Notably averted by Levi after his personal squad is killed by the Female Titan. While it becomes the closest we see to him showing major emotions, he still keeps a realistic grasp on the situation, noting that it is more important to rescue Eren than kill the Female Titan. He delivered an epic beatdown regardless.
Also deconstructed with Eren and his squad's attempt to avenge a fallen ally. The squad is killed and Eren ended up getting eaten to save Armin, though he does come back — and for added points, once he Titans out for the first time and begins laying waste to the Titans, as he's pinned down, he sees the Titan that killed Thomas, goes right for him and tears out its throat with his teeth before slamming his body into the other Titans. Yikes.
Azumanga Daioh: When Yomi manages to eat curry noodles without splattering it all over herself, Tomo is pushed over the top and goes on a rampage in the lunchroom with tears in her eyes until she accidentally hits Yukari. Yukari's subsequent reaction must be seen to be believed.
Baccano!: This is what happens with Jacuzzi Splot should you be dumb enough to push him out of his normalShrinking VioletMartyr Without a Cause personality (last time it happened, he went machine guns ablazin' and robbed eighteen speakeasies in one night, with tears streaming down his face). Of course, who you should really worry about is a certain redheaded conductor that does not take too kindly to the death of his mentor. When he finds out who did it, he decides to kill him, bathe himself in his blood, go after his friends, go after his friends' friends, and generally act like Nightmare Fuel incarnate for the next ten episodes or so.
Before the Conviction arc focuses him, Guts spends a year or so Walking the Earth as the Black Swordsman, hunting down and killing demonic Apostles and trying to get at Griffith, who betrayed him in a serious way during the Eclipse by sacrificing his friends, and then raping his girlfriend Casca right in front of him. Though his current objective is to Find the Cure for Casca's madness, he's still pissed off at Griffith, and in fact, his big recurring dilemma is that he has to choose between pursuing revenge and protecting what little he still has, which isn't exactly helped by the fact that he has a Superpowered Evil Side that wants him to kill Casca so that he can get back to his vendetta.
During the Golden Age after reaching Griffith and seeing the torture inflicted on him over a year Guts kills several dozen gaurds on his way out the tower and just keeps on going.
Generally speaking the whole series is Guts' rampage to get even with Griffith and the God Hand, with the Golden Age showing just why he's so angry.
Black Lagoon: Clumsy maid Roberta's master, Diego Lovelace, is killed at the start of the El Baile de la Muerte arc. Roberta is a former FARC assassin who was nicknamed the "Bloodhound of Florencia" for her utter relentlessness in carrying out her missions, and who had already turned the city of Roanapur upside down in a previous arc to get the son of said master back. "All hell breaks loose" is perhaps the mildest way of describing what happens next.
In chapter 392, Hitsugaya fits this trope particularly well. He confronts Aizen for the first time since the latter's defection from the Soul Society, telling him that swinging a blade in pure anger is just violence, not as a duty of a captain and that Aizen could not call that a true fight; when Aizen then asks Hitsugaya if his hatred had vanished since Hinamori, Hitsugaya's childhood friend and Aizen's former lieutenant, was alive after Aizen had stabbed her, Hitsugaya tells Aizen he did not come here to merely fight him, but to do violence to him. Things take a rather nasty turn for him in chapter 392, after Aizen sets up an illusion to fool Hitsugaya into thinking that he's stabbed Aizen, when in reality, he's stabbed Hinamori. If the face Hitsugaya makes upon realizing what's happened does not scream roaring rampage of revenge, I don't know what will.
In chapter 477 Tsukishima goes on one, when he thought Ginjou had died. He attacks Ichigo and Rukia not with the intent to Mind Rape them as usual but with the intent to kill. And screams at Riruka to "MOVE!!!" when she protects them, which is a stark contrast to his normally calm and composed manner.
And let's not forget how Yumichika went absolutely nuts when he thought Ikkaku had been killed, threatened Hisagi when he wouldn't let him run to Ikkaku's aid, and eventually had to be knocked out by Kira.
A Certain Scientific Railgun: Misaka Mikoto has just met her clone for the first time, and evidence is piling up that she is about to participate in an experiment that will end in her death. She goes to the designated spot and watches Accelerator brutally murder the clone. When trying to kill him doesn't work, she destroys thirty research laboratories in three days to try and stop the program.
Kuroko: (in flashback) " would you do if a clone of yours appeared before you?" Mikoto: "Ah, that would freak me out. I think I would wish it would just disappear." (present: Mikoto goes ballistic on Accelerator)
In Choujin Sensen, Sasamura states that he will avenge his dead wife and daughter no matter what. And he will do so by cutting down the criminal with his katana.
He gets a much more traditional rampage after Shirley is murdered, going out of his way to slaughter everyone connected with Geass — including unarmed scientists and children who are involved with the cult. And boy, does that bite him in the ass later. It should be mentioned that Those "Scientists" are experimenting on said children and turning them into superpowered assassins as part of an elaborate plan to create Instrumentality
Goku has one of these. He'd been fighting the Red Ribbon Army for a while, but was never really antagonistic towards him. He just wanted to find his Grandpa's Dragon Ball, and the army tried to stop him, so he kicked their asses. But when the Army hired Tao-Pai-Pai, the mercenary, to take out Goku, Tao killed the father of Goku's new friend. Goku eventually killed Tao and had his Dragon Ball, but he decided to find the rest of them so he could wish his ally back. So he stormed the Red Ribbon Army base, killed pretty much everyone there, took out the newly-made leader (the former leader was executed by his second in command after the latter learned about the true nature of the original leader's goal involving a wish was completely trivial and actually endangered their existence), and got the Dragon Balls and felled the terrorist army in one fell swoop.
After a meal, he curbstomps the monster. After a near-death experience and a nearly-lethal power up, he beats up the guy who sent the monster.
Trunks, after taking several levels of badass training in the past and helping in the Cell Saga, goes on one of these upon returning to the future. Now stronger than ever, he proceeds to hunt down the Androids and curbstomps them both with little effort, even shouting "THIS IS FOR GOHAN!" before completely obliterating 18 in one blast. Adding even more to it is the fact he makes the entire fight one long "Reason You Suck" Speech, rubbing in the fact he's going to make them feel exactly how they made his friends feel when they killed them. Not quite finished yet, he then waits for Cell to come after him, knowing that with the Androids dead, Cell will try and get his time machine to return to the past, then destroys him as well when he shows up. While this particular Cell really hadn't done anything to Trunks yet, he's still a mass murderer in this timeline as well and Trunks knows it, so it still counts. What makes this even better is Trunks was really toying with Cell before finishing him off, exactly how Cell likes to do it.
The events of Dragon Ball Z: Resurrection ‘F’ is about a resurrected and very pissed off Frieza attempting one of these against Goku and Vegeta. It doesn't work out too well for him.
Shizuo: You aimed for my head. You've got to know that a blow like that can kill a guy, right? That means you were deliberately trying to kill me, right? That means whatever happens next...IS WHAT YOU DESERVE, RIGHT?
Elfen Lied: Lucy has one of these against Kurama (and all of humanity for that matter).
Fist of the North Star: Despite trying to follow his teachings and turn the cheek against the other school, Kenshiro is beaten, left for dead, and has his true love Yuria stolen from him. There's a number of different versions of what happens next, depending on whether you're watching the OVA, the US series, the original Japanese series, or the manga. All of them qualify for this trope, as Kenshiro proceeds to fill a medium sized continent with body parts from his rampage.
During the Jackal arc, Kenshiro gets involved in a local village's troubles with a vicious gang led by the title crimelord. When both Bat's adoptive brother Taki and their adoptive mother Toyo are murdered by Jackal and his men, Kenshiro gets utterly furious. He spends the rest of the arc hunting down Jackal and his men like dogs, putting the whole gang through a Mook Horror Show that showcases just how horrifying Hokuto Shinken can be. And when he finally catches up to Jackal at Villainy Prison, he dispatches the scumbag with his own dynamite, the weapon Jackal had used to kill Toyo.
Scar goes on one of these when nearly his entire people, including all of his family, are killed during the Ishval Massacre. His plan is to kill every State Alchemist he meets, including those not involved in the Ishval massacre. He eventually sees that what he is doing is wrong, and becomes something of The Atoner.
Gantz: Hiroto Sakurai goes absolutely ballistic once he finds his girlfriend, Tonkotsu, dead. In a total berserk state, he decides to dish out ultimate pain on the invading aliens (who are, easily, 30 times his size) by blowing their brains up with his Psychic Powers of mass murder, not sparing a single one. Not even children or the elderly. And he's still at it. I certainly wouldn't want to cross in this guy's way.
Gintama: Takasugi Shinsuke constantly plots to completely destroy Japanese society in order to avenge his teacher's death and out of resentment for the growing alien influence in Japan, as he had once participated in a failed armed uprising to drive out those very same aliens.
Rushuna Tendo trashes an entire castle full of armed guards to get to the Jester after she thinks he's killed one of her friends (she's still alive, of course, but in the manga she's not so lucky).
She gets in the same mood again before the final showdown in the manga, believing the Jester has just killed her half-sister (she survives).
Guilty Crown: When the Antibodies kill Hare, Shu's brief Heroic BSOD is followed by horrifying Tranquil Fury as he forcefully seizes Inori's void and uses it to massacre the Antibodies in the area. As if that's not enough, he continues after that and delivers a No-Holds-Barred Beatdown on Souta, who was responsible for the operation.
Gunsmith Cats: Goldie Musou has one of these as her Start of Darkness. Although she was a granddaughter of a Mafia Don, she was a decent human being, but after she found out her parents' death wasn't an accident, she used her extensive knowledge of chemistry to brainwash the family members of the killers, forcing them to kill their own families, and then killing them. By the time she was done she had lost her sense of empathy, and started to consider all people toys or tools for her own amusement.
Hellsing: In the seventh OVA, Zorin has just severely wounded Seras and killed Pip. To add insult to injury she then refers to the dead Pip as a mere insect. Cue Seras completely losing her shit and slaughtering Zorin's army and Zorin herself.
Higurashi: When They Cry: Pretty much every character eventually has one of these. Keiichi had one on Teppei, Satoko had one on Oyashiro-sama himself, Rena had one on Teppei AND Rina, Rika, Mion, and Keiichi had on Teppei (see a pattern), and Rika and Hanyu had one on Takano. But the most intense one had to be the time Shion had gone apeshit on EVERYBODY!
Holyland: Yuu goes on one of these after Shinichi is attacked by Sawako gang members.
I Luv Halloween: After Mr. Kitty and Finch set a man's wife on fire, the man goes on a vicious rampage to hunt the evil, little trick-or-treaters down. He endures being attacked and bitten by a handful of zombies and set on fire until finally falling.
Kamisama Kiss: Tomoe goes on one of these every time someone hurts or, especially, kidnaps Nanami.
Katanagatari: After Togame dies in Shichika's arms the main protagonist proceeds to climb a pagoda to the Shogun and destroy every weapon he had spent the last year collecting a long with most of the poor saps who were using them at the time, in what can only amount to a series of consecutive Curb Stomp Battles leading up to the inevitable confrontation with The Dragon who killed Togame previously in which the only damage that was inflicted was the damage Shichika allowed. Did I mention this guy was fighting them all unarmed?
Legend of Galactic Heroes: Julian, upon discovering that Yang Wen-li was assassinated by Terraists who infiltrated into Yang's cruiser, went on a roaring rampage and killing any Terraists he encountered within the cruiser (with a battleaxe, no less) and had to be stopped by Louis Machungo. He slipped again when he encountered Archbishop De Villiers, the mastermind of the assassination, and ended up blasting him with more shots than necessary to kill him.
Macross Frontier: Klan goes on one of these after Michel is killed defending her from Vajra.
Mother Keeper: During the third part of Hunter, Graham decides to get revenge for what Silas did to Zelik, including shutting all the lights off, murdering everyone in the building, shooting Silas in the leg, standing on his chest and eventually shooting him in the head. He then sets the building alight.
Sasuke. His reason for living was that he wanted to kill his Aloof Big Brother, Itachi, for murdering their clan. When Tobi reveals that Itachi was ordered to kill the Uchiha by Konoha's higher-ups, Sasuke snaps and declares that his new goal is to destroy Konoha in order to avenge Itachi. Previously he had held back on killing or severely injuring bystanders; now he seems to just be attacking anybody and everything that gets in the way.
Naruto goes on one when he believes Sasuke has been killed by Haku (who he nearly killed afterwards). Against Neji for beating the hell out of Hinata. Though bringing back Sasuke is his main reason, he'd be more than glad to kill Orochimaru for killing his Grandfather figure, the Third Hokage. He goes apeshit on Deidara when he states he and Sasori managed to kill Gaara. Would've definitely gone after Hidan if Shikamaru couldn't do it since Asuma played an important part in his elemental chakra training. Became dead-set on destroying Pain after he killed his father figure, Jiraiya (although he spares him as Naruto wanted to make Jiraiya's dream of peace a reality). Goes from zero to 6 tails in a blink when he believes Pain killed Hinata. Ironically, he hasn't killed any of them.
One of the things that makes Naruto so special is that, even after Pain destroyed Konoha, Naruto refused to go on one of these, in favor of forgiveness.
Gendo does a Shoot the Dog moment when faced with the 13th Angel, Bardiel, who had just taken control of the Eva Unit 03 moments before the first test was supposed to start. When Shinji refused to destroy the Angel (and the Eva with it) due to the risk of injuring the Eva's pilot, Gendo takes control of the situation and takes Eva Unit 01 from Shinji's control, using a backup system to do the deed. Needless to say, Shinji isn't happy, and attempts a Roaring Rampage of Revenge... before being stopped by Gendo himself.
It's implied that Misato is doing this as well: she always hated her father but when he gave his life to save her during Second Impact, she went on to discover what really happened. Upon finding out that the Angels were responsible, she joined NERV and is determined to destroy all Angels... so determined sometimes she pushes her wards to run innecessary risks to ensure their destruction.
Luffy goes into one of these on several occasions, when his Berserk Button is pressed. More of the crew gets in on it when it involves their friends, evidenced well in the Arlong arc, Enies Lobby arc, and especially the Fishman Island arc.
Whitebeard proceeded to go into a Tranquil Fury one after Ace is killed.
Doflamingo pretty much lost it after Law gave him a Sadistic Choice, slaughtering G-5 Marines and handing Smoker a No-Holds-Barred Beatdown that would've killed him if it hadn't been for Aokiji, all while demanding the heads of the Straw Hat Pirates and Law.
Trafalgar Law has dedicated half his life on one against Donquixote Doflamingo for murdering Donquixote Corazon/Rocinante, and it is the events resulting from this revenge spree that leads to the current Dressrosa Arc.
Planetes: Edle used to be married to a man who ended up selling her into prostitution. When the guy has the gall to call her and try to get back together, she shows up at his hotel room with an anchor launcher and threatens to shoot him with it.
In the movie Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions, when Kodai finally gets his claws on Zorua, the little guy's mother Zoroark finally has enough and proceeds to tear her way out of her prison (a steel-encased metal cage that severely shocks her whenever she touches it and to that point was unable to break out of) and go one one of these. She is delayed by a misunderstanding with the town's guardian Olympus Mons (though this is part of the reason she fought three Legendary Pokémon to a standstill), but once it's settled, she proceeds to one-shot The Dragon and his Pokémon, then moves on to hunt down Kodai and, while she doesn't actually physically hurt him, sets up his humiliating defeat and reclaims her baby. And he was likely quite lucky the cops got to him before she could.
In the manga version, she actually kills Kodai by making him fall off the top of the stadium to his Disney Villain Death.
Project K: After good friend and fellow clansman Tatara Totsuka is murdered, HOMRA gets very violent very fast in their search for revenge.
Rave Master: In spite of all the different reasons the characters give, in the end Lucia's actions are really just him lashing out at the world as a whole for making his childhood a living hell.
Scryed: When his friend Kimishima dies Kazuma flips his lid, finding the nearest HOLY unit and totally decimating it.
Saiyuki: Hakkai massacred at least 1,000 demons plus an entire village of humans because some of the demons kidnapped and raped his sister/lover and because the rest didn't stop the poor girl's kidnapping for fear that the demons would target their family members instead.
Luke is generally a nice, if a bit snarky, guy. But hire assassins to kill the woman he is madly in love with, and then refuse to cure the poison on her? He might get mad.
Slayers Next: One scene close to the end, during an epic match against The Chessmaster Phibrizzo, where Phibrizzo starts using what appear to be beads of life to kill the heroes one by one. When it comes to Amelia's turn, she predictably dies. In Zelgadiss's arms. Zelgadiss spends all of ten seconds trying to wake her up before he charges, attempting to fulfill this trope...of course, it's subverted, because guess who was next?
Soul Eater: Giroko goes on one against Soul and Maka following Arachne's death.
Sword Art Online: Subverted in episode 14. When Asuna makes her Heroic Sacrifice to save Kirito by diving in front of Heathcliff's weapon and she dies in his arms, Kirito takes up her sword to use as his new off-hand weapon and rises to his feet with every expectation that he's about to get revenge. Then he swings, slowly, weakly, uselessly in Heathcliff's general direction, a completely broken man. With Asuna's death there was no fight left in him.
Ubel Blatt: This is basically the story of Koinzel's against the "Seven Heros" for giving up on a quest to save the Empire, and then killing him and three others who finished it, simply so they could claim the glory while naming those that did complete it the "Four Lances of Betrayal"
Chiba does this upon coming back to life by going after Haguro for brutally raping and murdering him.
Also deliberately invoked when Haguro manipulates the younger Kuroda into going Columbine on half the student body out of vengeance against Inugami for his brother's death. Using weapons from his family gun cellar. The kicker? His brother died because HAGURO pulled his life-support.
Yotsuba&!: Parodied after Yotsuba watches one too many Japanese gangster movies: she first takes out Dad and Jumbo with her water pistol, then switches personas and takes revenge by heading next door to shoot the neighbors, one by one, ending with Asagi.
Perpetrated by Thief King Bakura, Spirit of the Millennium Ring way back in the day. Atem's uncle Akunadinkilled his entire village to make the millennium items. To get back, the Thief King made a deal with Zorc, and what we see of him in that era consists of going on a murderous rampage against Atem and his court. After stewing for a few millennia, he returns. Sort of.
Let's not forget in the Yami vs. Weevil duel during the Doma arc. Yugi's soul has been stolen, and Weevil claims to have his soul card. He rips it in front of Yami's eyes... then taunts him by revealing it was a joke. BAD IDEA, Weevil — Yami goes berserk and deals enough damage to Weevil that turn to effectively defeat him THREE TIMES over. Tea eventually steps in in a What the Hell, Hero? moment, stopping him from continuing to deal damage.
And let's not forget that, thanks to the effects of the Seal of Orichalcos, Weevil felt every single sword-strike dealt to him. The look on his face when that 2nd monster card was revealed (2nd out of, I believe, seven...the 2nd being the one that dealt the fatal blow) spoke volumes.
This was not simple revenge on the Pharaoh's part. Going off one of the translations of the original text ("Wash your neck and wait," a traditional order to Japanese prisoners before sentence was carried out), Weevil was handed nothing short of a death sentence. This was not revenge, this was an execution.
Yu-Gi-Oh! GX: Judai goes into this mode against Brron and his best monster, Reign-Beaux, Overlord of Dark World, after the villain cruelly sacrifices his friends to summon it. After ordering Neos to attack it, which destroys both monsters, due to them having equal Attack Points, Judai plays a Spell called Requiem Duel, which would have required both players to Special Summon both monsters, and force them to battle again. As far as the actual duel went, this would not have helped Judai at all if it had gone as he had intended it too, as it would have just ended in another draw; he was so enraged, he did it because he wanted to kill Reign-Beaux again. However, this move enabled him to win the duel by dumb luck; because Brron had previously summoned Reign-Beaux using Gateway to Dark World, he was unable to summon again, leaving him open to a direct attack by Neos, and lost. (Unfortunately for Judai, this was a Pyrrhic Victory in every sense of the term, and only made him worse, causing his long suppressed dark side as the Supreme King to surface.)