In the third movie, the only one that didn't feature Kevin as the protagonist and Marv as the antagonist, we have this Groin Attack scene; it's more like singing than screaming, really.
Maybe that's just the way Daniel Stern screams, as it also shows up in City Slickers II
In an ironic exception, Ichabod Crane from Tim Burton's Sleepy Hollow does practically everything like a little girl except scream.
And, conversely, the heroine of Raiders of the Lost Ark lets loose a series of decidedly tomboyish screams when she's trapped in the Well of Souls — and, ironically, while wearing a lacy white gown.
A more conventional example happens near the end of the film: of all the Nazis who end up victim of God's vengeance, Toht, the ColdBloodedTorturer, screams in a very high pitch and in a very female tone.
Arguably the best moment in the excellent episode Space Mutiny was the big finale where the hero, Dave Ryder, emits an enraged one of these just before calmly hopping out of the "space buggy" he's about to ram into the bad guy.
When attacked by Alice in Transformers: Revenge of The Fallen, the first thing Sam does when he gets his breath back is to scream. Then scream some more. Then scramble out of the room, screaming. Understandable though, under the circumstances.
Sam has another absolutely hilarious one during the highway chase of the next sequel, Dark of the Moon. During the chase, one of the Decepticons deliberately topples over a truck carrying construction pipes, right in front of Bumblebee (who has Sam inside him). In order to avoid getting hit, Bumblebee transforms, jumps over the truck whilst throwing Sam over it as well, then grabs him in mid-air before they hit the ground, and transforms back into vehicle form whilst putting Sam back into a perfectly seated position. Sam, having gone through the entire transformation process whilst inside Bumblebee, freaks out as soon as he's back in his seat.
When running from a series of explosions and gunplay in The Fifth Element, radio host Ruby Rhod screams incessantly like a little girl through several minutes of scenes.
This is one of the things Chris Tucker is known for. He does that in the Rush Hour films as well.
In What's New Pussycat?, Woody Allen is getting cozy with Romy Schneider at his grubby little artist's garret — he produces a cigarette and suavely lights it — and burns his finger. He excuses himself, gets up and rushes to the bathroom, pulls shut a flimsy curtain to close it off, and lets out a shrill girly scream (causing her to jump) — he emerges a moment later with an insouciant swagger.
The Lord of the Rings: Merry and Pippin stole Gandalf's best firework and light it prematurely — while inside a tent. When it actually goes off, Pip lets out the girliest scream you can imagine. Billy Boyd didn't know that the thing was actually going to explode, so the scream is real. Also, according to the commentary, during said scene, Boyd wet himself, earning the amusing nickname "Pissylegs".
Fans love Stargate Atlantis actor David Hewlett's scream, and it makes for great comedy several times in his movie A Dog's Breakfast.
In Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, when Harry gets electro-tortured his screams are remarkably high-pitched (although it's somewhat justified considering the part of his body that is being shocked). This comes off as either hilariously funny or disturbing, depending on how screwed up you are.
In a particular The Three Stooges short set during the Civil War, in order to get rid of a couple of Confederate soldiers, Curly sneaks up on them and puts ants in their clothes, and the two soldiers fled scooting their butts on the ground and screaming like little girls. It's much more hilarious when you actually see it.
Van Pelt, the villain of Jumanji, is pretty much prone to this trope. He's launched on a boat at high speed into a wall, literally!
In Hidalgo when the raiders attack the Sheik's tent, the jailer is busy trying to take off Frank's cuffs while the Sheik fights off the raiders. He winds up cleaving one of their heads clean off and it lands in front of Frank and the jailer, who then shrieks at the top of his lungs and takes off running.
Adhar Ru'afo did this in Star Trek: Insurrection, when he learns that he is in the holodeck ship and the collector is deactivated.