man and Deep Throat flip a coin to decide who will kill the alien, it is quite reminiscent of how the Silicates made their decisions.
Editor Walden Roth who buys Cigarette Smoking Man’s story is named after 20th Century Fox’s head of drama Dana Walden and President Peter Roth of the Entertainment Group for Fox Broadcasting Company.
When ranting to a bum, Cigarette Smoking Man begins with "Life is like a box of chocolates" line from Forrest Gump.
This episode was based on a Superman comic book story called Lex Luthor: The Unauthorized Biography.
Two of a young Cigarette Smoking Man’s aliases are based on supposedly real people:
When meeting Lee Harvey Oswald, the latter calls the former “Mr. Hunt,” a name coming from an E. Howard Hunt that, according to some conspiracy theorist, Oswald kept corresponding with before John F. Kennedy’s assassination.
And when Cigarette Smoking Man is referred to as “Raoul” by Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassin James Earl Ray, a name numerous people identified a co-conspirator in the slaying of the activist and leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
War Is Hell is shown playing at the Texas Theatre where Lee Harvey Oswald is apprehended.
When Cigarette Smoking Man is out on the street looking for the magazine that published his work, there’s another white magazine bearing the cover line “Where the hell is Darin Morgan?” which is in regards to writer/co-executive producer Glen Morgan’s brother Darin Morgan’s departure from the writing staff.
Young Bill Mulder asks young Cigarette Smoking Man why he’s reading The Manchurian Candidate instead of seeing the movie.
The scientist infected by the Black Cancer, Dr. Sacks is possibly named after famed neurologist Oliver Sacks.
Alex Krycek tells Mulder “When you go underground you gotta learn to live with the rats,” a possible reference to Krycek’s actor Nick Lea’s nickname “Ratboy.”
Scully unzips the diplomatic pouch the second courier drops as he escapes Scully, Mulder and Krycek at the Dulles International Airport only to reveal a seemingly unremarkable rock inside:
'Tunguska' refers to a location in Siberia where an object struck the earth on June 30, 1908, leveling over half million acres and hundreds of times stronger than the blast of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima
Alex Krycek’s Russian alias “Comrade Arntsen” is named for Val Arntzen, a member of the Set Decorating Department.
'Terma' or correctly known as 'tyurma' is Russian for prison or jail along with being a Latin conjunction of death. It’s also key Tibetan Buddhist and Bön teachings, which the tradition holds were originally esoterically hidden by various adepts such as Padmasambhava and his consorts in the eighth century for future discovery at auspicious times by other adepts, known as 'tertöns'.
Well-Manicured Man quotes a famous speech Mark Anthony held at Caesar’s burial in Julius Caesar by saying “But, Senator Sorenson is an honorable man, they are all honorable... these honorable men...”, though replace Senator Sorenson’s name with Brutus.
Tag line 'E Pur Si Muove' is Italian for "and still it moves" or "and nonetheless it does move,” a phrase supposedly said by Galileo under his breath after the Church forced him to admit his theory on the Earth rotating around the sun was incorrect
Loosely translated as “goat sucker,” El Chupacabra is an urban mythical monster of Latin American origin, believed to suck the blood of livestock animals, especially goats with descriptions varying wildly from a doglike form to a lizard type being.
“Will the real Leonard Betts please stand up?” is a famous catchphrase from game show To Tell the Truth.
The man from the bar who has lung cancer is named John Gillnitz, an amalgamation of three writers John Shiban, Vince Gilligan and Frank Spotnitz.
Ed Jerse’s favorite bar is named “Hard Eight” for the production company of writers Morgan and Wong.
The song playing while Scully and Ed Jerse sit together is "The Have Nots" from X’s 1982 album Under the Big Black Sun.
The rock song playing while Jerse sits alone is "Tattoed Love Boys" from Pretenders.
Scully’s tattoo of a mythical snake eating its own tail is the 'Ouroboros,' a symbol of the never ending cycle of destruction and re-creations in the universe. The symbol is also used in Millennium.
The camera angles and long tracking shot going backwards down the stairs are conscious homages to similar shots in Alfred Hitchcock’s Frenzy.
Upon visiting Jerse at his apartment, Scully tells Ed on her last date she saw Glengarry Glen Ross and the characters had more than she did.
Ed Jerse’s downstairs neighbor Kaye Shilling shares her name with Entertainment Weekly editor Mary Kaye Shilling.
Mulder mentions the Republic of Karelia, a real place that’s part of Russia located at the border between the Russian Federation and Finland, having a level of autonomy roughly equal to a US state with its own internally elected government and assembly.
During the first scene in which Betty the tattoo convinces the man to assault his neighbor, the song "Doesn’t Somebody Want to be Wanted" by The Partridge Family is heard in the background.
Betty the tattoo’s voice actress Jodie Foster appeared in an episode of the sitcom in one of her earlier roles called The Eleven Year Itch.
When Scully connects to the internet from Jerse’s computer, a list of fictionalized search engines are seen based on real ones: ‘Magella’ = Magellan, ‘Excited’ = Excite, ‘Yahoots’ = Yahoo!, ‘Infos’ = Infoseek
Jerse’s web browser Cyberscope is a takeoff on Netscape.
Mulder’s list of people for Scully to investigate include the names of popular Russian comedian Yakov Smirnoff, author Vladimir Nabokov and Russian film maker Vsevolod Pudovkin of the 1920's.
Mulder makes a 'spiritual' journey to Elvis' home.
'Memento Mori' 1) is Latin for “remember that you are mortal”; 2) refers to a type of Victorian photography where a recently deceased person is photographed post-mortem, often with family members, dressed and posed as though in a deep sleep rather than dead.
'Kaddish' is the name of traditional Jewish mourning prayer repeated daily for thirty days for a relative or a spouse or eleven months for a parent following day of burial and is also related on the anniversary of death.
Kolin is mentioned as the place where the communal ring was made and it's mentioned as a village near Prague. Kolin is in fact a rather big town near Prague.
Mulder mentions 'The Warren Commission' who investigated the 1963 assassination of PresidentJohn F. Kennedy and concluded Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone but many people, including conspiracy theorists, don’t believe the Commission’s findings.
'Unrequited' means 1) not avenged. 2) not requited. 3) not reciprocated or returned in kind.
When Nathaniel Teager confronts Mrs. Davenport in front of the Vietnam Memorial, two names visible on the wall behind her are Jesse R. Ellsion and Harlan L. Hahn. Harlan Ellison is a famous science fiction writer and fan of the show. Model and actress Jessica Hahn is well-known for the sex scandal involving her and Reverend Jim Baker.
Names of X-Files crewmembers are etched into the wall.
'Synchrony' means 1) simultaneous action, development, or occurrence. 2) the state of operating or developing according to the same time scale as something else.
Mulder tells Jason Nichols that the frozen dead security guard has become Frosty the Snowman gone south.
'Small potatoes' is a phrase meaning “not a big deal” or “not overly important.”
As Eddie van Blundht looks at Mulder’s driver’s license, the street address where Mulder lives is 42-2630 Hegla Place, the numbers 2630 is the street number for the building used on York Avenue in Vancouver for exterior shots of Mulder’s apartment.
Eddie van Blundht flees from Mulder and Scully and takes refuge in the guise of a husband to one of the tailed babies’ mothers, giving her the pet name “Babboo,” a reference to Sally Brown calling Linus her “Sweet Babboo.”
Mulder refers to the opening of Cole Porter’s Let’s Fall in Love by saying “birds do it, bees do it, even educated MDs do it.”
Interrupting Amanda Nellingan who’s humming a familiar theme:
Scully: How many times have you seen Star Wars, Amanda?
One of the headlines on the tabloid newspaper is “ETAP Bigshot Busted” from pro-master Jim Pate.
Eddie-as-Mulder listens to Mulder’s answering machine:
Langly: Mulder, Langly. You gotta see this. As online associate of ours, who will remain anonymous, has figured out a way to digitize the Zapruder footage so he can extrapolate a bird’s eye view of the Dealey plaza at t he exact moment of the assassination. You’ll never believe where the third shot came from.
'Zero Sum' refers to the precept of game theory that a situation in which a participant’s gain or loss is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of another.
Ill-fated police officer Michael Fazekas was named for Co-Executive Producer Frank Spotnitz’s assistant.
'Demons' could refer to 1) an evil spirit or Satan. 2) a source or agent of evil, harm, distress, or ruin. 3) an attendant power or spirit. 4) a supernatural being of Greek mythology intermediate between gods and men. 5) one that has exceptional enthusiasm, drive, or effectiveness.
Episode was influenced from An Anthropologist on Mars, a series of essays by Oliver Sacks in particular The Landscape of Dreams featuring a man who could recall every detail of his childhood.
'Geschwind syndrome' is the ability to recall every memory of one's younger life.
'Gethsemane' refers to biblical garden Gethsemane where Jesus Christ was betrayed by Judas.
Michael Kritschgau is named for a former drama teacher of Gillian Anderson, Dana Scully’s actress.
'Redux' means brought back, as following retirement, illness or long inactivity.
When Kritschgau describes the government conspiracy to Mulder is much like the scene in JFK between Detective Jim Garrison and his informant X.
Mulder says “Let the truth be known though the heavens fall” during his voiceover is quite similar to Garrison’s line "Justice be done though the heavens fall."
Much like the meeting between Cigarette Smoking Man and The Elder, JFK also had a “secret meeting” taking place at a race track.
Mulder says “If this treason should prosper” in a voiceover narration in the opening scenes, a paraphrase of line usually attributed to Roman Poet Ovid, not to mention credit has gone to English epigrammist Sir John Harrington:
Treason doth never prosper What’s the reason? Why if it prosper, None dare call it treason.
The monitor the guard watches as he witnesses Mulder’s wandering through the top secret area is labeled with brand name “ETAP,” again, a reference to prop-master Jim Pate.
'Redux' means come back following retirement, illness or long inactivity.
The name Roush is probably a reference to then-USA Today writer Matt Roush.
Susanne Modeski’s dentist Dr. Michael Kilbourne is named after writer Vince Gilligan’s own dentist.
Byer’s full name is John Fitzgerald Byers and he was born on November 22, 1963, the same day of the thirty-fifth president’s assassination.
The video game Byer’s booth partner is seen playing during the first half of the episode is Dig Dug.
Richard Langly comes up from behind a dividing curtain to his own booth connected to Melvin Frohike and pulls the curtain away to see Frohike and Susan Modeski:
Langly: Hey lady, if you want to watch Matlock with Andy Griffith all blue and squiggly, go right ahead and buy from this guy. But, if you want quality bootleg cable, you talk to me.
Byers ask Susan what secret forces within the government did to JFK.
As Frohike rants on about the government that gave Amtrak is behind some conspiracies, Langly mentions the Susan B. Anthony dollar.
The line “Your kung fu is best” refers to famed computer hacker Kevin Mitnick leaving voice messages “My kung fu is best” to tease investigators who were attempting to apprehend him.
Detective John Munch mentions American attorney, journalist, author, reporter and talk show host Gerald Rivera in his line “Don’t lie to me like I’m Geraldo Rivera. I am not Geraldo Rivera!” which is a very similar line used in the pilot of Homicide: Life on the Street.
When Susanne first meets Byers, she tells him her name is “Holly,” borrowing the name from the packet of Holly Sugar on the table but it’s also the name of Vince Gilligan’s girlfriend Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice.
A 'detour' is 1) a road used temporarily instead of the main route. 2) a deviation from the direct course of action
Search and rescue leader Officer Michele Fazekas is named after writer and executive producer Frank Spotnitz’s assistant Michael Fazehas.
Mulder, Scully, Agent Michael Kinsley and Agent Carla Stonecypher find themselves in a hostile environment just like Lewis Medlock, Ed Gentry, Bobby Trippe and Drew Ballinger.
Mulder asks Scully if she identified more with Betty or Wilma as child.
Scully sings Three Dog Night’s “‘Joy to the World’” to Mulder in the woods.
After Scully asks the local technician’s thought on who killed the men surveying an area of the forest:
Jeff Glaser: Nature is populated by creatures either trying to kill something they need to surviv or trying to avoid being killed by something that needs them to survive. If we become blinded by the beauty of nature, we may fail to see its cruelty and violence. Scully:Walt Whitman? Jeff Glaser: No, When Animals Attack! on the Fox Network.
Scully asks Mulder if the Mothman is listed in the X-Files next to “the Cockroach that ate Cincinnati,” a reference to a 1996 movie and a 1974 song by Rose and the Arrangement.
'Mothman' was a legendary creator first reportedly seen in the Point Pleasant area of West Virginia from November 15, 1966 to December 15, 1967 that’s been later popularized by John keel in his 1975 book The Mothman Prophecies which was later made into a 2002 movie.
The 1991 “Tailhook Scandal” is mentioned where on the thirty-fifth Annual Tailhook Symposium held September 5 to September 7 of that year at the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel, eighty three women and seven men claimed to be sexually assaulted and since there was much controversy about the ensuing investigation and allegation that the Bush administration considered a witch hunt.
Mulder admits the only time he has ever thought about seriously dying was at the Ice Capades.
Mulder and Scully examine the dead creature Scully shot after falling through a hole into an underground chamber where the bodies of their missing companions are stored, the Latin words for “into darkness,” 'Ad Noctum' are carved into a tree trunk.
The title relates to Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein that’s subtitled as The Modern Prometheus which in turn is a reference to demi-god Prometheus who made men out of clay and is probably best remembered as being the one who stole fire from Olympus and taught mortal men how to use it and got punished by being chained to a rock and having an eagle eat his liver every day by Zeus.
Dr. Francis Pollidori having to leave to deliver an address at the University of Ingolstadt, a reference to the Ingolstadt University institution where medical student Victor Frankenstein has the idea of creating a human.
Dr. Pollidori’s wife is named Elizabeth, the same name as Dr. Frankenstein’s wife.
Pollidori shows Mulder and Scully the image of a fruit fly with legs growing out of its mouth, claiming he created the mutant by genetic manipulation, worth noting it’s actually a random mutation that does occur in nature without human intervention in real life.
To Pollidori as he tries to leave in order to deliver an international address:
Scully: Sir, unless you want your scientific achievements end up as a footnote on The Jerry Springer Show, I suggest that the time.
Two (fake) episodes of The Jerry Springer Show along with Jerry Spring himself also appear.
Three songs by Cher are heard: "The Sun Ain’t Gonna Shine Anymore" during the teaser, "Gypsies, Tramps and Thieves" when Mulder and Scully arrive at the fumigated house, and "Walking in Memphis" during the concert at the end.
The episode’s setting takes place in the coastal town of Ammas, Maine where Stephen King, who wrote this episode, was not only born but uses the state as the principal setting for almost all his novels.
A 'kill switch' is usually a button or switch that shuts something down completely and may or may not be the normal method of turning something off, sometimes meant to be used only in emergencies.
A “swoosh” sound effect used for the firing of the orbital weapons platform is a stock sound used in many other movies.
The A. I.’s missile system was compared to the technology from A New Hope.
Esther Nairn’s blonde hair and particularly her black makeup make her look like Pris at the end of the movie the latter appears in.
The episode is similar to Rob and Laura Petrie each telling their neighbor their version of what lead to their fight.
The plot of a same event being recounted by two or more characters is like Rashomon.
'Bad Blood' refers to a 1975 song by Neil Sedaka, name of an episode of Degrassi, a limited Hellblazer comic series, title of a chapter in Trainspotting, a volume from the Creation Cinema series, three moviesa (1982 British-new Zealand thriller, a 1986 French film and the last one made in 1989), a 1990 action role-playing game, or a term meaning enmity or bitterness among individuals or groups of people.
The episode taking place in a fictional Texas town called “Chaney,” probably so named since both father and son played vampires during their illustrious film careers. Though there is a real Texas town named ‘Chaney’ about half-way between Abilene and Ft. Worth founded in the 1880's and named after its 1902 Post Master.
Alleged vampire Ronnie Strickland shares the same middle name “LaVelle” as Xander Harris.
Ronnie works for AB Pizza, 'AB' being a blood type among three others.
Scully suspects that the killer isn't a vampire but instead somebody who has seen too many Bela Lugosi movies.
As the camera pans across the funeral home's display room doubling as the morgue, a casket in the foreground sports a tag identifying its model name as 'Iditarod,' a sixteen hundred kilometer dogsled race run from Anchorage to Nome, starting on the first Saturday in March.
When mentioning possibly being thrown in prison to Scully:
Scully: You’re not gonna tell me you think it’s that Mexican goat-sucker thing. Mulder:El Chupacabra? No, they got four fangs, not two and they suck goats hence the name.
The Ride of the Valkyries composed by Richard Wagner is heard in the background shortly after Mulder’s futile attempt to stop the runaway RV that eventually rolls to a halt on its own.
Sherriff Hartwell is named for Vince Gilligan’s girlfriend Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice.
A drugged Mulder regurgitates Shaft’s theme song when Scully finds him on the floor next to the bed
When Mulder explains his theory on vampires being obsessive, having to undo knots and collect seeds, Sheriff Hartwell compares that to Raymond Babbitt’s counting sticks.
Well-Manicured Man answers the phone:
Alex Krycek: Well, look who’s answering the Batphone.
Just like Amy Cassidy and David Cassidy from the twenty-third episode of season four, Cassandra Spender was named after Greek prophetess Cassandra.
The Cassiopeia constellation is paid particular close attention, named for Queen Cassiopeia who was placed in the heavens by Neptune but was condemned to sit in her throne for all eternity, it’s speculated aliens originate from that particular area.
'Patient X' is a term used to describe a patient remaining anonymous.
Mulder almost ad verbatim a famous quote by a British politician as well as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in regards to Soviet Union with his line “This whole phenomenon is a mystery wrapped in an enigma wrapped in a government agenda.”
Winston Churchill: I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest.
As Cassandra watches the news footage and mourns the loss of people she knows killed on Skyland Mountain, some of the staff’s names roll by: Val Arntzen – a set decorator, James Pate – an assistant prop master, Kathleen Kasinger – another assistant prop master.
'Fellow Travelers' were Americans who were sympathetic toward the Communist cause during the McCarthy era.
Agent Arthur Dales’ partner Hayes Michel was named after then fiancé of Chris Carter’s executive assistant Mary Astadourian.
The song playing in the German doctor’s house is “‘Lili Marlene,’” a German love song popular with soldiers of both sides in World War II.
J. Edgar Hoover’s paranoid rantnote “In 1945, at the time of the first conference to map out the peace, after the Second World War, there lived within the Soviet orbit 180 million people. Lined up on the anti-totalitarian side at that time were one billion, 625 million people. Today, Mr. Dales, just seven years later, there are 800 million people under the absolute domination of Soviet Russia—an increase of over 400 percent. On our side the figure has shrunk to around 500 million. In other words... in less than seven years the odds have changed from nine to one in our favor, to eight to five against us. The threat of global communist domination is a reality that can be ignored only at the risk of our own annihilation. If we are to defeat the enemy, we must use their tools. We must go further. We must do those things which even our enemies would be ashamed to do. It is only through strength that we can make our enemies fear us, and thereby ensure our own survival. You have one chance, Mr. Dales, to save yourself—to demonstrate that you have the strength to serve your country.” to Arthur Dales about the Communist menace was taken almost verbatim from a speech given by former Wisconsin Republican Senator:
Joseph McCarthy: Six years ago, at the time of the first conference to map out peace. There was within the Soviet orbit 180 million people. Lined up on the anti-totalitarian side there were in the world at that time roughly 1,625 billion people. Today, only six years later, there are 800 million people under the absolute domination of Soviet Russia – an increase of over 400 percent. On our side, the figure has shrunk to around 500 million. In other words, in less than six years, the odds have changed from nine to one in our favor to eight to five against us.
The record the agents stop on the turntable was recorded by a “Paula Rabwini,” one of the producers of the show and was recorded on a “ETAP” recording label, once more referring to the last name of assistant prop master Jim Pate.
Not only does 'Mind’s Eye' refers to the human’s ability for visualization but it was made known from the second scene of act one in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet where Hamlet recalls his father to his close friend:
Hamlet: my father–methinks I see my father.
Horatio: Where, my lord?
Hamlet: In my mind’s eye, Horatio.
While it’s true Shakespeare used the phrase, thus making it well known, it was first used in Exposition of Revelations written by Christian mystic Joachim of Flora in 1183:
"I suddenly perceived in my mind’s eye something of the fullness of this book and of the entire harmony of the Old and new Testaments."
A published version of the 'mind’s eye' concept can be found in a 1577 letter written by a French diplomat to Sir Philip Sidney:
Hubert Languet: What will not these golden mountains effect... which I dare say stand before your mind’s eye day and night?
Chaucer used the term 'mind’s eye' one hundred, eighty seven years before Languet, in the twenty-second stanza in part two of The Man of Law’s Tales:
That oon of hem was blynd and myghte nat see, But it were with thilke eyen of his mynde With whiche men seen, after that they ben blynde.
This series isn’t the only one to use “Mind’s Eye” for an episode title: The ninetieth-eight Star Trek: The Next Generation episode has a “the.”Fourteenth episode of Women: Stories of Passion uses the title on the fourteen episode.
Excluding other titles made after this episode, other medias used 'mind’s eyes' include Håkan Nesser’s 1993 novel The Mind’s Eye, a song by Wolfmother, a pair of Doctor Who audio stories called "The Mind's Eye & Mission of the Viyrans", a series BBCradio drama titled Mind’s Eye set in Dublin about the paranormal, a 1991 book In The Mind’s Eye by Thomas G. West, American theatrical radio company The Mind’s Eye, a series consisting several art films using computer-generated imagery of varying levels of sophistication, name of an 1986 album as well as a song by Vinnie Moore, the song “‘The Mind’s Eye’” by Compos Mentis from Gehennesis, a video analysis research project by the U.S.Military using artificial intelligence, name of a Swedish progressive metal band, video game developer Mind’s Eye Productions based out of the United Kingdom, a 1994 Stiltskin album called The Mind’s Eye, a site in the Cayman Islands, live action role-playing game Mind’s Eye Theatre based on the White Wolf’s World of Darkness universe, and a song by the titular Goldfinger.
Skimming through a sort of an “Unholy Bble,” Mulder ironically wonders why aren’t there citations from Jesus Christ Superstar.
When Scully takes Emily’s picure from her desk and tearfully looks at it, the piano theme playing is Dmitri Shostakovich’s Fifth Symphony, 3rd movement.
'All Souls Day' is a holiday with its roots in the ancient "Pagan Festival of the Dead," celebrating the Pagan belief that the souls of the dead would return for a meal with the family.
The four faces Scully sees on the 'seraphim' at the end are animals associated with the four evangelist apostles: Matthew (Winged Man), Mark (Lion), Luke (Bull) and John (Eagle), used in Christian art to symbolize these saints.
Mulder refers to a crucifix hanging in what is usually considered an 'inverted crucifix' known as the “Cross of Saint Peter” when Peter was martyred, he asked to be crucified head down because he was unworthy to die in the same manner as Jesus Christ.
'Pine Bluff' refers to the fact a United States biological warfare compound existed in Pine Bluff, Arkansas during the Cold War and the 'variant' part of the title perhaps refers to a disease or viral strain much like Ebola Reston is a variant of the Ebola virus named for the place it was discovered, Reston, Virginia.
The title also refers to the 'Pine Bluff Arsenal,' an United States military base with stockpiles of chemical weapons.
The alias Mulder uses while staying at the Aaron Burr Motor Court Hotel and later when Scully asks for him, is Mr. Kaplan.
Aaron Burr, Thomas Jefferson’s Vice President and responsible for the dueling-death of Alexander Hamilton, was convicted of treason in 1807 but was acquitted, though has gone down in history as a traitor.
In the torture scene, Mulder refers to Jacob Haley’s skinhead strongman as “The Gimp.”
Mulder’s response towards the “Gimp” roughing him up in the interrogation scene is almost identical to Sam Spade’s response to Wilmer Cook after being roughened up.
The newspaper article titled “Fatal Hanta Virus Outbreak in Northern Texas Reported Contained” Mulder reads at the end of the film was written by reporter Howard Dimsdale, the name of the teacher who taught writers Frank Spotnitz and John Shiban ath the American Film Institute.
The scene which Scully and Mulder are chased through a cornfield by helicopters in a reference to a famous “crop duster” scene.
In yet another reference to writer Vince Gilligan's girlfriend Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice, the gas station where Mulder steals the station wagon is named "Holly's.”
After Mulder asks what caused the wife’s nosebleed:
'Patrick Crump: What do I... I’m... I’m like Quincy? How the hell should I know what caused it?
The ELF communications system 'Project Seafarer' was not simply invented for this episode, it actually did exist although not in Nevada. The two antennas located at Clam Lake, Wisconsin and Gwinn, Michigan was the subject of many protests about the environmental impact of ELF waves. In 1984 a federal judge halted construction and operation of both sites pending further environmental testing, but this ruling overturned by an appeals court. The US Navy spent $25 million studying the environmental impact and came to the conclusion that any effects were similar to those produced by power distribution cables. Needless to say, many people refused to accept these findings, claiming a government and military cover-up. During the late 1990's, Project Seafarer was increasingly seen to be obsolete as improvements in communications technology rendered the use of ELF waves unnecessary. Seafarer was discontinued and dismantled in September 2004.
Mulder makes a reference to Speed in his line “If you stop moving, you die?” and lampshades it by saying he’s seen this movie.
The opening footage is done in the style of a news report.
Country music singer and songwriter along with steel guitar player Junior Brown plays the part of farmer Virgil Nokei, the man who buys a lot of fertilizer.
Some old woman watches Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing.
When asked who the scientist on board the ship is, Mulder points to an already dead man on the ground is a reminiscent of a scene in Schindler's List where a young Jewish boy tells the Nazi officers that a man who was just shot stole the chicken they were interrogating them about, thus saving more people from being shot though unlike the boy, Mulder is unsuccessful in his attempt to trick the Nazis.
The episode was filmed in the style of Rope with the story taking place in real-time and being shot in continuous takes with no cutaway shots.
Mulder running into people who look identical to those who are important to him.
Mulder’s wrecked boat’s called “Lady Garland,” ‘Garland’ being the last name of Dorothy’s actor.
The first ballroom scene includes a band named "Elmira Gulch and the Lollipop Guild. 'Elmira Gulch' was the name of the old woman who wanted to take Toto and turned out to be the Wicked Witch of the West and the 'Lollipop Guild' was the ruling body of the Munchkins.
Captain Yip Harburg shares the exact name as the film’s lyricist.
In the hospital when Mulder is telling Scully and Skinner that they were there, Skinner replies “Right, me and my dog Toto.”
Scully says “Mulder, I want you to close your eyes and I want you to think to yourself 'there's no place like home’" to Mulder.
The events Mulder witnesses on the Queen Anne are taking place in 1939, the same year the movie was released.
A scene takes place in a bar called "Little A'Lie'Inn,” where there’s such place called “Little Al’Le’Inn” in Rachel, Nevada complete with UFO and time capsule just off a road called "The Extraterrestrial Highway."
'The Rain King' may be a reference to Saul Bellow’s Henderson the Rain King novel.
Mulder says “I’ll build the ark, you gather the animals” to Scully as the heavens open to release a rainstorm that’s threatening the reunion guests refers to biblical story of Noah, who was told by God to build an ark and take two of every animal with him as the floods rose.
The theme of the high school reunion at the end is The Wizard of Oz theme along with the song “‘Over the Rainbow’” being played.
As Mulder and Scully wander down the street, they pass “Vince’s Diner,” Vince being the name of writer Vince Gilligan.
An unshaven and drunk Daryl enters the Kroner High School gym where the dance is via an outside door:
Mulder’s line “the Muslim superstition that taking someone's picture is stealing their soul” refers to well-documented belief in societies where practice animist religions where in the Muslim world, an aversion to being photographed may have more to do with a general artistic prohibition on depicting the human form.
Police photographer Alfred Fellig who knows when people will die is named after Arthur “WeeGee” Fellig, a New York City photographer in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, taking gruesome crime scene photos which the newspapers usually printed along with their stories.
Alfred Fellig’s name comes from another famous photographer Alfred Stieglitz.
Other than the "L.H. Rice" reference to Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice the girlfriend of Vince Gilligan, all of Alfred Fellig's other pseudonyms were references to real-life photographers.
Another character named for a real life photographer is Henry Strand, sharing the last name of New York City photographer Paul Strand in the early 1900s, who went through a period of photographing his subjects without their knowledge in attempt to extract a "quality of being" from them. At the time this act was quite controversial.
Louis Brady may been named for Mathew Brady, a photographer covering the Civil War era when photography was still relatively new.
'Tithonus' is the name of a mortal man in Greek Mythology who fell in love with Eos, Titan Goddess of Dawn and Zeus made him immortal after Eos begged him though neglected to give him eternal youth.
It is worth mentioning a "tithonograph" is defined as "a photograph produced by the action of 'tithonic' rays on a sensitized surface" and "tithonic rays" are "analogous to rays of dark heat."
Again, in Greek, the name Cassandra means “prophet of doom,” and here we have Cassandra Spender that can see the future wanting to end her life because her existence as the first alien/human hybrid signals the beginning of an alien colonization.
Alex Krycek says a variant of the Borg’s trademark saying by quipping Resistance was futile then, why would it be any less so now?”
This episode shares the same plot as Stargate SG-1 episode "Window of Opportunity".
There’s a resemblance to Run, Lola, Run, where there are four different "what if" stories, all ook almost the same only with a difference of changing just a little bit in the story then future can change completely.
This episode was previously titled 'Mobius,' a one sided surface that can be formed from a rectangular strip by twisting one end one hundred degrees and fastening it to the other end.
The name of one of the neighborhood mailboxes Polizzi is in honor of Lauren Polizzi, one of the art directors on design directed Corey Kaplan’s staff.
Mulder is seen again wearing an Omega watch.
In ancient Greece, 'Arcadia' was the name of a district famous for its rustic peace and simplicity.
'Arcadia' is even defined as region in ancient Greece held to be an ideal of rural simplicity and peacefulness, or a region offering rural simplicity and tranquility.
Kennel owner Karin Berquist and Dr. Ian Detweiler are a nod to writer Jeffery Bell’s friends as well as a nod to singer and songwriter Karin Bergquist along with pianist, guitarist and bassist Linford Detweiler of Over the Rhine and an oblique reference to the band’s 1996 album Good Dog, Bad Dog.
Name of Chinese freighter T'ien Kou translates to “heavenly dog,” a Chinese term for “shooting star.”
'Alpha' is 1) the first letter of the Greek alphabet. 2) the vowel sound represented by this letter. 3) the leader or authority in a group. 4) used to designate the brightest star in a constellation. 5) one of two or more isomeric compounds in chemistry.
Mulder quipping “ET steal home” to Dales regarding the possible alien baseball player not only refers to titled alien ET, but the famous film phrase “ET phone home” as well as a baseball “stealing home.” Even the baseball that is ominously thrown from the dark.
The baseball announcer on television as Scully heads on her way to Mulder’s office is Vin Scully, the man whom Agent Dana Scully is named after.
Three of a Kind
'Def-Con' is an actual convention held in Las Vegas where it’s a gathering of computer hackers.
At the poker game, the defense contractor asks John Fitzgerald Byers about the “AE-135” unit.
Timothy ‘Timmy the Geek’ Landau asks Richard Langly to attend a Dungeons & Dragons game in his late friend James ‘Jimmy the Geek’ Balmont’s honor but it’s a setup to inject him with analytic histamine substance.
When speaking to Susanne Modeski, Frohike mentions Mata Hari, born Margaretha Zella, a Dutch citizen achieving fame as an exotic dancer and high-class prostitute executed in 1917, accuse of spying for Germany during World War I where she was actually a spy for France.
After shooting Skinner, Mulder strikes a James Bond pose.
'The Sixth Extinction' makes a reference to a real scientific study with the same name telling us that humanity is on the verge of extinction by its own hands.
'Amor Fati' is Latin for “love of (one’s) fate” used to describe an attitude which one sees everything that happens in a life such as suffering and loss as good, which can be a religious term, having to do with our lives being divinely willed thus we are supposed to love our lives
Scully mentions Mulder being injected with 'phenytoin', a generic form of the drug Dilantin.
At the beginning of the episode when Cigarette Smoking Man is in Mulder’s hospital room, he says "I’m showing you how to take the road not taken," the last five words being the name of a poem by Robert Frost.
In keeping with writer Vince Gilligan inserting the name of his girlfriend, Lucy "Holly" Hartwell Rice, somewhere in an episode, the fast-food store manager is named Mr. Rice.
Rob Roberts is named for Vince Gilligan’s helicopter flight training instructior as well as a morning traffic reporter in Richmond, Virginia.
Derwood Spinks is a combinations of Gilligan’s sixth grade teacher Derwood Guthrie and World Heavyweight Boxing Champion Leon Spinks.
The speed-metal music playing in the first victim’s car is the band called Unearthed.
Skinner hands Mulder and Scully the Millennium Group’s symbol representing the never ending cycle of destruction and re-creations in the universe known as 'Ouroboros', a mythical snake eating its own tail.
Vince Gilligan’s girlfriend Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice, is mentioned.
Much of the episode takes place in fictional town Rice County, Maryland
'The Goldberg Variations' were special compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach’s works consisting of an aria and a set of thirty variations in the 1700s by brilliant harpsichordist Rueben “Rube” Lucius Goldberg, a Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist, sculptor, and author along with being a trained engineer and accomplished artist. His “inventions” known making simple tasks complex by utilizing dozens of arms, wheels, gears, handles, live animals and such to accomplish something as simple as squeezing orange juice or closing a window and thus the name “Rube Goldberg” became associated with any convoluted solutions to perform a simple task.
Mulder shuffles a deck of cards exactly how Henry Gondorff does right after saying an injury he got “stings a bit.”
Amongst the words scrawled on the prison chapel’s walls is “Sheep go to Heaven, Goats Go to Hell,” chorus line of “‘Sheep go to Heaven’” by CAKE.
Mulder alludes to William Blake’s work when he speaks about the Doors of Perception in relation to the gates of Hell.
Scully’s clock malfunctions, showing the time as 6:66, generally taken to be the number of the Beast.
'Orison' is a literary word for a prayer.
Ending scenes between Scully, Donald Pfaster and Mulder look eerily similar to the scene when Mr. Smith shoots Neo, including the flash as the gun goes off reflects on a character’s face, a spent cartridge falling to the ground and the gun going off in slow motion.
A recording of singer John Hiatt’s version of the song "Don’t Look Any Further" by Dennis Edwards & Siedah Garrett is heard.
The Amazing Maleeni
Magician Billy LaBonge is named for Bob LaBonge the Second Unit Director of Photography.
Titular 'Amazing Maleeni' refers to Max Malini, who’s famous for relying on his own skill rather than props.
Ricky Jay, who play brothers Herman and Albert Pinchbeck, is himself a very famous magician, renowned for sleight of hand and card tricks as well as a whole host of 'magical' abilities.
Maleeni taking a magician’s name and then spells it differently refers to Harry Houdini if not Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin.
At one point, Mulder talked like fussy neat freak Felix Unger.
Signs and Wonders
Reverend Enoch O’Connor’s namesake can be found in the Book of Genesis, an ancestor of Noah, the prophet Enoch "walked with God" and was transferred so as not to see death.
Skinner mentions 'Twinkie defense,' a claim by a criminal defendant at the time of the crime he or she was of diminished mental capacity due to intake of too much sugar-rich snacks as from eating "Twinkies," successfully arguing by a defense psychiatrist in the notorious case of former San Francisco County Supervisor Dan White who shot and killed San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and County Supervisor Harvey Milk, resulting in White's conviction for only manslaughter instead of murder.
At the end of the notes written by the abducted children’s mothers is the phrase “no one shoots at Santa Claus,” a campaign slogan used by Al Smith in 1936 while running against Franklin D. Roosevelt in the democratic primary, intended as a warning to politicians about the folly of attacking government entitlement programs.
With the park theme and graves, Santa’s Village is like the “Dead Children’s Playground” tucked away in a peaceful cover surrounded by a rock cliff on three sides and picturesque paths leading through the woods within the Maple Hill Cemetery limits, the oldest and largest cemetery in Alabama founded in 1822, reaching over one hundred acres of land. Stories about unnatural phenomena include swings moving by themselves, laughter of children is heard and children calling out when no one has been in the area and orbs of light being caught on photos. Local stories has it spirits of the dead children come to the playground to play, occurring between ten at night and three in the morning.Some say spirits of the dead children come to the playground to play. Another legend has it that Huntsville suffered a rash of child abductions in the 1960s and the bodies of the children were found in the area of the playground.
During the first scene in which the FBI discover a mass grave site containing dozens of missing children and near the end when Mulder encounters his sister Samantha’s spirit, Moby’s song "My Weakness" from the album Play is heard
Mulder finds his sister’s former home on “Albatross Way,” the street name 'Albatross' being a cliché of having “an albatross around one’s neck” taken from Samuel Coleridge’s narrative poem meaning a heavy burden of guilt that becomes an obstacle to success.
The definition of 'Closure' 1) a means of enclosing. 2) an act of closing. 3) the condition of being closed. 4) something that closes. 5) French translation of 'clôture'. 6) the property that a number system or a set has when it is mathematically closed under an operation. 7) a set that consists of a given set together with all the limit points of that set. 8) an often comforting or satisfying sense of finality. 9) something (as a satisfying ending) that provides such a sense.
This episode was made to look like it been shot exactly like a normal episode of C.O.P.S. except its seemingly freestyle story was scripted.
This episode appears to be a homage to The Blair Witch Project with the use of a hand-held camera footage and the scene with the camera falling to the floor, handprints on the wall and the fact the audience never gets to see this “monster.”
The police first find Mulder and Scully on Holly Street. Holly is Vince Gilligan’s girlfriend, Holly Rice.
Scully comments that she can get into the Pentagon easier than into the First-Person Shooter (FPS) offices.
'Maitreya' means “loving one” in the Sanskrit language.
Maitreya’s line “Watashiga korekara surukotowo yurushitene” to Darryl Musashi is Japanese for “Forgive me for what I am about to do,” said just just before she kills him.
Jade Blue Afterglow uncrosses and then re-crosses her legs to allow Mulder a lecherous glimpse and then a pan of Mulder's titillated look in the police station is the same thing Catherine Tramell does.
Maitreya uses acrobatics to attack Mulder just like Pris.
Mulder explains to the stripper being held in custody who looks just like the computer generated Maitreya, who killed two of the three people who were the first people to play the game with a fourteenth century broadsword and a flintlock pistol:
Mulder asks if Martha’s last name is actually “Stewart” instead of “Crittondon” refers to the queen of house and home Martha Stewart, whose advice on cookery, centerpieces, decor and all kinds of things have been followed by people everywhere for quite a few years. ''
While discussing ravens with Walter Skinner, Mulder brings up Edgar Allan Poe well-known poem as well as the repetitive phrase “Nevermore.
The little girl’s name in the teaser being “Michelle” and the psychiatric hospital is called “Deschamps County Hospital,” refers to writer David Amann’s wife Michelle Deschamps.
The term for 'Chimera' is 1) the fabled monster from Greek mythology said to be made up of different animal parts, usually a lion’s head or three heads which one of them is a lion, a goat’s body, a dragon’s tale and the capability to breath fire. 2) a foolish fancy. 3) an organism, especially a plant, with tissues from at least two genetically distinct parents.
After the theme is played, Mulder is dancing to Moby’s "The Sky is Broken" which is featured prominently throughout the episode.
After Scully says she had some kind of vision, Mulder quips "having David Crosby’s baby", a fact that singer and songwriter David Crosby refers to him being a sperm donor for singer Melissa Etheridge and her former partner Julie Cypher and fathers to Cyper’s two babies named Bailey Jean and Beckett.
According to Gillian Anderson, 'all things' "speaks to that which is innate in everything and the unity of life energy and all of us and of all things"
'Brand X' is the generic term advertisers give to a competitor’s products.
Forger Micah Hoffman was named for real-life forger Mark Hoffman who made extremely good forgeries that seemed to cast doubt on the origin of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in the ’80s. The most prominent of these was the 'Salamander letter' forgeries passing several tests and at one point declared authentic but Hoffman's Mormon accomplices threatened to expose him as a fraud so Hoffman planned to kill them by blowing them up with homemade bombs. When one of his own bombs went off early and hurt him, it started an investigation that exposed most of what he had sold over many years as fake
At the beginning, Garry Shandling, who’s playing Mulder, hides behind a headstone reading “Alan Smithee” in the graveyard while avoiding gunshots.
While taking a bubble bath, Scully asserts Mulder that Téa Leoni and Gary Shandling both having a crush on him alludes to the fact both Téa Leoni and Mulder’s actor David Duchovny are married and David Duchovny had a recurring role on The Larry Sanders Show where he had a gay crush on Shandling’s character.
Scully tries to defend herself by explaining the dead man looked very much like Hoffman as she and Mulder sit in Assistant Director Albert Skinner’s office, getting reprimanded:
Skinner: Agent Scully, if I’m carrying Marilyn Monroe’s purse, do you assume that I slept with J.F.K.?
Mulder is asked who he sees playing him in Federman’s movie and suggests Richard Gere.
After Scully mentions they should’ve gotten a warrant:
Mulder’s “Man-o-Manischewitz” comment has been featured for over twenty years as a tag line for Art Kumbalek, a fictional columnist or Milwaukee (WI US) newspaper Shepherd Express. Each week, Art For Art's Sake opens with, "I'm Art Kumbalek and man oh man manischewitz what a world, ain'a?"
'Hollywood A.D.' could be reference to 1) the “A.D.” standing for 'Anno Domini' Latin for “the year of our Lord” and the designation for the time after Christ as opposed to 'B.C.,' the time before Christ. 2) the 'Hollywood A.D.' is in reference to A.D. (Assistant Director) Skinner, who has pitched an X-Files story to a Hollywood filmmaker.
Newly-mobile body of Micah Hoffman says "Noli me tangere" to Scully, Latin for "touch me not," which is what Jesus said to Mary Magdalene when he appeared to her at the tomb.
There’s a mention of biblical figure “Lazarus,” the man Jesus brought back to life after being dead for four days in one of the miracle recounts in the Bible.
After Scully explains having a wacky nun named Sister Callahan in Catholic School and calling her “Sister Spooky” for telling scary stories:
Wayne Federman mentions the 'Shroud of Turin,' an ancient linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to be crucified. Many worshippers believe it could be the cloth that covered Jesus Christ when he was placed in the tomb.
As Scully watches Chuck Burks examining the pottery piece with sophisticated laser equipment in Mulder’s office, Burks quip “there’s music in the air,” a line from Twin Peaks.
After stating the language on the pottery is Aramaic and Scully asks if a linguist translated it, Burks explains that it’s in two parts. The first part is roughly translated as 'I am the walrus. I am the walrus. Paul is dead. Coo-coo-ca-choo.' "I am the Walrus" is the title of a Beatles song and the 'Paul is dead' line was an urban legend made in regards to Beatles’ member Paul McCartney.
Mulder enters Koko’s copy shop and shows badge to the manager:
Mulder: I’m looking for... (sees Betty Templeton)... that girl...
The “Koko’s” copy shops are a clear references to the “Kinko’s” copy shopes before being bought out by FedEx.
Argyle Saperstein says "Ma nish ta na" when Mulder mispronounces his name is a Hebrew slang-like statement shortened from the phrase "Ma nish ta na ha'lilah hazeh" which means "why is this night different statement from all other nights" and the shortened version can be read more like "So what else is new?"
Mulder quotes one of New York Yankeesbaseball star Yogi Berra’s most famous quotes “It’s like déjà vu all over again” whilst standing by the same red cross in the road he had marked in the pilot episode seven years previously.
A 'requiem' is a 1) hymn, composition, or service mass for a deceased person. 2) musical composition for such a mass commemorating the dead.
On finding the missing two fingers, Doggett comments “V for Victory,” Winston Churchill’s famous hand gesture during World War II, using the first and second fingers slightly parted to suggest a “V” after victory with palm out and other fingers clenched. In the 1960s, hippies and other members of the anti-Vietnam War movement used it as a sign of “peace.” Of course, the same gesture reversed has a very different and insulting connotation.
Sheriff Ciolino was named after Vince Gilligan’s mortgage broker.
The song Ronald Purnell sang to Billy Underwood to keep him quiet and was featured as a backmasked message on Scully’s tape recorder is a traditional African American lullaby "All the Pretty Horses" from the southern United States.
Besides being backwards for 'murder', 'redrum' is best known as a phrase in TheShining.
Several shots of Doggett mirrors those of the T-1000 in Terminator 2.
Dr. André Bormanis shares the same name with Frank Spotnitz’s childhood friend who is a behind the scenes worker on the set of many sci-fi television shows from 1993 until about 2004.
Latin for 'the negative way' or 'the negative path', 'Via Negativa'. 1) was first designed as a way of talking about God as language limits a supposed infinite God, it was concluded the only way to talk about God was by saying what God is not. 2) is a Latin phrase that refers to the darkest path taken en route to enlightenment.
The Doctor Directory printed on “Washington National Hospital” letterhead contains three names:'C. Carter' = Creator Chris Carter.'D. Scully' = Dana Scully, the main character and protagonist.'C. Kaplan' = Production Designer Corey Kaplan.
When Scully and Doggett are discussing the possibility of X-Ray vision:
Ray poking at his face in front of a mirror under the flickering bathroom light of an old white building in a rundown section of town.
Ray tells his wife Nora to “get out!” in the same manner as T-800 in his bathroom at the halfway house
Doggett comment to Scully about metal men only happening in movies is a shout out to his actor Robert Patrick playing T-1000.
'Salvage' means “rescue” and as such may refer to 1) 'marine salvage' is the process of rescuing a ship, its cargo and sometimes the crew from peril 2) 'salvage tug' is a type of tugboat used to rescue or salvage ships which are in distress or in danger of sinking 3) 'vehicle salvage' 4) 'salvage data' is the process of extracting data from damaged, failed, corrupted, or inaccessible primary storage media 5) 'salvage archaeology' is an archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by construction or development 6) 'salvage ethnography' is the practice of salvaging a record of what was left of a culture before it disappeared 7) 'salvage therapy' is medical treatment for those patients not responding adequately to First line treatment.
The three scientists Dr. Puvogal, Dr. Chamber and Dr. Clifton were named after engineering friends of staff writer Jeffrey Bell.
The four-door 1973 Ford Torino destroyed in the beginning is the same vehicle owned by The Dude.
The soundtrack features a theme from the first movement of Edvard Greig’s piano concerto.
'Badlaa' is a word in Urdu for exchange, retaliation or revenge.
Scully discovers that a chemical spillage at a village called Vishi was the catalyst for the Indian mystic's vengeance, referring to the Bhopal incident in 1984 where around 8,000 people died in the few weeks after the Union Carbide plant accidentally released a large amount of methyl isocyanate gas.
In the teleconference between FBI Special Agent John Doggett, Assistant Director Walter Skinner and the Lone Gunmen, Richard Langly, Melvin Frohike and John Byers where they’re discussing the medicine wheel, Langly reenters the camera frame, zipping up a newly0donned pair of pants:
Langly: That’s the part that takes some conjecture there, Agent Dogbert.
A 'medicine wheel' is a Native American symbol common in folklore that is considered sacred. Although the size and shape varies, it usually consists of a central stone or cairn, concentric circles of stones and at least two lines coming from the center of the middle stone. The stone usage been mired in controversy but most Native American scholars agree that it represents the "synthesis and wholeness, including concepts of renewal and rebirth."
Robert Patrick makes another actor allusion when his character Doggett says that he’s just a good shot in regards to his T-1000 role where director James Cameron was impressed by Patrick’s shooting in the movie that he didn’t do anything like fast motion or any other special effects.
'Medusa' is one of the three “Gorgons” with hair of snakes and a gaze that turns a creature to stone in Greek Mythology slain by Perseus. It is the name of a kind of jellyfish body type along with the less-popular "polyp." It also means “sovereign female wisdom.”
Lieutenant Bianco, Steven Melrick, Agent John Doggett and Dr. Hellura Lyle are in the subway tunnel:
Bianco: Ooh, it feels like Atlanta in August. Doggett: Yeah, it’s the middle of winter. How come it’s so hot down here? Melnick: They shut down ventilation last night. Normally you have almost a million cubic feet of fresh air per minute pushing through here but now we’re in a sweatbox. Lyle: Aren’t we lucky? Hot, sticky and crawling in the dark. All so every commuter in Boston can get home to watch Survivor II.
Hellura Lyle and Kai Brown were named after two Writers Guild members who served during the first part of the eight season on the show’s staff.
Mulder’s line “Remember boys, this is America. Just because you get more votes, doesn't mean you win” refers to the fact that George W. Bush became president despite Al Gore getting more votes than him.
'Empedocles' refers to Εμπεδοκλης, which is the Greek spelling of Empedokles or Empedocles, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who formulated the theory of the four elements: earth, air/wind, fire and water.
Mulder mentions watching a lot of Oprah to know what a pregnant woman goes through.
Mulder says Scully’s got "manos de piedra,” Spanish for “hands of rock/stone.”
Dr. Frankenstein from the 1910 Frankenstein short is mentioned.
Several allusions to the story of Jesus’ birth are made:
Mulder is guided to Scully’s location by a light like how the three wise men were guided by the star.
The Lone Gunmen act as the three wise men by bringing gifts for the baby.
The super soldiers leaving the birthplace, apparently concluding that who they found wasn’t who they were looking for, paralleling the Pharisees’ prospect in the Gospels who refused to acknowledge Jesus as the messiah, having concluded that he was just an ordinary person, and not the king they sought.
Monica Reyes enters one of the autopsy rooms where Doggett and Scully are talking:
Reyes: What did you find? Doggett: I asked Agent Scully for expertise on this, looks like we can rule out the Exorcist after all.
Doggett refers to the 'Ouroboros' symbol by saying “a snake swallowing its own tail,” a symbol of never ending destruction and re-creations cycle in the universe.
Reyes mentions ectoplasm:
Doggett: Ectoplasm? Reyes: You’ve heard of it, Agent Scully? Scully: Agent Mulder used to refer to it as psychic plasma, a residual by-product of telepathic communication. In theory it would have inorganic properties that couldn’t be explained otherwise. Doggett: So what are we talking now? The Ghostbusters?
A hospitalized but unconscious Doggett with a cervical collar on his neck uses Morse Code with his fingers to spell out “Lukesh” the man who shot him to Skinner, Scully and Reyes.
The fact one of Doggett’s fingers is attached to a Morse button, which is connected to a laptop at the end of his bed in order to interprets his finger presses and displays the letters on the screen, thus capable for him to communicate is like Stephen Hawking suffering from Motor Neurone Disease, thus quadriplegic and confined to a wheelchair where he uses a computer voice synthesizer.
Doggett being only to communicate through Morse Code is like French journalist, Jean-Dominique Bauby, who had been paralyzed and could only communicate by blinking his left eyelid.
‘4-D' is the abbreviation form of “fourth dimension” which is generally accepted as time whereas length, breadth and height as the first three dimensions.
Lord of the Flies
The aggressiveness of the flies in the episode is inspired by actual habits of Australian blow flies.
The fictional reality show David Winkle and Bill Kizzler, each calling themselves a nickname, perform dangerous stands is called ‘Dumbass.’
David Winkle tries to sell the tape of Bill’s final act before his death to FOX Network.
Scully and her partner for the duration of the episode, an entomologist, go up the steps to the Lokensgard’s residence where the front door is partially ajar to search the premises:
Dr. Rocky Bronzino: Dr. Scully? This is so exciting! I’ve never had a partner before. Scully: I have. Dr. Bronzino: I’d like to think of it as a hymenopteran relationship. Two scientists using their special knowledge reaching higher than either of them could ever reach alone. And if I may say so doctor, you complete me. 'Scully: I got upstairs, you take down.
Scully makes her way up in the attic where she finds large human sized webbed sacs to her horror, many of them hanging from various positions in the ceiling and Dr. Bronzino is in one of them:
Terry O’Quinn plays a character only known as the Shadow Man.
The case Doggett works on concerns a banker named Hollis Rice was named for the girlfriend of writer Vince Gilligan, Lucy “Holly” Hartwell Rice.
A character uses the name “Ladatel” when he reads it posted on a public phone booth, the name of the credit card system for public telephone use is 'Ladatel' in Mexico and is handled by cars, not money.
'John Doe' is generally the name given to someone with amnesia, as well as 'Jane Doe' for females, simply as something to call them until their real identities are discovered.
Episode’s plot it similar to the mythology surrounding agriculture god Xipe Totec.
Dr. Sackheim is named after a producer and director.
The definition of 'provenance' is a place or source of origin.
'Providence' is foresight, or care or preparation beforehand.
Needing proof of Mulder’s death, the cult leader demands Scully “Bring me the head of Fox Mulder,” an allusion to the tale of John the Baptist where Salome as pleased the king with her dancing that she was granted any wish and her mother Herodias told her to ask for the head of said saint, not to mention the phrase has also been used in other forms.
The sewage system in the episode was based on the 1952 Les Misérables’ blueprints.
The tagline is changed to Dio Ti Ama, Italian for “God loves you.”
Mr. Burt is turning over cards at the end fo the teaser, naming the cards just before they’re shown where a woman enters the room screaming about a murder, the final card that’s turned up is the ace of spades, which is the death card in divination with standard playing cards as opposed to Tarot.
Tommy Conlon shows a picture to Reyes, uttering famous phrase “I made this” spoken while the Ten Thirteen logo appears after the end credits of every X-Files episode.
In the last scene, Tommy is lying in a hospital in front of a dozen televisions with Doggett’s voiceover saying they tried reducing the boy’s fantasies is very similar to the one in The Man Who Fell to Earth.
Yves Harlow, Jimmy Bond, Melvin Frohike, John Byers and Richard Langly are stopped from entering the conference hall and he asks them what newspaper they work for after Byers tells him they’re reporters:
The blueprint floating on the water after the boat’s destruction is the Jupiter 2 diagram.
After the Lone Gunmen pull a fire alarm, causing large emergency doors to seal shut, simultaneously containing the virus and entrapping them along with the second bioterrorist who has a virus filled organ, a distraught Jimmy places his hand on the other side of the glass where the hands of Byers, Frohike and Langly are placed as they are exposed to the deadly virus, thus killing the Lone Gunmen.
Father figure to Oliver, the psychiatrist Dr. John Rietz has the same name as Robert Reed, born John Robert Rietz who played the father.
After Doggett tells Reyes the roof’s been patched after getting off said roof, stating he noticed a smell of fresh plaster while inside:
Reyes: So, are you gonna fill me in? Doggett: A - Eyewitness places the deceased inside this house just prior to the time of his demise. B - We found a fragment of roofing shingle at the scene of the impact. It would seem it matches the discarded piece you now hold in your hand. C - There's a hole in the roof, recently patched, this big around. Connect A to B to C. Reyes: Much in the fashion of, say, Daffy Duck or Wiley Coyote, the deceased shot straight up through the roof, flew high into the air and landed on his buddy's car? You're serious?
Doggett asks why people are still watching a thirty year old show that’s The Brady Bunch:
Reyes: Because they’re the family everyone wishes they had, loving, parents, lots of brothers and sisters, everybody getting along. Scully: They’re the, uh, perfect family. And since Oliver didn’t have one as a child, he created one. Doggett: Sure, I’d buy all that, but in this case, why The Brady Bunch? Why not The Partridge Family? Why not Eight Is Enough?
When Mulder tries calling Scully from his cell phone, the display shows two names above and one name below hers:
Bowman is a director Rob Bowman who directed the first movie and several episodes
Gilligan refers to a writer and producer Vince Gilligan of the show.
Shiban is John Shiban, another writer and producer.
When Mulder and Scully are talking in bed, the book lying next to Scully’s pillow is Beautiful WAS Ps Having Sex by Dori Carter, Chris Carter’s wife.
When Scully first visits Mulder in his rural home, he is tacking up a story titled ‘Princeton Closes ESP Lab after 40 Years of Paranormal Study,’ a real life event where the 'Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) facility' closed in 2007 after school administrators felt continued funding was unjustified, after failing to provide conclusive evidence of what they were doing could happen, large scale experiments showed a statistically detectable influence. The lab's original mission was to investigate possible phenomena for the defense industry, such as if the minor electrical field present in the human body could interfere with sensitive electrical equipment when the body was placed under extreme stress.
Special Agent Mosley Drummy mentions E.T. abducting Mulder’s sister.
As depicted in the film, head transplants have actually been legitimately performed on monkeys.