Slayers's Luke is generally a nice, if a bit snarky, guy. But hire assassins to kill the woman he is madly in love with, and then refuse to cure the poison on her? He might get mad.
Lucy from Elfen Lied has one of these against Kurama (and all of humanity for that matter).
Suzaku from Code Geass goes on a very literal Roaring Rampage of Revenge after the woman he loved, Princess Euphemia is killed, blasting through the battlefield, screaming like a madman as he cuts down anyone in his path. The show's Anti-Hero protagonist, Lelouch, might also qualify since one of his goals is vengeance for his mother, but his is more like Magnificent Bastard Rampage of Revenge.
He gets a much more traditional rampage after Shirley is murdered, going out of his way to slaughter everyone connected with Geass - including unarmed scientists and children who are involved with the cult. And boy, does that bite him in the ass later.
It should be mentioned that Those "Scientists" are experimenting on said children and turning them into superpowered assassins as part of an elaborate plan to create Instrumentality
Nina too. "Vengeance for Euphemia-sama!" indeed.
In Fushigi Yuugi Genbu Kaiden, after Soruen has a heroic noble sacrifice in the worst tearjerker of the series, Uruki. Gets. Pissed. As in really pissed. As in create a giant tornado pissed.
in Higurashi no Naku Koro ni, pretty much every character eventually has one of these. Keiichi had one on Teppei, Satoko had one on Oyashiro-sama himself, Rena had one on Teppei AND Rina, Rika, Mion, and Keiichi had on Teppei (see a pattern), and Rika and Hanyu had one on Takano. But the most intense one had to be the time Shion had gone apeshit on EVERYBODY!
Before the Conviction arc focuses him, Guts of Berserk spends a year or so Walking the Earth as the Black Swordsman, hunting down and killing demonic Apostles and trying to get at Griffith, who betrayed him in a serious way during the Eclipse by sacrificing his friends, and then raping his girlfriend Casca right in front of him. Though his current objective is to Find the Cure for Casca's madness, he's still pissed off at Griffith, and in fact, his big recurring dilemma is that he has to choose between pursuing revenge and protecting what little he still has, which isn't exactly helped by the fact that he has a Superpowered Evil Side that wants him to kill Casca so that he can get back to his vendetta.
In Planetes, Edle used to be married to a man who ended up selling her into prostitution. When the guy has the gall to call her and try to get back together, she shows up at his hotel room with an anchor launcher and threatens to shoot him with it.
Parodied in Yotsuba&! after Yotsuba watches one too many Japanese gangster movies: she first takes out Dad and Jumbo with her water pistol, then switches personas and takes revenge by heading next door to shoot the neighbors, one by one, ending with Asagi.
In Macross Frontier, Klan goes on one of these after Michel is killed defending her from Vajra.
Scar goes on one of these in Fullmetal Alchemist when nearly his entire people, including all of his family, are killed during the Ishval Massacre. His plan is to kill every State Alchemist he meets, including those not involved in the Ishval massacre. He eventually sees that what he is doing is wrong, and becomes something of The Atoner.
And then Shiina eventually snaps, and it gets worse. Much worse.
Rushuna Tendo trashes an entire castle full of armed guards to get to the Jester after she thinks he's killed one of her friends in Grenadier (she's still alive, of course, but in the manga she's not so lucky).
She gets in the same mood again before the final showdown in the manga, believing the Jester has just killed her half-sister (she survives).
Black Lagoon: Clumsy maid Roberta's master is killed at the start of the El Baile de la Muerte arc. Considering she's also an Ax-CrazyImplacable Man ex-FARC member, it gets very, very messy.
Goldie Musou has one of these as her Start of Darkness in Gunsmith Cats. Although she was a granddaughter of a Mafia Don, she was a decent human being, but after she found out her parents' death wasn't an accident, she used her extensive knowledge of chemistry to brainwash the family members of the killers, forcing them to kill their own families, and then killing them. By the time she was done she had lost her sense of empathy, and started to consider all people toys or tools for her own amusement.
In Baccano!, this is what happens with Jacuzzi Splot should you be dumb enough to push him out of his normalShrinking VioletMartyr Without a Cause personality (last time it happened, he went machine guns ablazin' and robbed eighteen speakeasies in one night, with tears streaming down his face). Of course, who you should really worry about is a certain redheaded conductor that does not take too kindly to the death of his mentor. When he finds out who did it, he decides to kill him, bathe himself in his blood, go after his friends, go after his friends' friends, and generally act like Nightmare Fuel incarnate for the next ten episodes or so.
In Gintama, Takasugi Shinsuke constantly plots to completely destroy Japanese society in order to avenge his teacher's death and out of resentment for the growing alien influence in Japan, as he had once participated in a failed armed uprising to drive out those very same aliens.
Perpetrated in Yu-Gi-Oh! by Thief King Bakura, Spirit of the Millennium Ring way back in the day. Atem's uncle Akunadinkilled his entire village to make the millennium items. To get back, the Thief King made a deal with Zorc, and what we see of him in that era consists of going on a murderous rampage against Atem and his court. After stewing for a few millennia, he returns. Sort of.
Let's not forget in the Yami vs. Weevil duel during the Doma arc. Yugi's soul has been stolen, and Weevil claims to have his soul card. He rips it in front of Yami's eyes... then taunts him by revealing it was a joke. BAD IDEA, Weevil - Yami goes berserk and deals enough damage to Weevil that turn to effectively defeat him THREE TIMES over. Tea eventually steps in in a What the Hell, Hero? moment, stopping him from continuing to deal damage.
And let's not forget that, thanks to the effects of the Seal of Orichalcos, Weevil felt every single sword-strike dealt to him. The look on his face when that 2nd monster card was revealed (2nd out of, I believe, seven...the 2nd being the one that dealt the fatal blow) spoke volumes.
This was not simple revenge on the Pharaoh's part. Going off one of the translations of the original text ("Wash your neck and wait," a traditional order to Japanese prisoners before sentence was carried out) Weevil was handed nothing short of a death sentence. This was not revenge, this was an execution.
In Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, Judai goes into this mode against Brron and his best monster, Reign-Beaux, Overlord of Dark World, after the villain cruelly sacrifices his friends to summon it. After ordering Neos to attack it, which destroys both monsters, due to them having equal Attack Points, Judai plays a Spell called Requiem Duel, which would have required both players to Special Summon both monsters, and force them to battle again. As far as the actual duel went, this would not have helped Judai at all if it had gone as he had intended it too, as it would have just ended in another draw; he was so enraged, he did it because he wanted to kill Reign-Beaux again. However, this move enabled him to win the duel by dumb luck; because Brron had previously summoned Reign-Beaux using Gateway to Dark World, he was unable to summon again, leaving him open to a direct attack by Neos, and lost. (Unfortunately for Judai, this was a Pyrrhic Victory in every sense of the term, and only made him worse, causing his long suppressed dark side as the Supreme King to surface.)
Sasuke from Naruto. His reason for living was that he wanted to kill his Aloof Big Brother, Itachi, for murdering their clan. When Tobi reveals that Itachi was ordered to kill the Uchiha by Konoha's higher-ups, Sasuke snaps and declares that his new goal is to destroy Konoha in order to avenge Itachi. Previously he had held back on killing or severely injuring bystanders; now he seems to just be attacking anybody and everything that gets in the way.
Naruto goes on one when he believes Sasuke has been killed by Haku (who he nearly killed afterwards). Against Neji for beating the hell out of Hinata. Though bringing back Sasuke is his main reason, he'd be more than glad to kill Orochimaru for killing his Grandfather figure, the Third Hokage. He goes apeshit on Deidara when he states he and Sasori managed to kill Gaara. Would've definitely gone after Hidan if Shikamaru couldn't do it since Asuma played an important part in his elemental chakra training. Became dead-set on destroying Pain after he killed his father figure, Jiraiya (although he spares him as Naruto wanted to make Jiraiya's dream of peace a reality). Goes from zero to 6 tails in a blink when he believes Pain killed Hinata. Ironically, he hasn't killed any of them.
One of the things that makes Naruto so special is that, even after Pain destroyed Konoha, Naruto refused to go on one of these, in favor of forgiveness.
Rock Lee goes on one of these after Neji's death, leading him to kick Madara IN HALF.
Slayers Next had a scene close to the end, during an epic match against The Chessmaster Phibrizzo, where Phibrizzo starts using what appear to be beads of life to kill the heroes one by one. When it comes to Amelia's turn, she predictably dies. In Zelgadiss's arms. Zelgadiss spends all of ten seconds trying to wake her up before he charges, attempting to fulfill this trope...of course, it's subverted, because guess who was next?
Goku has one of these in Dragon Ball. He'd been fighting the Red Ribbon Army for a while, but was never really antagonistic towards him. He just wanted to find his Grandpa's Dragon Ball, the RR army tried to stop him, so he kicked their ass. But when the Army hired Tao-Pai-Pai, the mercenary, to take out Goku, Tao killed the father of Goku's new friend. Goku eventually killed Tao and had his Dragon Ball, but he decided to find the rest of them so he could wish his ally back. So he stormed the Red Ribbon Army base, killed pretty much everyone there, took out the newly-made leader (the former leader was executed by his second in command after the latter learned about the true nature of the original leader's goal involving a wish was completely trivial and actually endangered their existence), and got the Dragon Balls and felled the terrorist army in one fell swoop.
After a meal, he curbstomps the monster. After a near-death experience and a nearly-lethal power up, he beats up the guy who sent the monster.
Trunks, after taking several levels of badass training in the past and helping in the Cell Saga, goes on one of these upon returning to the future. Now stronger than ever, he proceeds to hunt down the Androids and curbstomps them both with little effort, even shouting "THIS IS FOR GOHAN!" before completely obliterating 18 in one blast. Adding even more to it is the fact he makes the entire fight one long Reason You Suck Speech, rubbing in the fact he's going to make them feel exactly how they made his friends feel when they killed them. Not quite finished yet, he then waits for Cell to come after him, knowing that with the Androids dead, Cell will try and get his time machine to return to the past, then when he shows up destroy him as well. While this particular Cell really hadn't done anything to Trunks yet, he's still a mass murderer in this timeline as well and Trunks knows it, so it still counts. What makes this even better is Trunks was really toying with Cell before finishing him off, exactly how Cell likes to do it.
I Luv Halloween. After Mr. Kitty and Finch set a man's wife on fire, the man goes on a vicious rampage to hunt the evil, little trick-or-treaters down. He endures being attacked and bitten by a handful of zombies and set on fire until finally falling.
In chapter 392 Bleach, Hitsugaya fits this trope particularly well. He confronts Aizen for the first time since the latter's defection from the Soul Society, telling him that swinging a blade in pure anger is just violence, not as a duty of a captain and that Aizen could not call that a true fight; when Aizen then asks Hitsugaya if his hatred had vanished since Hinamori, Hitsugaya's childhood friend and Aizen's former lieutenant, was alive after Aizen had stabbed her, Hitsugaya tells Aizen he did not come here to merely fight him, but to do violence to him. Things take a rather nasty turn for him in chapter 392, after Aizen sets up an illusion to fool Hitsugaya into thinking that he's stabbed Aizen, when in reality, he's stabbed Hinamori. If the face Hitsugaya makes upon realizing what's happened does not scream roaring rampage of revenge, I don't know what will.
In chapter 477 Tsukishima goes on one, when he thought Ginjou had died. He attacks Ichigo and Rukia not with the intent to Mind Rape them as usual but with the intent to kill. And screams at Riruka to "MOVE!!!" when she protects them, which is a stark contrast to his normally calm and composed manner.
And let's not forget how Yumichika went absolutely nuts when he thought Ikkaku had been killed, threatened Hisagi when he wouldn't let him run to Ikkaku's aid, and eventually had to be knocked out by Kira.
In spite of all the different reasons the characters in Rave Master give, in the end Lucia's actions are really just him lashing out at the world as a whole for making his childhood a living hell.
In the 7th Hellsing OVA Zorin has just severely wounded Seras and killed Pip. To add insult to injury she then refers to the dead Pip as a mere insect. Cue Seras completely losing her shit and slaughtering Zorin's army and Zorin herself.
Chiba of Wolf Guy - Wolfen Crest does this upon coming back to life by going after Haguro for brutally raping and murdering him.
Also deliberately invoked when Haguro manipulates the younger Kuroda into going Columbine on half the student body out of vengeance against Inugami for his brother's death. Using weapons from his family gun cellar. The kicker? His brother died because HAGURO pulled his life-support.
Akumetsu: Most everything was a result of Shou responding to Katsuragi's death. Additionally, his retaliation when his teacher is shot in the 3-B incident.
Neon Genesis Evangelion: Gendo does a Shoot the Dog moment when faced with the 13th Angel, Bardiel, who had just taken control of the Eva Unit 03 moments before the first test was supposed to start. When Shinji refused to destroy the Angel (and the Eva with it) due to the risk of injuring the Eva's pilot, Gendo takes control of the situation and takes Eva Unit 01 from Shinji's control, using a backup system to do the deed. Needless to say, Shinji isn't happy, and attempts a Roaring Rampage of Revenge... before being stopped by Gendo himself.
This goes down differently, and more true to the trope, in Rebuild of Evangelion, where rather than being locked into the launch cage and threatening to escape (how the hell did they get an Evangelion which was actively about to go on a destructive rampage into a launch cage?) Shinji is next seen stomping a mudhole into the top of the Geofront with Unit 01. As before, Gendo increases the pressure of the LCL and the rampage is stopped short. However, later on, when Rei Ayanami/Unit 00 is devoured by Zeruel (the devouring only happens in the movie, but otherwise is quite similar), Shinji gets in Unit 01 again. Unit 01 comes to a stop while working its way through Zeruel, out of power, and this is where the true road cone of the series starts. In the series, Shinji devolves into a sobbing heap, and Unit 01 goes berserk on its own, eventually devouring the Angel in the process. In Rebuild, Shinji growls out furiously, "Give Ayanami back." And those words Unit 01 stands back up, now beginning the process of starting Third Impact - and the process of stomping Zeruel flat. Long story short. Do not, ever, make Shinji want vengeance.
It's implied that Misato is doing this as well: she always hated her father but when he gave his life to save her during Second Impact, she went on to discover what really happened. Upon finding out that the Angels were responsible, she joined NERV and is now ruthlessly manipulating Shinji into exterminating the Angels for her. Of course she denied it when Ritsuko accused her of it, but seriously - she freakin' offered her body to a boy half her age as an incentive to make him keep risking his own life for her. True, she hates herself for it - but then she does it again in End of Evangelion, minutes before dying.
Giriko from Soul Eater goes on one against Soul and Maka following Arachne's death.
When his friend Kimishima dies Kazuma of S-Cry-ed flips his lid, finding the nearest HOLY unit and totally decimating it.
When Kodai finally gets his claws on Zorua, the little guy's mother Zoroark finally has enough and proceeds to tear her way out of her prison (a steel-encased metal cage that severely shocks her whenever she touches it and to that point was unable to break out of) and go one one of these. She is delayed by a misunderstanding with the town's guardian Olympus Mons (though this is part of the reason she fought three Legendary Pokémon to a standstill), but once it's settled, she proceeds to one-shot The Dragon and his Pokémon, then moves on to hunt down Kodai and, while she doesn't actually physically hurt him, sets up his humiliating defeat and reclaims her baby. And he was likely quite lucky the cops got to him before she could.
In the manga version, she actually kills Kodai by making him fall off the top of the stadium to his Disney Villain Death.
In Holyland, Yuu goes on one of these after Shinichi is attacked by Sawako gang members.
In Katanagatari after Togame dies in Shichika's arms the main protagonist proceeds to climb a pagoda to the Shogun and destroy every weapon he had spent the last year collecting a long with most of the poor saps who were using them at the time, in what can only amount to a series of consecutive Curb Stomp Battles leading up to the inevitable confrontation with The Dragon who killed Togame previously in which the only damage that was inflicted was the damage Shichika allowed. Did I mention this guy was fighting them all unarmed?
Hakkai from Saiyuki massacred at least 1,000 demons plus an entire village of humans because some of the demons kidnapped and raped his sister/lover and because the rest didn't stop the poor girl's kidnapping for fear that the demons would target their family members instead.
Gantz - Hiroto Sakurai goes absolutely ballistic once he found his girlfriend, Tonkotsu, dead during the latest arc. In a total berserk state, he decides to dish out ultimate pain on the invading aliens (who are, easily, 30 times his size) by blowing their brains up with his psychic powers of mass murder, not sparing a single one. Not even children or elderly. And he's still at it. I certainly wouldn't want to cross in this guy's way.
Shizuo: You aimed for my head. You've got to know that a blow like that can kill a guy, right? That means you were deliberately trying to kill me, right? That means whatever happens next...IS WHAT YOU DESERVE, RIGHT?
Azumanga Daioh: When Yomi manages to eat curry noodles without splattering it all over herself, Tomo is pushed over the top and goes on a rampage in the lunchroom with tears in her eyes until she accidentally hits Yukari. Yukari's subsequent reaction must be seen to be believed.
In A Certain Scientific Railgun, Misaka Mikoto has just met her clone for the first time, and evidence is piling up that she is about to participate in an experiment that will end in her death. She goes to the designated spot and watches Accelerator brutally murder the clone. When trying to kill him doesn't work, she destroys thirty research laboratories in three days to try and stop the program.
[in flashback]Kuroko: What would you do if a clone of yours appeared before you? Mikoto: Ah, that would freak me out. I think I would wish it would just disappear. [present]:[Mikoto goes ballistic on Accelerator]
Ubel Blatt is basically the story of Koinzel's against the "Seven Heros" for giving up on a quest to save the Empire, and then killing him and three others who finished it, simply so they could claim the glory while naming those that did complete it the "Four Lances of Betrayal"
Doflamingo pretty much lost it after Law gave him a Sadistic Choice, slaughtering G-5 Marines and handing Smoker a No-Holds-Barred Beatdown that would've killed him if it hadn't been for Aokiji, all while demanding the heads of the Straw Hat Pirates and Law. While for the most part he's calmed down, there's still shades of it. He explicitly states to Law that he wants to take his head, and is more easily angered, especially when things don't go his way.
Subverted in Sword Art Online, episode 14. When Asuna makes her Heroic Sacrifice to save Kirito by diving in front of Heathcliff's weapon and she dies in his arms, Kirito takes up her sword to use as his new off-hand weapon and rises to his feet with every expectation that he's about to get revenge. Then he swings, slowly, weakly, uselessly in Heathcliff's general direction, a completely broken man. With Asuna's death there was no fight left in him.
In Kamisama Kiss Tomoe goes on one of these every time someone hurts or, especially, kidnaps Nanami.
In Legend of Galactic Heroes, Julian, upon discovering that Yang Wen-li was assassinated by Terraists who infiltrated into Yang's cruiser, went on a roaring rampage and killing any Terraists he encountered within the cruiser (with a battleaxe, no less) and had to be stopped by Louis Machungo. He slipped again when he encountered Archbishop De Villiers, the mastermind of the assassination, and ended up blasting him with more shots than necessary to kill him.
Notably averted by Levi in Attack on Titan after his personal squad is killed by the Female Titan. While it becomes the closest we see to him showing major emotions, he still keeps a realistic grasp on the situation, noting that it is more important to rescue Eren than killing the Female Titan. He delivered an epic beatdown regardless.
Also deconstructed with Eren and his squad's attempt to avenge a fallen ally. The squad is killed and Eren ended up getting eaten to save Armin, though he does come back.
Fist of the North Star - Despite trying to follow his teachings and turn the cheek against the other school, Kenshiro is beaten, left for dead, and has his true love Yuria stolen from him. There's a number of different versions of what happens next, depending on whether you're watching the OVA, the US series, the original Japanese series, or the manga. All of them qualify for this trope, as Kenshiro proceeds to fill a medium sized continent with body parts from his rampage.