Osiris, followed by his two sons, Anubis and Horus.
The Ancient Egyptians had quite a lot of deities, many of whom have "turned up" in fiction, especially as Ancient Aliens. They show up in The Bible book of Exodus, most of which takes place in ancient Egypt. note Most of the early story involves the Hebrew god and the Egyptian gods trying to show each other up with bigger or mutually-exclusive miracles... guess who wins?As with many other mythologies around the world there are different versions of many Egyptian myths, which results in a highly confusing mythology. Ancient Egyptian History is reflected in the history of Egypt's gods. Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt.note That is, the kingdom in the South, which had a higher elevation and was upstream on the Nile, conquered the one in the North. When the formerly-two kingdoms started to merge the pantheons into one things became a mess. Some deities were merged, renamed, or outright changed to try to keep the newly united kingdom's religion straight.And of course, Egyptian Mythology contains the Older Than Dirt examples of many a trope. See the character sheet for a listing of the major gods and associated tropes.
Action Girl: Many of the goddesses became one, particularly Isis, Sekhmet, and Hathor.
Adaptational Villainy: Set, although an ambiguous deity in the earliest version of his myths, was worshipped like the other gods and protected Ra from Apep. After the division of Egypt, he became a God of Evil in the Lower Kingdom and even more so after the Hyksos invasion.
Badass: Seth and Hathor qualify, as they are the only deities able to overcome the chaos demons.
Badass Bookworm: Thoth. The book of spells he wrote had to be dumped in the deepest part of the Nile, guarded by scorpions and an immortal serpent, and put inside a gold box inside a silver box inside an ebony/ivory box inside a wooden box inside a bronze box inside an iron box. The person who recovered it turned into a living god until Thoth wiped him out. He also plays a major role in pretty much every major variant of Egyptian mythology, with him even having hand in creating the universe in some of them. Also, said book was made from Emerald...
Bitch in Sheep's Clothing: Even though she still is a benevolent goddess, Isis convinced Ra to tell her his secret name by poisoning him. She's also well known to be clever and deceptive. Hathor is also an example due to her Ax-Crazy alter ego Sekhmet.
If a dead person's heart is heavier than Ma'at's feather, it's fed to the beast Ammit and the dead person ceases to exist. note The very idea of a cessation of existence was one of the most terrifying things imaginable in ancient Egyptian religion, and even being forgotten after death is a big deal. One of the most common ways to strike at the legacy of a dead Pharaoh was to erase said Pharaoh's name anywhere one could find it, thereby invalidating their existence.
Also the punishment given to tomb robbers. A convicted tomb robber would be executed, their body left out in the desert for scavengers, and their name utterly erased from everywhere. In the Ancient Egyptian religious system, this meant that their soul was annihilated.
Continuity Snarl: Best describes the contradictory nature of Egyptian mythology. Ancient Egyptian culture spans more than half of written history, and suffered repeated massive breakdowns and invasions/occupations. It is inevitable that things got a bit wonky.
Anubis as well, being portrayed as a black jackal.
A Date with Rosie Palms: That is one version of how Atum created Shu and Tefnut (the other is by spitting). Some versions have it as both. It wasn't really a date with Rosie Palms, so much as a date with... his own mouth. Although some myths have him dating both simultaneously, leading Egyptian priests to argue over whether his hand or his mouth was the first female.
Depending on the Writer: There was little uniformity in Egyptian mythology, and several different versions of the legends and tales of the gods. The most prominent example is the backstory of Anubis. Originally he was just another of Ra's spontaneously birthed children. Then he became the son of Set and Nepthys. Then later myths tried to degrade Set by implying he was impotent, so Anubis became the secret child of Nepthys and Osiris. Who said soap operas weren't high art? This is inevitable, given a very important fact that is quite easily overlooked: What we blithely call "Ancient Egypt" existed for more than half of recorded history.
Destination Host Unreachable: After being murdered by Set, Osiris was resurrected twice but couldn't stay in our world either time. The first time, he died almost immediately after having sex with Isis and impregnating her with Horus. The second time, he was shuffled off to the the underworld to rule over the dead. This wasn't such a bad deal for him, though, as in Egyptian mythology the underworld is a pretty nice place, more akin to heaven than to other mythological underworlds. And Osiris stayed a powerful god and was venerated by the people of Egypt as one of their chief deities.
Set was often in conflict with the other gods, up to killing Osiris and driving Isis and Horus into exile. Horus would eventually return to drive Set off and reclaim Osiris' throne.
Every night Ra had to pass through the underworld and battle the serpent-god Apep (a.k.a. Apophis). Sometimes Apep would eat Ra alive, causing bad weather. If Apep went after Ra during the day, we got a solar eclipse.
Eldritch Abomination: Apep, or Apophis, a gigantic serpent-demon that embodied chaos and darkness. Every night it tried to eat Ra as he passed through the underworld. Prior to the demonization of Set, Apep was considered the ultimate evil. Set's punishment for murdering Osiris is to guard Ra's sun barge from Apophis and kill him twice a day until his punishment is fulfilled.
Evil Counterpart: Apep could be seen as one to Wadjet, as they where both snakes.
A Form You Are Comfortable With: For the most part, the followers of Egyptian Mythology understood that the various forms ascribed to their various gods weren't supposed to be how the gods actually were. Those forms were supposed to be symbolic of concepts and traits found in the gods, with the actual gods themselves being thought to exist as abstract forces.
Furry Fandom: Because they have animal heads, Anubis, Bast and Sekhmet are particularly popular here. Especially Anubis.
God of Evil: Set, though he wasn't always: originally, he was the god of the desert and storms. He was designated as evil after Egypt was invaded by a people who favored him. He even helped Ra fight against Apep the serpent every night (which doesn't change the fact that he ruthlessly killed Osiris). Apep on the other hand was the god of darkness and chaos but is oddly never really used in fiction as much as Set.
Going to Give It More Energy: Sekhmet is let loose (in the form of a lioness) upon a sinful population. She gets out of control and the gods, taking pity on the humans, show them the way to stop her: they exploit her insatiable thirst for blood by flooding a nearby field with blood-red wine (either that or beer dyed red, depending on what version you read). When the crazed goddess passes by on her way to eat more people, she pounced on the lake of "blood" and drank it all. This results in the most severe hangover ever — Sekhmet passes out and wakes up as a cow. This peaceful form of her is named Hathor.
Hell Hound: Egypt was in love with these: Anubis is the most well-known, but there were also Wepwawet, a white wolf war god that got associated with Anubis; Duamutef, a jackal-headed god and one of Horus' children who guards the canopic jars, also has ties with Anubis; Khenti-Amentiu, a jackal god of the dead that's even more ancient than Anubis and Osiris, likely connected to the former; and Sed, a jackal god with a ritual named after him celebrating the anniversary of the current Pharaoh's rule, closely connected to Wepwawet. Oh, and Hermanubis, a Fusion Dance between Anubis and Hermes created after the Greeks invaded.
I Ate WHAT?: During the battle between Horus and Set, Horus does something very naughty over Set's salad at one point...
Kill All Humans: In one myth Ra becomes angry with humanity for disrespecting him, so he turns Hathor into Sekhmet (depending on which version of the myth you're reading) and sends her on a bloody rampage. She nearly wipes humanity out before Ra decides she's overdoing it and sends Thoth to lull her with tales and blood-colored wine. When she becomes drunk she reverts back to Hathor again, and the Egyptians celebrated this every year during the Festival of Hathor by getting really drunk.
Killed Off for Real: Whoever's heart doesn't weigh the same as the Feather of Truth on the scales in the afterlife gets their heart fed to Ammit, after which the person the heart belonged to ceases to exist.
Ammit, the demon that devoured the hearts of the unworthy, was made up of the scariest animals in Egypt: head of a crocodile, body of a lion, hindquarters of a hippo.note Contrary to popular belief, hippopotamuses are in fact very dangerous. They can kill lions.Steve Irwin was recorded as saying that the one time he felt close to death was when he was working with wild hippos. They are very aggressive and responsible for a considerable amount of deaths in Africa each year — something the Ancient Egyptians would have been aware of (their entire civilization being on a river and all...)
Some of the protection gods were also made of the scariest bits of the scariest animals. Made it easier to frighten those evil spirits away.
Never Smile at a Crocodile: Sobek was the crocodile-headed god. He isn't one of the worse gods, actually, but because he represented the flooding of the Nile he could be both benevolent and dangerous.
Off with His Head!: Horus beheads his mother Isis at one point for her intervening in a fight between him and Set.
Omnicidal Maniac: Sekhmet doesn't care who or what you are. If she sees you, you're dead.
Order Versus Chaos: The primary division of the Ancient Egyptian religion was not Good versus Evil, but Order Versus Chaos. The concept of balance, or Ma'at, was the central theme of the whole religion with the Pharaoh as the "Lord of Ma'at". Depending on the version of the story, several gods such as Ra, Osiris, Thoth, Anubis, and Benu were all considered beyond the concepts of good or evil; instead, their main responsibility was to keep the universe from spiraling into chaos.
Our Souls Are Different: The Ancient Egyptians believed that a person's soul was composed of several different aspects:
The Ib, or a person's heart, the seat of their emotions, and of their place in the spectrum of good and evil. When a person died, it was weighed against a feather of Ma'at, and if it was found wanting, it was cast to Ammit, the devourer, and a person experienced complete Cessation of Existence.
The Sheut, or a person's shadow, also translated as their image. Part of the reason why pharaohs had so many statues of themselves made; it was believed that because these statues were of their image, they would partially live on through them. Also, an aspect of worship, as it was believe that the image of a god held an aspect of the god itself, and was thus, divine.
The Ren, or a person's name. Almost all pharaohs and gods utilized many different names for themselves, believing that if no one knew all of them, it was impossible to fully curse and damn the individual's name. Part of the reason Sekhmet was so feared: one of her names was "She Who Knows All Names."
The Ba, or a person's "individuality." Sometimes interpreted as the essential intrinsic "uniqueness" of the person it belonged to, or sometimes, as the person them self. Part of what gave an individual their consciousness in the afterlife.
The Ka, or a person's vital life-force. When a person is born, their Ka is created, and when they die, it is destroyed, and is merged with their Ba to become...
Akh, which has no literal translation that makes sense. It is best described as the magical essence that allows a person to experience the afterlife. Part of the reason for properly maintained tombs, as it was believed that a tomb held the person's Akh, and if it was destroyed, a person could experience "the second death," as mentioned above, Cessation of Existence.
Petting Zoo People: The deities with animal heads and human bodies. Though the Egyptians didn't actually believe those deities had animal heads; the animals symbolized aspects of the deity or were sacred to them, as the ibis to Thoth.
Resurrective Immortality: The Egyptian gods are immortal in this way. Although they are depicted as being killed, and aging, in several myths, they always come back to life. Ra dies each and every evening, and is reborn every morning. Though the evidence isn't entirely clear, it appears that all gods were thought to age, die, and resurrect.
Sadly Mythtaken: This applies to pretty much the whole of Egyptian Mythology. Many works of fiction revolving around Egyptian mythology tend to get the role of Anubis way off. He's usually referred to as "the Lord of the Dead" or as "the God of Death," when that title in fact refers to his father, Osiris. Anubis was a deity whose role revolved around the dead, but he was actually more of a guardian of the dead than the Grim Reaper type figure often shown. More egregiously, he is often, in addition to being referred to as a god akin to Hades from Greek mythology, misconstrued as being an evil or malevolent god, sometimes even serving as the Egpytian stand in for Satan. In reality, the Egyptians considered him to be an all-around pretty cool guy. It should be noted, however, that prior to Osiris' rise in popularity during the Middle Kingdom, Anubis was the primary god of death, and the son of Ra.
Spell My Name with an "S": Most of the names in Ancient Egyptian. Because Egyptians didn't write vowels in their language, Egyptologists generally use an arbitrary transcription where certain vowels (usually "e") are inserted to make pronunciation easier. This results in a god's name being spelled in several different ways, most of which have little to do with how it was pronounced in the actual language. note For example, Anubis's name is variously transliterated as Anpu, Anup, Inpu, or using the Greek name Anubis. His actual name is thought to have been pronounced *Yanāpaw and later *’Anūbə, though it's rare to see the reconstructed names used outside of Kemetic Orthodoxy and other Kemetic groups/solo practices.
Twin Switch: Apparently this is how Anubis was conceived; Nephthys disguised herself as Isis and slept with Osiris. Though after everyone found out Isis and Osiris never seemed to hold it against her. Indeed, Osiris treated Anubis as a second son and co-ruler of the Underworld. Set, however, disowned Anubis.