The ending song jokingly and mockingly references Black Mesa. Songwriter Jonathan Coulton also namedrops another of his popular songs, "I Feel Fantastic".
Black Mesa is also referenced in several slide shows left running in staff areas that are accessible or at least you can see into easily.
Doug Rattmann's den in the Companion Cube level also contains a rather well-hidden shout out to Isaac Asimov's short story "Escape". His dens all have some poems altered to include cubes and the like. Here is a full list of the graffiti drawings.
"Delicious and moist" cake was originally a joke in Psychonauts.
One of the displays in the old Aperture Science lobby also holds a series of awards. One diploma for the #2 spot on the top 100 list of the applied science companies of 1949, and two trophies (from 1952 and 1954) for the runner up of the "US Dept. of Defense Contractor of the Year". No points for guessing who took first place.
Caroline's line "Goodbye, Caroline!", to Laugh In, which always ended with "Say good night, Dick!" "Good night, Dick!". Ironically, it was likely intended as a Shout Out to the Burns And Allen Show instead, since legend has them ending the show with "Say good night, Gracie!" "Good night, Gracie!". However, Burns and Allen never actually used that line. Burns and Allen would have been on the air when Cave and Caroline made their recording, and Laugh In did not start until 1968, so it's more probable that the writers meant it to be a Burns And Allen reference.
In one of GLaDOS's new test chambers, she says that the test chamber Chell is in requires explanation. Being GLaDOS, she gives it rather quickly, and then tells Chell to "remember what [she] just said in slow motion." If you actually do slow it down, you'll find out that is actually a passage from Moby-Dick.
Rick, the Adventure sphere says that he's got a belt in just about everything, from Karate to Larate.
One of P-Body's dances makes her do a spinning dance, before stopping and shooting a Portal straight forwards. This is a reference to the dance the Wizzrobe from LoZ: Majora's Mask preforms before attacking Link.
Cave Johnson's name might have come from that of one of the characters in the 1981 film The Bushido Blade.
In Chapter 4, you meet Wheatley in the elevator shaft and he tells you to "hang in there for five more test chambers". Three test chambers later, he breaks you out. This may be a reference to Monty Python and the Holy Grail, in which King Arthur repeatedly uses the number five when he actually means three.
Portal 2 Perpetual Testing Initiative
In the YouTube promo, Cave Johnson starts off talking about his father, "a Professor of Farming at the local Farm College." Cave Johnson's voice actor, JK Simmons, appears in a series of commercials for Farmers Insurance as a professor at the fictitious "University of Farmers".
An...altered version of Wuthering Heights gets a mention (specifically Heathcliff fending off the titular moonbase from vengeful poltergeists. Virginia Woolf and the Brothers Karamazov get a name-drop too, as part of computer!Cave's boredom-staving exercise of adding Ghostbusting to every work of fiction.
And there there's "Cave Johnson here. Just a reminder that the core goal of Aperture Gas-Finding Science is to find gas, so make sure you let us know if you see any. If we meet our quarterly gas-finding target, I promise you we will don our bondage gear, fuel our death cars, and drive around in circles, whooping it up and shooting arrows at people. Who is ready to rule the wasteland? Alright, start looking". Mad Max anyone?
And then of course, there is Smokey and the Bandit Cave, who has you test on your own while he goes to Texarcana and back in 28 hours.