Basic Trope: An officer believes The Hero is the bad guy and goes after him ruthlessly.
Straight: Detective Bob believes Alice, who has been framed, is a thief and does everything in his power to arrest her.
Exaggerated: Bob mistakes a ketchup stain on Alice's shirt for blood and attempts to arrest her for murder.
Downplayed: Bob, a truant officer, goes after Alice whom he believes is skipping school, but has graduated school years ago.
Justified: The hero is framed for all the shit, but without evidence, Bob is right in trying to apprehend her.
Inverted: Alice believes that Detective Bob is actually the villain in disguise and tries to capture him.
Bob is after Alice, who claims to have been framed, but turns out, was lying and did commit the crime.
Bob knows that Alice is innocent but continues to pursue her, because he committed the crime and needs a pasty to pin it on.
Double Subverted: But that was not the crime Bob is after Alice for.
Parodied: Alice is a completely innocent woman, but through a series of coincidences and misunderstandings, Bob accuses Alice of several crimes, and her every attempt to prove her innocence only makes things worse.
Sometimes, Detective Bob accuses Alice of a crime. Sometimes, he does not.
Detective Bob accuses Alice of a crime. Sometimes she is innocent, sometimes she isn't.
Averted: Alice really is guilty of the crime Bob accuses her of.
Enforced: "Enough of this Black and White Morality! Let's make the antagonist an honest cop who sincerely believes the hero is a bad guy."
Lampshaded: "Don't the police have anything better to do?"
Defied: Statutes of limitations say that Alice can't be arrested for her alleged crime after a few years, so Bob drops the case.
Deconstructed: After Bob has arrested Alice, evidence of Alice's innocence pop up, and Bob is fired for his inability to spot this evidence before.
Reconstructed: This becomes a Career Building Blunder and Bob later arrests the true villain by spotting similar evidence.
Played For Drama: Bob is so obsessed with proving Alice Guilty that he neglects and possibly loses his family in his quest to do so.