Warning: these recaps are a bonanza of uncensored spoilers. Official policy states that no spoiler tags should exist on recap pages. Read at your own risk.
Season One (April 17th, 2011 through June 19th, 2011)The first season of Game of Thrones is based off Book One of the fantasy novel series A Song of Ice and Fire. The book title, A Game of Thrones, is being used as the overarcing title for the whole TV series. The first season consists of ten episodes, written by the show creators, David Benioff and D.B. Weiss, as well as Jane Espenson, Bryan Cogman and the author of the novels himself, George RR Martin.
Season Two (April 1, 2012 through June 3, 2012)The series was renewed for a second season only a few days after the premiere of the first episode. The season is based off of Book Two, A Clash of Kings. David Benioff and D.B. Weiss continued to write most of the episodes, with George R.R. Martin writing one episode as well (#9, entitled "Blackwater"). There are ten episodes.
Season Three (March 31, 2013 through June 9, 2013)The show's ratings actually improved in season two, so that a third ten episode season was quickly greenlit. As the third book, A Storm of Swords is too long to properly fit into that time (having a similar word count to the entirety of The Lord of the Rings), and the ambitious scope of the series precludes making more within a year, Season Three will not contain the entirety of the third book. George R.R. Martin wrote episode #7, "The Bear and the Maiden Fair." Though it should be noted that the writing credits for this season aren't exactly accurate, as many scenes got swapped between episodes.
Season Four (2014)The ratings exploded in season three, setting a new record with almost every episode, so naturally a fourth season was quickly approved. It will cover the remainder of A Storm of Swords, and possibly dip into the early parts of books four and five, A Feast for Crows and A Dance with Dragons, which take place simultaneously. George R.R. Martin wrote episode #2, "The Lion and the Rose."