In Pani Poni Dash!, Akane Serizawa, in her "Roboko" disguise, claims to have been created by the United States Defense Department of Defense.
Gintama: "It takes a space captain to be a space captain."
The Neo Armstrong Cyclone Jet Armstrong Cannon.
In Strike Witches, Barkhorn tries to get Hartmann out of bed in one episode. The gist of her speech is that for a soldier of Karlsland, discipline comes first. And second. And third. She gets up to ninth, at which point Hartmann sleepily asks, "What's tenth?"
Axis Powers Hetalia: America goes around the world, asking everyone how they lose weight. Germany replies, "First is exercise! Second is exercise! Third is beer. And fourth and fifth are exercise!"
Italy describes his preparations for becoming Germany's ally, which involves a suitcase full of "pasta, ingredients for pasta, wine, pasta, fruits, and then, pasta!"
From Remote Island Syndrome, Kyon asks Haruhi what they will be doing on their field trip and Haruhi answers by saying that they will have a field trip. Kyon's reaction: "What? Going on a field trip for the purpose of experiencing a field trip?"
Yu-Gi-Oh! GX had a card called "Entry Forbidden, No Entry!!" The English dub went with "No Entry!!", which is a lot better.
This became common practice, with cards like "Mirai Yuugou - Future Fusion" (Future Fusion - Future Fusion) or "Tamashii no Kyouyuu - Common Soul" (which is a bit better: Soul Share - Common Soul).
It makes a lot more sense in Japanese since one line is Japanese and the other is English/romaji. Why even bother putting the English line? Apparently, in Japan, randomly throwing in English words makes it seem cool and exotic?.
The Singaporean English dub of Yu-Gi-Oh! had a line where Marik talks to Yugi through a mind controlled Pandora/Arcana, and says: "I control their mind and senses, and see and hear what they see and hear. I can see and hear you from here."
The English dub of the show uses the same few phrases numerous times, and LittleKuriboh makes fun of that in a video.
One of the most recent Synchro monsters in Yu-Gi-Oh! 5Ds has the Japanese name of "Chaos Goddess - Goddess of Chaos." The English card simply calls it "Chaos Goddess."
Justified, as the Japanese name has the first Chaos Goddess written in Gratuitous English.
Dragon Ball's Master Roshi somewhat falls under this trope. Roshi can be translated as "Venerable Master", meaning a stricter translation of his name yields "Master Venerable Master".
The same goes for the technique "Kamehameha". Its English translation is "Turtle Destruction Wave". In FUNimation's first English dub of Dragon Ball Z, it is sometimes referred to as the "Kamehameha Wave". So the characters are saying "Turtle Destruction Wave Wave".
Episode 17 of Initial D: First Stage is titled "Sudden-Death Death Match".
In an early episode of the Fist of the North Star anime, Mad Sarge tells his troops that "God's Army is the army of God." This is because in the Japanese version, the "God's Army" part was said in English and therefore needed an explanation in Japanese.
Some fansubs translate on-screen text with their own superimposed text, and if a character is reading the text, they also subtitle it, even if that means writing (and reading) the exact same thing twice. Episode titles and "Turn your lights on and watch us from afar" disclaimers are particularly prone to this.
Similarly, Martian Successor Nadesico had a scene in which characters were speaking English and had subtitles translating their words into Japanese. The English release of the series translated the subtitles.
The 80s dub of Captain Harlock gave us this gem, "Their tissues are made of paper, that's why they burn...like paper."
From the Pokémon dub: "We are a band of Diglett thieves known as the band of Diglett thieves."
In GaoGaiGar, the Eleventh Hour Super Power, who was named as The Power in English, even in the Japanese version. So, when they mention this in translated version, it becomes sometimes as The Power of... The Power.
Lynn Minmay: You were always a friend to me, Hikaru. So I always thought of you... as a friend.
Fullmetal Alchemist: The Führer (meaning "leader" in German) of Amestris, effectively the president and prime minister is named King Bradley. He was given this name after a massive government conspiracy chose him for the position.
In Japan, the title of the anime known in English-speaking countries as Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood is an example in and of itself. That title in Japanese is "Hagane no Renkinjutsushi Fullmetal Alchemist", which effectively translates as "Fullmetal Alchemist Fullmetal Alchemist".
The novelist that Cocoa meets in episode 6 of Gochuumon wa Usagi desu ka? says her pen name is "Aoyama Blue Mountain". Aoyama in Japanese means "Blue mountain".
The credits for the animated series of Attack on Titan inform the viewer that Attack on Titan was produced by the Attack on Titan production committee.