The Discovery Channel Mini SeriesDragons: A Fantasy Made Real is a Mockumentary all about how dragons could be scientifically possible. There are four types of dragons covered: Prehistoric Dragons, Marine Dragons (Sea Monsters), Forest Dragons (Chinese Dragons), and Mountain Dragons (European Dragons). There are also "Desert Dragon" shown but it was never elaborated upon.
Along those same lines, Sci-Fi's Beast Legends makes a dragon from a mix of real animal parts, and ends up with a creature resembling the Kaiju Varan about the size of a bull.
In the tv series version of The Dresden Files a dragon appears in one episode and it's strongly hinted that a member of the White Council is one in human disguise.
Farscape had Budongs. Giant space dragons which would occasionally eat passing spaceships and were a real threat to interstellar travel. Dead Budongs were inhabited by mining colonies.
In Game of Thrones, as in its source material, dragons are unintelligent (though they have high animal intelligence), fire-breathing, egg-laying wyverns who don't talk, with the main pecularity being that they are a hermaphroditic One-Gender Race. They also have a strong link to magic (though the cause-effect relationship is still unclear). Given enough food and space they grow continuously with most able to carry human riders and some large enough to "swallow a horse whole." They also possess a strong imprinting instinct and eat only cooked meat. They are the Westeros' version of nuclear weapons, as they are essentially weapons of mass destruction and one who controls the dragons can/will control the 7 Kingdoms.
The Dämonfeuer is a dragon Wesen in Grimm. Also the only Wesen that can spit fire.
Kamen Rider has had four dragon-featuring seasons so far:
Kamen Rider Agito is a Chinese dragon based humanoid and the show implies that humans will become like Agito.
Kamen Rider Kiva has Tatuslot as Kiva's power-up, Castle Doran and his chibi power-up, and Kiva's own Flight Style form.
And Kamen Rider Wizard has an evil dragon monster sealed within him, serving as the source of his powers.
In Lost Tapes a "Dragon" appears, but as a variant of the Real Life Komodo Dragon that was thought to be extinct: the Megalania. It eats a Survivorman wannabe.
In Knightmare there seem to be three different types of Western style dragons, based on color. The smallest and weakest are blue and are never actually seen, just mentioned. Greens are the friendliest (in the sense that they are willing to deal at all with humans). Red dragons are both the most powerful and most wildly destructive.
The (male) dragon lives under the castle in a cave, can talk and knows magic. It can only be controlled by a dragonlord, a people of which Merlin is the last. Dragons are also only born with the help of a dragonlord, who calls them from the egg by naming them.
The episode Eye of the Phoenix has Wyverns. They are a lot smaller and act more like a pack of intelligent, but not sentient, animals. Gwaine mentions that they are distant cousins of the dragons, but it seems wyverns are at least closely related enough that a dragonlord may command them.
Spot, the equivalent of a house pet for the Monster Mash-Creepy FamilyThe Munsters. Spot is a firebreathing dragon, though due to budgetary constrains other than his tail and face, his body is never shown.
Ultraman Gaia's Mizunoenoryu is the God of Water and counterpart of Earth God Tigris in the show's universe, taking the form of a limbless Japanese dragon with a a head on the end of each of its eight tails. Like many of the Earth-dwelling monsters in the show, it's generally not malicious, but wants to be left alone by humans and the alien antagonists.
Also from Gaia is Zorlim, a draconic Eldritch Abomination so vast that Ultraman Gaia could fly inside its mouth. Considered to be a major Knight of Cerebus in the series, but only the monster's head and neck are seen from the giant wormhole the bad guys send it from.
Hailing in the original Ultraman is Dodongo (no relation to the recurring Legend of Zelda foes), who looks like a Chinese dragon combined with Pegasus. However, it's the guardian of a mysterious mummy discovered by the characters, summoned upon its master's death.
Dorako, also from the original series, is a reptilian monster with Hook Hands and insect wings that appears when a comet passes by Earth, having implied to be a hitchhiker on the comet. Its name is even derived from the Japanese pronunciation of "draco", the Greek word for "dragon".
Ultraman 80 gives us Fire-Draco, a three-headed youkai who, despite his name and evil disposition, is modeled on Japanese dragons. It was defeated by a Shinto priest and had its essence sealed inside a jewel long ago, but the differently colored heads reincarnated as humans to regain their old form — a fire-eater who inherited the red head's flame breath, a strongman who inherited the blue head's strong skull, and the priest's descendant, who is the white head and Token Good Teammate.
"Different" doesn't really begin to cover the titular character in H.R. Pufnstuf.
An episode of Sliders has the heroes slide into a world where magic is possible (much to Professor Arturo's chagrin). The villain in the episode is an Evil Sorcerer who had the Mallory Clan wiped out due to a prophecy that he will be killed by a Mallory. During the climax, he turns into a dragon (not much larger than a human) and starts spitting fireballs at heroes. Rembrandt tries to grab the only sword capable of slaying him/it but can't move it. The sorcerer's student explains that only a Mallory can take the sword. Cue Quinn grabbing the sword and stabbing the dragon/sorcerer.
Special Unit 2 references European and Asiatic dragons, and prominently features a "Native American" dragon. However, it acts like (and vaguely resembles) the stereotypical European portrayal in terms of behavior, is armored like a Tank and has a taste for gnomes.
One season 10 episode of Stargate SG-1 had a dragon attack the motley crew (SG-1, Ba'al, and Adria) searching for Merlin's anti-ascended being weapon. This dragon was actually a sophisticated technological illusion; beating it required Daniel yelling its creator's name at it.
Supernatural's budget constraints gave us dragons that could shift between human and dragon forms, and apparently they prefer to be in human form most of the time. Naturally they have heat-based powers, which they use to french fry their victims. They can only be killed by swords forged in Dragonblood, and they work for the progenitor of all monsters, Eve.