[[quoteright:280:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/war_of_the_worlds_1938_radio_panic.jpg]]

A 60-minute radio drama that is the most famous (infamous?) broadcast in the history of American radio.

When Creator/OrsonWelles needed to come up with a HalloweenEpisode for the October 30, 1938 broadcast of his Creator/{{CBS}} radio program ''Radio/TheMercuryTheatreOnTheAir'', he decided to adapt Creator/HGWells' 1898 novel ''Literature/TheWarOfTheWorlds'' to a contemporary American setting. Rather than staging a regular radio play like all of the previous ''Mercury Theatre'' broadcasts, for this episode the program aired what seemed like a regular night of music, until reports came over the air of strange phenomena on the surface of Mars and what seem to be meteorites landing in locations across America...

By the time large alien tripods emerged from the cylindrical meteorite and began destroying the American countryside, many listeners believed that a bona fide AlienInvasion was taking place, and a nationwide panic ensued. Or so the UrbanLegends say, at least. Later research indicates there was little to no actual panic and the [[http://mssv.net/realityart/wotwemails.html breathless reports that ran in the next day's newspapers]] were an attempt by said newspapers both to sell more papers and discredit radio--see NewMediaAreEvil below. However, the story's more complex than that. What people believed and continue to believe ''about'' the broadcast is as important as the fact that people believed the broadcast itself. The legend of this program has become part of American folklore.

The broadcast has been re-created several times: [[http://www.war-ofthe-worlds.co.uk/war_worlds_quito.htm in 1949 in Quito, Ecuador]] by director Leonardo Páez, in [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-oTTyGOkIg an updated version by WKBW]] in Buffalo, New York in 1968 and [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXTEUM4OF7Q WKBW again in 1971]]; a 50th anniversary edition by Creator/{{NPR}} [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wIeYnoutthU in 1998]], and a 2008 [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xjF0KVDdMuo revival]] with a nearly all-''Franchise/StarTrek'' cast including Creator/LeonardNimoy as Prof. Pierson and Gates [=McFadden=] as [[GenderFlip reporter Carla Phillips]].

The incident was dramatized in "The Night America Trembled", a 1957 episode of ''Westinghouse Studio One'', and ''The Night That Panicked America'', a 1975 MadeForTVMovie co-starring Creator/JohnRitter; and touched upon in feature films like ''Film/RadioDays'' (1987) by Creator/WoodyAllen. Two episodes of Music/{{Negativland}}'s weekly KPFA radio happening ''Over the Edge'', helmed by master culture jammer Don Joyce, focused on the program as an example of "[[https://archive.org/details/OTE_20060518_How_Radio_Was_Done_3_-_WOTWW How Radio Was Done]]" (2006) and a 1999 examination of how we discern [[https://archive.org/details/OTE_19990200_True_and_False true from false]] information in modern life. It was analyzed in a [[http://www.radiolab.org/story/91622-war-of-the-worlds/ hysterically funny episode]] of NPR's ''Radiolab'' in 2008, talking about the power of mass media and humanity's need for storytelling. The historical events and situations that set up this incident are described in PBS' 2013 ''American Experience'' episode "[[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1iLFp6XyPY The War of the Worlds]]". There's more in A. Brad Schwartz's 2015 book ''Broadcast Hysteria: Orson Welles' War of the Worlds & the Art of Fake News''.

This incredibly innovative broadcast is the TropeMaker for DeadlineNews, PhonyNewscast, ThisJustIn, WeAreExperiencingTechnicalDifficulties, and WeInterruptThisProgram.

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!!Tropes:

* AdaptationalBadass: The Martians, despite going up against more contemporary military technology (United States National Guardsmen equipped with [[GasMaskMooks gas masks]] and [[GatlingGood machine-guns]], military airplanes, etc.), manage to prove much more durable and threatening than in the original novel, and ''without'' having the force-fields they are depicted with in later film adaptations.
** For example, only ''one'' fighting-machine is brought down in combat [[hottip:*:In the book, one is gunned down by artillery fire, and two or three others are destroyed by a warship]], and it took an artillery barrage ''and'' a bomber plane [[HeroicSacrifice crashing into it]] to eliminate it. Also, the Black Smoke is deployed ''before'' said machine is destroyed, and it's shown to render gas masks ''useless''. And the real kicker is that the very first fighting-machine deployed by the Martians was pitted ''alone'' against an army of 7,000 National Guardsmen that were all using rifles and machine-guns, and left only ''120'' known survivors.
* AfterTheEnd: The last third of the one-hour show quits the PhonyNewscast format, and follows Pierson as he writes in his journal about his harrowing trip from Grover's Mill to New York City. He sees one living person the whole way.
* AndNowForSomethingCompletelyDifferent: About forty minutes in, the narrative changes completely to the aforementioned professor writing in his journal, and then briefly follows the professor and a stranger discussing Martian theories before returning to the journal again.
* AudioAdaptation: Of the famous novel.
* BattleDiscretionShot: When the first of the Martian fighting-machines rises from the cylinder, the radio feed from the National Guard stationed at Grover's Mill is conveniently cut short ''right before'' the soldiers open fire on the machine, and we are instead treated with a report on the aftermath of what turned out to be a CurbStompBattle (that the ''Martian'' won) from the CBS studio.
* CirclingVultures: They draw Pierson's attention to the corpses of the Martian invaders, lying around an abandoned New York after the Martians died from Earth-bound microbes.
* CommercialBreakCliffhanger: Averted. As ''The Mercury Theatre of the Air'' didn't have a sponsor, there didn't need to be a break in the program for advertisements; this helped keep up the {{Kayfabe}} of the broadcast. The only break acts as a transition between the faux-radio program and Pierson's AfterTheEnd narration.
* ContrivedCoincidence: Phillips the news correspondent conducts an interview with Professor Pierson live on the air, discussing the mysterious gas explosions on Mars. Then objects are observed to be falling from the sky and landing in rural New Jersey--just a few miles from the observatory, conveniently allowing Pierson and Phillips to go there and report.
* DeadlineNews:
** Carl Phillips, reporting live from Grover's Mill, is burned to death mid-sentence by a Martian heat ray.
** The reporter in New York narrates the advance of the Martian tripods until he is killed by their poison gas. The broadcast goes to dead air, then one voice comes on, repeatedly asking if anyone is out there.
* DecoyProtagonist: At first, Carl Phillips the news reporter appears to be this story's counterpart to the unnamed protagonist of the novel, with Professor Pierson the astronomer being the [[SacrificialLamb Ogilvy]] stand-in. Then it gets subverted, when Carl Phillips is found incinerated by the Martians' Heat-Ray, and Pierson fills the role of protagonist after being shown to survive the attack.
* EmergencyPresidentialAddress: Averted by ExecutiveMeddling. It was originally intended for the unnamed Secretary of the Interior[[note]](It would have been Harold Ickes, who really [[https://youtu.be/G2Tk87amlxQ?t=1m29s didn't sound much like Roosevelt]].[[/note]] to be President UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt, but CBS objected to this detail. That didn't stop Welles from having the actor imitate Roosevelt's voice.
* EverybodysDeadDave: In the radio drama, large numbers of people are killed, either by heat rays or poison gas spewed from the alien spaceships. Several "field reporters" make note of this fact before they, too, succumb to the imminent danger. After a cutaway where a reporter describes millions of fleeing New Yorkers dying en masse falling victim to gas clouds or falling into the Hudson River to commit suicide a ham radio operator desperately calls out, "2X2L calling CQ. Isn't there anyone on the air? Isn't there anyone on the air?! Isn't there ... anyone???!!!"
* FaceDeathWithDignity: The radio reporter in New York[[note]]played by ''PerryMason'''s Ray Collins[[/note]], who narrates the advance of the Martian tripods into the city, knowing perfectly well he's going to die. ("This is the end, now.")
* {{Foreshadowing}}: The opening narration, adapted from the beginning of the novel, muses on how we were watched by the Martians as we might watch "the transient creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water". In the end it is those creatures that destroy the Martians.
* FoundFootage: A UrExample and perhaps the only radio version of this trope.
* HorrorDoesntSettleForSimpleTuesday: The supposed Martian invasion begins on the night before Halloween.
* {{Kayfabe}}: Welles was concerned that ''War of the Worlds'' was such a well-known antique that bored audiences would tune out, so he repeatedly emphasized realistic portrayals and the "radio news" format. He was mostly occupied with the theatrical play he was putting on at the same time, so left it to the cast and crew to do the WorldBuilding necessary to make it fully believable.
* KilledMidSentence: The at-the-scene radio reporter, Carl Phillips. Or, at least, the on-site radio equipment is destroyed while he's in mid sentence. (His charred remains are later identified.)
--> [describing the Martian death ray] "...coming this way, about twenty yards from my ri--"
** The pilot who crashes his plane into a Martian tripod has his transmission cut off mid-sentence as well.
* LargeHam: Welles' opening narration is ''very'' hammy. He is more restrained when performing as Professor Pierson within the program.
* MoodWhiplash: Terrifying reports of Martian spaceships landing on Earth? We'll get back to that in a second, but first, here's Ramon Raquello and his orchestra!
* NarratingTheObvious: This trope, usually nigh-unavoidable in radio drama, is here justified InUniverse. Usually in an audio play characters have to explicate things that they are seeing for the benefit of the audience. Thanks to the decision to stage this show as a PhonyNewscast, and a reading from Pierson's journal in Act Three, the characters are already narrating the action, which makes the whole broadcast sound more natural.
* NewMediaAreEvil: It seems that newspapers ([[http://books.google.ca/books?id=GeWm-zM3NEoC&lpg=PP1&dq=Little+Green+Men,+Meowing+Nuns+and+Head-Hunting+Panics:&pg=PA219&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false embellished the facts to make radio look bad]]).[[note]]Embellishing the facts just to sell papers was typical, especially for Hearst papers. They used huge scare headlines and lurid, often grossly exaggerated, tabloid-like narratives. This caused rumors which then spread to other papers and radio news.[[/note]] Latter-day research has found that the number of people who were taken in by the faux-news format [[http://www.csicop.org/sb/show/shootout_with_martians_in_the_wake_of_the_1938_broadcast_panic wasn't as high as previously thought]]. And [[https://www.amazon.com/Broadcast-Hysteria-Orson-Welless-Worlds-ebook/dp/B00OFID7TE/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr= those who did believe it mostly reacted rationally]]. The "mass panic" reported in the press, with thousands fleeing the city, simply didn't occur, although some individual incidents -- like the woman who ran into the Indianapolis church to announce the "end of the world"[[note]]This happened in several other cities as well.[[/note]] -- were verified. Letters and telegrams have been found from people who had indeed believed it, many ''congratulating'' Welles on his ingenuity. To sum up, about six million people listened, and about a million of them, however briefly, believed it was real.
* PeopleFarms: The rather unhinged militia veteran that Pierson meets in Newark--the only living person he finds between Grover's Mill and New York City--anticipates that the good folks of soft middle-class America will submit themselves to the Martians and live on people farms.
* PhonyNewscast: UrExample, TropeMaker. This is the format for the first two-thirds of the show, as a program of dance music is interrupted by increasingly urgent news reports about gas explosions on Mars and mysterious objects plummeting to Earth in New Jersey. See WeInterruptThisProgram below.
* RealTime: For roughly the first third of the program, up to the death of reporter Phillips, as radio bulletins break the news of the Martian invasion. Even before the PhonyNewscast portion of the show ends, the RealTime part is basically abandoned, as the show skips ahead to military confrontations with the Martians and the Martian advance on New York.
* SettingUpdate: Welles moved the setting of the story from H.G. Wells's Victorian England to the United States of TheThirties.
* SparedByTheAdaptation: Pierson, the Ogilvy {{Expy}}, survives the invasion, unlike his novel counterpart.
* SwitchingPOV: The first part is comprised of various reports and interviews from different people. The last part follows a lone professor.
* ThisJustIn: The studio begins to overflow with reports of the Martian walkers arriving and destroying power lines and transport routes.
* ToServeMan: At least part of the reason the Martians invaded is, apparently, to eat people.
--> '''Pierson''': I've seen the Martians...feed.
* WeAreExperiencingTechnicalDifficulties: After Phillips's broadcast is cut off by him being burned up by the heat ray.
* WeInterruptThisProgram: The first ten minutes of the show involves "Ramon Raquello and His Orchestra" playing Thirties dance music, with the plot occasionally interrupting to provide breaking news. Later on it changes to piano music by Debussy, in a textbook example of classical music on radio being shorthand for world-threatening disaster.
** This is one reason so many people ''did'' believe it. UsefulNotes/WorldWarI and its gas warfare was fresh in their memories, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII was brewing in Europe; America was primed for possible attacks or invasion. Regular programming experienced constant interruptions by news bulletins about Hitler's conquests. Sometimes one bulletin would be interrupted by another! So they heard "Martians", but thought it was really Nazis making it ''look'' like a Martian attack.