[[caption-width-right:330:The classic line-up of The Byrds, From left to right: Chris Hillman, [[Music/CrosbyStillsNashAndYoung David Crosby]], Michael Clarke, Roger [=McGuinn=] and Gene Clark.]]

->''To everything - turn, turn, turn.\\
There is a season - turn, turn, turn.\\
And a time to every purpose under heaven.''
-->-- "Turn! Turn! Turn!"

The Byrds were an American band active in TheSixties who were the {{Trope Maker}}s for the genre of [[FolkMusic Folk Rock]] (alongside Music/SimonAndGarfunkel), although they experimented with different genres throughout their career such as PsychedelicRock and CountryMusic. The band was formed initially as a duo comprised of Jim (later Roger) [=McGuinn=] and Gene Clark as guitarists and singers. Third guitarist [[Music/CrosbyStillsNashAndYoung David Crosby]] soon joined up, and the Byrds was born. Drummer Michael Clarke (recruited partly because of his resemblance to [[Music/TheRollingStones Brian Jones]]) and bassist Chris Hillman joined shortly after the formation. Thus, the "classic" Byrds line-up was born. Thanks to their manager Jim Dickson's connections, they got signed to Creator/ColumbiaRecords.

The Byrds' first recording was a cover of the Music/BobDylan song "Mr. Tambourine Man", and established their style. [=McGuinn's=] use of Rickenbacker 12-string guitars with heavy compression resulted in a distinctive, bright sound, which was put in the service of melodic, jangly guitar riffs. Their heavy use of harmony in vocals owed an obvious debt to Music/TheBeatles - all members except Clarke would sing, Crosby inevitably providing high vocals while [=McGuinn=] and Clark would alternatively sing in unison or harmony. "Mr. Tambourine Man" was released as a single and became successful.

The single was followed by two albums, ''Music/MrTambourineMan'' and ''Turn! Turn! Turn'', which relied heavily on {{cover|Version}}s of other songs, generally by Music/BobDylan or traditional folk songs, with original songs mostly contributed by Gene Clark. The latter album also had an EarlyBirdCameo for their future musical direction, as Hillman, whose musical background was more bluegrass/country than the others' folk, convinced the band to cover "Satisfied Mind". However, the band got bored with folk-rock and began to experiment with PsychedelicRock on ''Fifth Dimension'', which provided another hit with the creepy "Eight Miles High".

Clark left the band in 1966 due to his fear of flying (though internal tensions caused by the other band members' resentment of the royalties he made from being the band's primary songwriter aided his decision), reducing the line-up to [=McGuinn=], Crosby, Hillman and Clarke. The new line-up recorded the famous, bitter satire of the music industry "So You Want To Be A Rock 'N' Roll Star", allegedly after being irritated by the success of Music/TheMonkees, and a new album, ''Younger Than Yesterday''. ''Yesterday'' showcased continued experimentation with psychedelia, straight folk-rock, Indian influences and country (largely contributed by Hillman), though the loss of their primary songwriter was somewhat reflected in the uneven and disjointed, genre-hopping quality of the material.

However, intra-band relations deteriorated, in particular between [=McGuinn=], Hillman and Crosby. The former two regarded the latter as an overbearing egotist and JerkAss, a perception not reduced at all by his [[AuthorFilibuster rambling, lengthy and incoherent speeches]] during the band's appearance at the Monterey Pop Festival and his guest appearance playing with Buffalo Springfield (filling in for an absent Music/NeilYoung), which made [=McGuinn=] and Hillman regard him as disloyal. The internal turmoil somehow didn't find its way into ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers'', which contained ethereal songs created through [[NeoclassicalPunkZydecoRockabilly a fusion of psychedelic rock, folk-rock, country and jazz]], with electronic influences also appearing through the adoption of the Moog synthesizer and some of the sci-fi lyrics. The album also showed the band's worsening [[RevolvingDoorBand tendency towards line-up changes]], as Crosby was ejected by [=McGuinn=] and Hillman in October 1967 (the two having actually driven to his house on the occasion to fire him), replaced for three weeks by a returning Clark, who was sacked again afterwards, and Clarke also left during recording in August 1967, upset with his low pay, the material he was working on and periodic arguments with his band-mates, though he also returned briefly towards the end of the album sessions before once again being let go by [=McGuinn=] and Hillman. After being fired, Crosby went on to form the {{Supergroup}} [[Music/CrosbyStillsNashAndYoung Crosby, Stills And Nash]], which Music/NeilYoung later joined.

[=McGuinn=] and Hillman recruited drummer Kevin Kelley (Who was Hillman's cousin) and set out on a college tour in support of the album as a trio, which highlighted the difficulty of reproducing their studio material as a three-piece and led them to seek out a new member. [=McGuinn=] had been planning their next album as a historical overview of 20th century American popular music, so Gram Parsons was brought into the band initially as a keyboardist, but soon moved to guitar. Parsons, a devotee of country music, found common ground with Hillman and managed to persuade [=McGuinn=] that their next album should be an country album instead of his original ConceptAlbum idea, arguing that the stylistic change would broaden the group's audience after the internal turmoil had caused it to decline. This predictably attracted TheyChangedItNowItSucks from Byrds fans and hatred from the Nashville establishment once ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo'' was released. The album, however, has since been VindicatedByHistory as the TropeCodifier, if not the TropeMaker, of Country Rock. Parsons himself didn't last long, quitting the Byrds in the summer of 1968 in protest against a plan to tour UsefulNotes/SouthAfrica (then in the midst of UsefulNotes/TheApartheidEra) before the album was released, and going on to continue the country-rock direction of ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo'' through a commercially unsuccessful but influential solo career and as part of The Flying Burrito Brothers, dying of an heroin overdose in 1973. The subsequent South African tour turned out to be disastrous, as the band hired one of their roadies, Carlos Bernal, as a rhythm guitar player on extremely short notice, found themselves being forced to play to segregated audiences despite having demanded that promoters not allow audience segregation, and turning in badly rehearsed, ramshackle performances marked by antagonism both between themselves and towards the apartheid regime, leaving in a cloud of bad publicity and death threats and being lambasted by the press in the UK and USA for playing in South Africa.

Regrouping in California after the album's release, [=McGuinn=] hired Clarence White as Parsons' replacement at Hillman's urging, as White was a session guitarist who had contributed countrified guitar work to all their albums since ''Younger Than Yesterday'' and Hillman felt he could handle both their older rock material and their new country-oriented direction. At White's urging, the two also replaced Kelley with drummer Gene Parsons (unrelated to Gram Parsons), who White had previously played with in the country band Nashville West. This line-up also disintegrated quickly, as Hillman had this point grown disenchanted with The Byrds thanks to the disastrous South African tour and their manager Larry Spector's mismanagement of band finances, and on 15 September 1968 an argument between Hillman and Spector backstage after a concert escalated into violence, ending with Hillman throwing his bass away and walking out to join Parsons in The Flying Burrito Brothers.

Even with only one original member remaining, The Byrds trudged on as [=McGuinn=] brought in bassist John York to replace Hillman, and chose to sing lead vocals on all the songs on the next album ''Dr. Byrds & Mr. Hyde'', believing that fans would be too confused hearing the unfamiliar voices of the new members, who were restricted to backing vocals. ''Dr. Byrds and Mr. Hyde'', whose title reflected the material's split between the country-rock direction the band continued to pursue and newer songs which harked back to the PsychedelicRock of 1966-1967, garnered some good reviews but became their lowest selling album in the USA, limping to #153 on the ''Billboard'' charts (being actually out-charted by ''Preflyte'', a compilation of 1964 demo recordings compiled by the band's former producer Gary Usher) while paradoxically attracting rave reviews and becoming a great seller in the UK. The next album, ''Ballad Of Easy Rider'' followed quickly the same year, began to repair the band's position as they consolidated their country-rock style and attracted attention due to the title track being used as the theme song for ''Film/EasyRider''. Another line-up change occurred prior to the album's release, with York being sacked as the other members doubted his commitment to the band and Skip Battin hired as his replacement.

The [=McGuinn=]-White-Battin-Parsons line-up counter-intuitively became The Byrds' longest-lasting and most stable line-up, and toured relentlessly for three years to rave reviews. The band thus decided to release a live album, but had also accumulated enough songs to record a new studio album, leading producer Terry Melcher to suggest a double album. Named ''(Untitled)'' thanks to a mistake by one of the employees at Columbia Records, the album was released in 1970 and considered the band's return to form, with the live renditions of their previous hits (among them a 16-minute version of "Eight Miles High") helping reconnect the band to their past audience while the entirely self-penned studio material was noticeably improved in quality compared to the more uneven records the band's internal turmoil had resulted in. Accordingly, ''(Untitled)'' garnered great reviews and resurrected the band's popularity and commercial success, peaking at #40 in the USA and #11 in the UK, and their live performances in the period also earned positive notices. However, the band's gruelling tour schedule left them exhausted and under-equipped for material as they sporadically recorded their follow-up, ''Byrdmaniax'' in-between touring. Once the sessions were completed, the band went back on tour, and ExecutiveMeddling ensued as the material was overdubbed with strings, horns and a gospel choir without the band's knowledge or consent. Upon release, ''Byrdmaniax'' was received as well as a turd in a punchbowl and irreversibly undermined the second wind of popularity the group had been riding. In response, The Byrds quickly recorded a self-produced album, ''Farther Along'', to counteract the criticisms directed at ''Byrdmaniax'', but the pace of the recording further affected the available material and meant that the album failed to either restore the band's reputation or their flagging audience.

The unravelling of the band's career took a toll on its members, as Parsons was fired in July 1972 due to arguments with [=McGuinn=] over pay and his drumming and replaced with session musician John Guerin (who was never officially a member of The Byrds) for live dates, Battin was also kicked out after a concert (replaced by a returning Hillman), and White died in a car crash. Dissatisfied with the shambolic live performances, [=McGuinn=] officially disbanded the band's line-up to make way for a reunion of the [=McGuinn=]-Clark-Crosby-Hillman-Clarke line-up[[note]] David Geffen, head of Asylum Records, offered the classic line-up a lot of money for a reunion album, which became the only Byrds LP not released on Columbia[[/note]] which resulted in the SelfTitledAlbum ''Byrds'' in 1972. The album was criticised for the absence of the band's jangly guitar sound and weak material, with [=McGuinn=] and Hillman having since speculated that all the members except Clark were reluctant to bring their best songs to the sessions, saving them for their solo careers instead. Discouraged by the bad reception of the reunion, The Byrds finally called it a day in 1973. In the late 1980s, Hillman had some modest success fronting the Desert Rose Band, a mainstream country music group.

Since then, there had been 3 separate reunions. The first was from 1989 to 1990 with [=McGuinn=], Crosby and Hillman. However, Michael Clarke had gained full legal ownership of "The Byrds" name, and sued the 3 when they toured as The Byrds. In 1991, the original 5 Byrds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (with the rest of the former members such as Gram Parsons and Clarence White snubbed). The event was timely, as this would mark the last time the original 5 would re-unite. Gene Clark, who was visibly ill at the reunion, died a few months later of "natural causes". Then at the end of 1993, Michael Clarke succumbed to liver failure, a result of decades of alcoholism. There would be one final one-off reunion in 2000, this time with [=McGuinn=], Crosby and Hillman. Since then, they have gone their separate ways, with Crosby gaining the rights of "The Byrds" name in 2002, Kevin Kelley dying of "natural causes" in 2002, and Skip Battin dying from Alzheimer's disease in 2003.

!!Principal Members (Founding members in '''bold'''):

* Skip Battin bass, vocals (19691973, died 2003)
* '''Gene Clark''' lead vocals, guitar, harmonica, tambourine (19641966, 1967, 19721973, 1991, died 1991)
* Michael Clarke drums, congas, percussion (19641967, 19721973, 1991, died 1993)
* '''[[Music/CrosbyStillsNashAndYoung David Crosby]]''' lead vocals, guitar, bass (19641967, 19721973, 1989-1991, 2000)
* Chris Hillman lead vocals, bass, guitar, mandolin (19641968, 19721973, 1989-1991, 2000)
* Kevin Kelley drums (1968, died 2002)
* '''Jim "Roger" [=McGuinn=]''' lead vocals, guitar, synthesizer, banjo (19641973, 1989-1991, 2000)
* Gene Parsons drums, harmonica, banjo, vocals (19681972)
* Gram Parsons lead vocals, guitar, piano, organ (1968, died 1973)
* Clarence White guitar, mandolin, lead vocals (19681973, died 1973)
* John York bass, lead vocals (19681969)

!!Studio Discography:

* 1965 ''Music/MrTambourineMan''
* 1965 ''Turn! Turn! Turn!''
* 1966 ''Fifth Dimension''
* 1967 ''Younger Than Yesterday''
* 1968 ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers''
* 1968 ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo''
* 1969 ''Dr. Byrds & Mr. Hyde''
* 1969 ''Ballad of Easy Rider''
* 1970 ''(Untitled)'' [[note]]The second half of the album was recorded in the studio[[/note]]
* 1971 ''Byrdmaniax''
* 1971 ''Farther Along''
* 1973 ''Byrds''

!!Live Discography:

* 1970 ''(Untitled)'' [[note]]The first half of the album was recorded live[[/note]]
* 2000 ''Live at the Fillmore February 1969''
* 2008 ''Live at Royal Albert Hall 1971''

!! Eight Tropes High:

* AdvertisedExtra: Inverted In 1989, Roger [=McGuinn=] and Chris Hillman sang guest vocals on a re-recording of "You Ain't Going Nowhere" that appeared on The Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's ''Will the Circle Be Unbroken: Volume Two'' album. Even though the NGDB featured prominently on it, the single was credited solely to [=McGuinn=] and Hillman.
* AsTheGoodBookSays: "Turn! Turn! Turn!" is lifted almost completely from the third chapter of the Literature/BookOfEcclesiastes.
* CanonDiscontinuity: The 1973 reunion album ''Byrds'' is generally ignored in histories of the band, since it was poorly received at the time, the band largely [[CreatorBacklash disowned it]], and it was released on Asylum Records instead of Columbia, who controls the rest of their catalog.
* ConceptAlbum: [=McGuinn=]'s initial plan for what would become ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo'' was to record a double album that would showcase a history of American popular music, starting with early bluegrass and Appalachian music, then moving through country, jazz, R&B, rock, and finally culminating in electronic music played on the Moog synthesizer. The concept led [=McGuinn=] to look for a pianist with a jazz background, which was how Gram Parsons was recruited into the band.
* TheConstant: Roger [=McGuinn=] was in every line-up of the band from start to finish.
* [[CountryMusic Country Rock]]: On their later albums. ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo'' is considered the TropeCodifier for the genre.
* CoverAlbum: ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo'' comes close, with only two in-house songs, both by Gram Parsons ("Hickory Wind", "One Hundred Years from Now"). Along with the two requisite Dylan songs, it also featured covers of songs originally by Music/WoodyGuthrie ("Pretty Boy Floyd"), Music/GeorgeJones ("You're Still on My Mind"), Music/MerleHaggard ("Life in Prison"), Music/GeneAutry ("Blue Canadian Rockies"), The Louvin Brothers ("The Christian Life"), Creator/StaxRecords artist William Bell ("You Don't Miss Your Water") and the traditional "I am a Pilgrim".
* CoverSong: Usually several per album, particularly songs by Music/BobDylan.
* FilkSong: "Space Odyssey" is based on Creator/ArthurCClarke's "The Sentinel", rather than ''Film/TwoThousandOneASpaceOdyssey'', since it was recorded a year or so before the film was released.
* FolkRock: Their early albums.
* FriendlyPlayfulDolphin: "Dolphin's Smile".
* GarageRock: Their sound inspired several of the folksier {{Garage Band}}s.
* HiddenTrack: The remastered CD reissue of ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers'' features as a hidden track a recording of an in-studio argument between Crosby and Clarke, with RecordProducer Gary Usher trying to get them to stop fighting.
* InnocentAliens: "Mr. Spaceman".
* LineOfSightName: They hadn't decided on a name for their 1970 double album yet when they submitted it to Columbia Records, so the producer just wrote "(untitled)" where the label paperwork asked for the album's title. Columbia mistakenly thought that ''was'' the title and released it as such.
* LongSongShortScene: It's the belief of many fans that the 1965 version of "It's All Over Now Baby Blue" was wasted, due to being intended for a single that didn't get released at the time. It is amongst the best examples of their chiming guitar sound.
* {{Motifs}}: Airplane travel, space travel and dogs all get recurring mentions in their lyrics.
* MyspeldRokband
* MinisculeRocking: Most of the Byrds' material is in the 2-3 minute range, and sometimes even shorter, with their albums largely staying in the half-hour range. The shortest, ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers'', lasted 28 minutes and 28 seconds, and the longest album is ''(Untitled)'' by virtue of it being a double album. Said album features their [[EpicRocking longest songs]], the live remake of "Eight Miles High" lasting 16 minutes, and the studio recording of "Well Come Back Home" which lasts 7 minutes.
* NewSoundAlbum: Their switch to Psychedelic Rock and Country for ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers'' and country for ''Sweetheart Of The Rodeo'' onwards.
* NonAppearingTitle: "Lady Friend", "Space Odyssey", "Tiffany Queen".
* OnceAnEpisode: The Byrds' early albums all featured a humorous, quirky ending song: ''Music/MrTambourineMan'' concluded with an ironic cover of Music/VeraLynn's "We'll Meet Again" (inspired by its usage in ''Film/DrStrangelove''), ''Turn! Turn! Turn!'' ended with a tongue-in-cheek send-up of the folk song "Oh! Susannah", and ''Fifth Dimension'' finished with "2-4-2 Fox Trot (The Lear Jet Song)", which features a catchy groove with minimal lyrics [[GratuitousPanning panned hard right]] while the left channel includes sound effects depicting a plane taking off. The tradition ended with ''Younger Than Yesterday'', but was temporarily resurrected for ''Ballad Of Easy Rider'' through "Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins", a light-hearted meditation on the Apollo 11 moon landing.
** Actually, on the re-release of ''Younger Than Yesterday'', the song "Don't Make Waves" is added near the end and serves this purpose.
* OneSteveLimit: Having pairs of unrelated band members with the last names Parsons and Clark(e) makes it a little confusing for folks being introduced to the band.
* ProductionForeshadowing: While it wasn't intended that way, "Change Is Now" on ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers'' seems like it was specifically created to be a bridge between the band's early and late careers. It starts off with the familiar Rickenbacker guitar and harmonies, then goes into a country-style chorus, then a complex "Eight Miles High"-style guitar solo, played by future band member Clarence White. And the lyrics about how "things that seem to be solid are not" fit their career perfectly.
* RedOniBlueOni: In the original lineup Crosby was the Red Oni and [=McGuinn=] was the Blue Oni.
* RevolvingDoorBand: It was particularly nasty after Gene Clark left. When ''Dr. Byrds And Mr. Hyde'' was released in 1969, Roger [=McGuinn=] was all that remained of the original quintet.
* SignatureStyle: Roger [=McGuinn=]'s jangly 12-string Rickenbacker guitar sound.
* TakeThat: ''The Notorious Byrd Brothers'' replaced the departed David Crosby with a horse on the cover, or at least that's how Crosby interpreted it. [=McGuinn=] has repeatedly insisted it's not meant to be a reference to Crosby but was merely a coincidence that happened when they were shooting the cover, pointing out that if they did intend a TakeThat, they'd have turned the horse backwards.
** "Drug Store Truck Drivin' Man" is an insult towards Nashville DJ Ralph Emery, who during the promotion of ''Sweetheart of the Rodeo'' conducted a hostile review insulting the band and initially refused to play "You Ain't Going Nowhere", and once he played it he dismissed it on air and in front of the band.
** "So You Want To Be A Rock 'N' Roll Star" is often called a TakeThat to Franchise/TheMonkees, but they've denied it and said that it was more of an amused reaction to how easily new bands could be hyped into popularity in TheSixties.[[note]]They had no particular problem with The Monkees, and Music/MichaelNesmith even sat in with them on guitar at a few concerts[[/note]]
* TheyAlsoDid the title song to cheesy 1967 sex comedy ''Film/DontMakeWaves''.
* [[TitledAfterTheSong Titled After the Album]]: A 1980s country duo called Sweethearts of the Rodeo named themselves after the famous Byrds album, and even paid homage to said album with the cover of their ''Buffalo Zone'' album.
* UntitledTitle: The ninth album is officially called "(Untitled)". This was actually meant to be a placeholder, but [[PermanentPlaceholder became the final title]] by accident.
* WordSaladLyrics: Skip Battin was fond of writing songs like this.