[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Sufjan_Stevens.jpg]]

->''"SUFJAN STEVENS plays the following instruments: acoustic guitar, piano, wurlitzer, electric bass, drum kit, electric guitar, oboe, Miriam's alto saxophone, Summin's flute, Daniel's banjo and/or Matt's banjo (depending on which one was in tune), Shara's glockenspiel, Laura's rickety accordion, a rented vibraphone, various recorders (Sufjan owns the tenor, soprano, and sopranino, but he borrowed Monique's alto), a Casiotone MT-70, sleigh bells, shakers, tambourine, triangle, and a Baldwin electric church organ. Oh Lord, help us!"''
-->-- From the ''Illinois'' liner notes

Sufjan Stevens (born July 1, 1975) is a multi-instrumentalist and independent musician (born and raised in Michigan, now based in New York) beholden to no genre. He’s most famous for his albums about the states of Michigan and Illinois--featuring a mix of FolkMusic, BaroquePop, and PostRock--and for claiming that he planned to release similar albums for the other 48 states (a project he eventually scrapped and admitted was a "promotional gimmick"). However, he’s also released albums of straight folk music (''Seven Swans''), electronica (''Enjoy Your Rabbit''), and orchestral music (''The B.Q.E.''); and the genre of ''The Age of Adz'' and ''Silver & Gold'' could perhaps be described as “all of the above”.

[[Synopsis/SufjanStevens See here for a more in-depth survey of Sufjan’s career.]]

His musical collaborators include [[Music/{{Danielson}} Daniel Smith]], [[Music/TheNational Aaron and Bryce Dessner]], [[Music/StVincent Annie Clark]], [[Music/MyBrightestDiamond Shara Worden]], and the string quartet Osso. He's also one-third of the alternative hip-hop group Sisyphus, alongside Serengeti and Son Lux.

!!Discography:
* ''A Sun Came'' (2000)
* ''Enjoy Your Rabbit'' (2001)
* ''Michigan'', aka ''Greetings from Michigan, the Great Lake State'' (2003)
* ''Seven Swans'' (2004)
* ''A Sun Came!'' (2004) - Reissued version, with two bonus tracks and new cover art.
* ''Illinois'', aka ''Come On, Feel the Illinoise!'' (2005)
* ''The Avalanche: Outtakes and Extras from the Illinois Album'' (2006)
* ''Songs for Christmas: Volumes I - V'' (2006)
* ''Run Rabbit Run'' (2009) - A rearrangement of ''Enjoy Your Rabbit'' for a string quartet.
* ''The B.Q.E.'' (2009)
* ''All Delighted People EP'' (2010)
* ''The Age of Adz'' (2010)
* ''Hit & Run, Vol. 1'' (2012) - Split 7" vinyl collaboration with Rosie Thomas.
* ''Silver & Gold: Songs for Christmas, Vols. 6 -10'' (2012)
* ''Carrie & Lowell'' (2015)
* ''The Greatest Gift'' (2017) - Mixtape of ''Carrie & Lowell'' outtakes, remixes, and demos

Most of these can be streamed in their entirety on Sufjan's [[http://sufjanstevens.bandcamp.com/ Bandcamp page]].

By the way, Snow Patrol got his first name wrong. It's pronounced "Soof-yahn", not "Suhf-yahn".

----
!!To the Workers of the Rock River Valley Region, I Have an Idea Concerning Your Predicament, and It Involves Tube Socks, a Paper Airplane, Twenty-Two Able-Bodied Men, and the Following Tropes:
* AbortedArc: The Fifty States project. After ''Michigan'' and ''Illinois'', ''Carrie and Lowell'' was supposed to be a record about Oregon until he was dissuaded by his co-producer. This also explains the tour-exclusive single "Exploding Whale," about a whale carcass detonated in Florence, Oregon.
* ADateWithRosiePalms: Explicitly mentioned in "All Of Me Wants All of You".
-->''You checked your texts while I masturbated''
* AlliterativeName: '''S'''ufjan '''S'''tevens.
** His album '''''S'''even '''S'''wans''.
* AmbiguouslyBi: While he's never spoken publicly about his sexuality (and refuses to discuss his love life in interviews), his songs have been known to carry both homoerotic and heteroerotic undertones, although it's the homoerotic ones that tend to raise more eyebrows and stir more speculation.
* AnimalMotifs: The rabbit, which happens to be his Chinese zodiac sign. Horses, especially dead or tired ones, get a lot of mentions in ''Carrie and Lowell'' too.
** Birds make frequent appearances ("The Owl and the Tanager", the pet names in "Fourth of July", "five red hens" in "Eugene", all the mentions of meadowlarks, etc.), and Stevens has been known to wear wings in concert.
** "The Predatory Wasp of the Palisades is Out to Get Us".
* AntiChristmasSong: Found among the multitudes of his Christmas originals, most notably:
** "That Was the Worst Christmas Ever!", about two children spending the holiday with their abusive parents.
** "Did I Make You Cry on Christmas Day? (Well, You Deserved It)", about a relationship going sour as a result of what appears to be a mood disorder.
** "Sister Winter", about seasonal depression amplified by the end of a romantic relationship.
** "Christmas Unicorn", which is a criticism of the holiday's crass commercialism and the hypocrisy regarding its pagan past.
* AutoTune:
** Used conspicuously throughout "Impossible Soul".
** Applied to his vocals on "Here I Am!", his song from ''Hit & Run Vol. 1''.
** Used extensively on the entire ''Planetarium'' album. One particular example is the electropop-esque "Saturn".
* AwesomeMcCoolname: Not just him, but most of his family. See SesquipedalianSmith below.
* BaroquePop: He's one of the most prominent musicians in the genre.
* BathSuicide: Discussed in "The Only Thing".
-->''The only thing that keeps me from cutting my arm; cross hatch, warm bath, Holiday Inn after dark...''
* BigOMG: Sufjan does one in "John Wayne Gacy, Jr." after noting how Gacy killed 27 teenage boys and young men (actually somewhere over 33). Especially interesting is how the "OMG" isn't traditionally yelled but softly and beautifully cooed.
* BittersweetEnding: ''Carrie & Lowell'' ends with "Blue Bucket of Gold", in which Sufjan (after hitting rock bottom with "John My Beloved" and "No Shade in the Shadow of the Cross") begins quietly moving on from his mother's death. He pleads for someone to fill the hole left with her departure, whether it be a friend or God, and the song ends with an ambient crescendo that, [[WordOfGod according to Sufjan]], symbolizes [[SugarWiki/HeartwarmingMoments him finally letting go and surrendering his mother to the beyond]].
* BoleroEffect:
** "The BQE, Mvt. III: Linear Tableau with Intersecting Surprise" is all buildup, and the crescendo only comes in "Mvt. IV: Traffic Shock".
** "Djohariah" builds up to a crescendo twice, before ending as a quiet acoustic song.
* BookEnds:
** ''Illinois'' opens with the squeaking of a piano stool and two short introductory tracks, and then goes into the first full EpicRocking, two-part song on the album, "Come On, Feel the Illinoise," which opens with a piano riff and is in UncommonTime. The last EpicRocking, two-part song on the album, "The Tallest Man, the Broadest Shoulders," also opens with a piano riff and is in UncommonTime. It is followed by two short closing tracks and the squeaking of a piano stool.
** ''The Age of Adz'' begins ("Futile Devices") and ends (the last movement of "Impossible Soul") with quiet acoustic songs, contrasting with the rest of the album's electronic bombast.
%%* BunnyEarsLawyer
* CallBack:
** During the second movement of "Impossible Soul", there are a few times when the female voice sings the word "do" the same way that Sufjan sings it at the end of the first chorus of "Futile Devices".
** Earlier, "Chicago" (from ''Illinois'') reuses a section of melody from "The Transfiguration" (from ''Seven Swans'').
** His version of "Joy to the World" from ''Silver and Gold'' takes a chorus from "Impossible Soul" and a sample from another track in the same album, "Do You Hear What I Hear?"
** "Wallowa Lake Monster", a ''Carrie & Lowell'' outtake, notably contains ''Illinois''-esque horns in its extended outro.
* CallingTheOldManOut: "Pittsfield" from The Avalanche describes a neglectful (and possibly emotionally abusive) parent or guardian. It opens with the narrator affirming their own independence and reflecting that they are no longer afraid of this person.
-->''I'm not afraid of you now, I know / so I climb down from the bunk bed this slow /I can talk back to you now, I know / from a few things that I learned from this TV show / You can work late til midnight; we don't care / We can fix our own meals, we can wash our own hair''
* CloudCuckooLander: Between the elaborate costumes, absurdly long song titles, and Christmas infomercials, occasionally yes.
* ClumsyCopyrightCensorship: ''Illinois'' initially had cover artwork with [[Comics/{{Superman}} Superman]] flying through the sky in the background. Shortly after releasing the album, the record label realized they never got permission from DC Comics to use Superman's likeness. To prevent a lawsuit, they took every copy that hadn't been sold yet and slapped a sticker of three balloons over the Man of Steel. Later reprintings of Illinois were less clumsy, and edited the cover art itself to replace Supes with either empty sky or the three balloons; and the 10-year anniversary edition has the Chicago-born superhero Blue Marvel in Superman's place.
* ClusterFBomb: "I Want to Be Well" ends with the refrain "I'm not fucking around!" repeated over a dozen times.
** Doubles as a sort of PrecisionFStrike, as this song is the only one on the album (and the first in his catalog up to that point) to make use of the F word.
* ConceptAlbum: Very prevalent in Sufjan's work. So much that the marketing for ''The Age of Adz'' stressed the fact that Sufjan was finally releasing an album that ''has no concept.''
* CoverAlbum: ''Run Rabbit Run'', which is ''Enjoy Your Rabbit'' rearranged for a string orchestra.
* CoverVersion: His version of "[[Music/BobDylan Ring Them Bells]]," done for the ''I'm Not There'' soundtrack. His version of "[[Music/TheBeatles What Goes On]]" for the CoverAlbum ''This Bird Has Flown''. For the ''Dark Was the Night'' charity compilation, he covered labelmate Castanets' "You are the Blood". He also contributed an amazing reinterpretation of "[[Music/JoniMitchell Free Man In Paris]]" for a tribute album that reuses the lyrics of the original but strikes out with a drastic rearrangement of the melody and overall structure of the song. [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPltG6Vl-ms Check it out!]]
** "Hotline Bling" was the encore for the ''Carrie & Lowell'' tour and it has ended up on the live album. Apparently, Sufjan has performed the song live ''more times than Music/{{Drake}} himself''.
* CradlingYourKill: The titular "John Wayne Gacy, Jr." did this to his victims.
* CrisisOfFaith: "Casimir Pulaski Day" revolves around the narrator suffering one after the death of a loved one due to bone cancer, musing over the emptiness of his religious practices and beliefs as a result.
-->All the glory when He took our place\\
But He took my shoulders and He shook my face\\
And He takes and He takes and He takes...
* DarkerAndEdgier:
** The lyrics on ''The Age of Adz'' deal a lot with emotions and personal themes including death, disease, illness, anxiety, and suicide.
** Considering it concerns his mother's death, ''Carrie and Lowell'' is easily his heaviest album lyrically.
* DarkestHour: During the downward spiral detailed on ''Carrie & Lowell'', "John My Beloved" is the start of his realization of [[WhatHaveIBecome what he has become]], but "No Shade in the Shadow of the Cross" is where he fully hits rock bottom, noting how he has tried distracting himself from his emotions with unhealthy behaviors like sleeping around and drug abuse.
* DeliberatelyMonochrome: The album art for ''The Greatest Gift''.
* DomesticAbuse: The narrator in "Drawn to the Blood" suffers this. Unfortunately has a RealitySubtext. From the April 2015 issue of ''Uncut'' magazine:
-->Asked whether the abusive relationship described in "Drawn To The Blood" was [Sufjan's] own, he simply answers, "Yes."
* DrowningMySorrows: Detailed on ''Carrie & Lowell'', from a RealitySubtext.
-->''Now I'm drunk and afraid, wishing the world would go away.''
* EasternZodiac: ''Enjoy Your Rabbit'', an electronica album where 12 compositions are titled "Year of [Animal]" (and the 13th is titled "Year of Our Lord").
* EitherOrTitle: Both ''Michigan'' (aka ''Greetings from Michigan, the Great Lake State'') and ''Illinois'' (aka ''Come On, Feel the Illinoise!''), considering their album covers use different titles than the ones they are commonly referred to by.
* EpicInstrumentalOpener: "They Are Night Zombies..." among others.
** "Djohariah" goes on for almost 12 minutes before the actual lyrics start.
* EpicRocking: Many of his songs are over six minutes long; so far the longest is [[strike:"Year of the Horse" at 14 minutes]] [[strike:"Djohariah" at 17 minutes]] "Impossible Soul" at 25 minutes.
** ''Seven Swans'' and ''The B.Q.E.'' are the only albums to run for less than an hour.
** ''All Delighted People'', supposedly an EP, clocks in at '''59 minutes'''.
* ExcitedShowTitle: ''A Sun Came!'', ''Come On, Feel the Illinoise!'', and many individual songs.
** The most excessive one is ''They Are Night Zombies!! They Are Neighbors!! They Have Come Back from the Dead!! Ahhhh!''
** "Say Yes! To M!ch!gan!" deserves a mention as well.
* FadingIntoTheNextSong: Used all over the place.
* GhostTown: "They Are Night Zombies..." references numerous Illinois ghost towns.
* GriefSong: ''Carrie & Lowell'' is comprised of these.
** "Casimir Pulaski Day".
* HappierHomeMovie: On the ''Carrie & Lowell'' tour, a few of the songs use home movies as a backdrop, often in contrast to their sad tones.
* HookersAndBlow: It gives the narrator of "No Shade in the Shadow of the Cross" no comfort at all.
* IAmTheBand: of the "solo artist who plays almost everything" variety. (It should be noted that he tours with a backing band, and most of his records - excepting ''All Delighted People'' - feature other performers, albeit in very limited roles).
* InNameOnly: ''All Delighted People '''[[BlatantLies EP]]'''''. It's longer than some of his albums.
* ListingCities: "The 50 States", a live-show-exclusive song.
* LocationSong: ''Michigan'' and ''Illinois'', both concept albums about these US states.
** "Eugene" off ''Carrie & Lowell'' (the entire album could in fact be retitled ''Oregon'').
* LonelyPianoPiece: "Flint" and "The Seer's Tower" are two piano-led songs that both explicitly address the crippling loneliness of the narrator.
* LongSongShortScene: Two hidden songs show up as TheStinger in ''The BQE'' film: "The Sleeping Red Wolves" and an untitled noise-music piece. Neither are included on the soundtrack album.
* LongTitle: He was known for his ample use of this trope for naming songs at the start of his career.
** Some are longer than the songs they're attached to, such as "The Black Hawk War, or, How to Demolish an Entire Civilization and Still Feel Good About Yourself in the Morning, or, We Apologize for the Inconvenience but You're Going to Have to Leave Now, or, 'I Have Fought the Big Knives and Will Continue to Fight Them Until They Are Off Our Lands!'". It's a two minute long instrumental.
** Several (such as the one above) double as [[EitherOrTitle Either/Or Titles]].
** The full album titles of ''Michigan'' and ''Illinois'' are ''Sufjan Stevens Presents... Greetings from Michigan, the Great Lake State'' and ''Sufjan Stevens Invites You To: Come On Feel the Illinoise'', respectively.
* LostInTheMaize: ''Illinois'' has a short track about a real-life corn maze, titled "A Conjunction of Drones Simulating the Way in Which Sufjan Stevens Has an Existential Crisis in the Great Godfrey Maze".
* LoudnessWar: Almost completely averted. While a couple of songs can reach as low as [=DR5=], this is rare and he hasn't had a major release yet come in at below [=DR8=] overall. ''Carrie & Lowell'' is [=DR10=] even on the CD edition.
* MinisculeRocking: ''Illinois'' has a number of brief tracks (with overly-long titles like "A Short Reprise For Mary Todd, Who Went Insane, But For Very Good Reasons" or "One Last 'Whoo-hoo!' For The Pullman") ranging from 6 to 48 seconds long, which basically just serve as a coda for the preceding track. For some of these, you'd have to pay attention to your music player to even notice that they're a separate track.
* MissingMom: Sufjan's complicated feelings surrounding his rarely present mother Carrie are a common theme throughout ''Carrie & Lowell''.
** "Romulus" from the ''Michigan'' album also centers on this trope.
** "Wallowa Lake Monster" from ''The Greatest Gift'' (an album of ''Carrie & Lowell'' outtakes and remixes).
* MurderBallad: "John Wayne Gacy, Jr." and "A Good Man is Hard to Find".
* MyNaymeIs: "Sufjan" is a fairly popular name in the Middle East, but its traditional English spelling is with a Y ("Sufyan").
* NeoclassicalPunkZydecoRockabilly: People often refer to Sufjan as "folk" or "indie folk", presumably either because (a) they think his straightforward folk songs are his best material, or (b) they'd rather not deal with the headache of figuring out what genre he really fits into.
* NewSoundAlbum: He's definitely prone to experimentation.
** ''Enjoy Your Rabbit'' is arguably his weirdest album, considering it's, of all things, a '''glitch''' album.
** ''Michigan'' synthesized Sufjan's influences (as seen on ''A Sun Came'') into baroque-folky goodness, and ''Illinois'' subsequently put a more grandiose and maximalist spin on this sound.
** ''Seven Swans'' is composed of quiet lo-fi indie rock.
** ''The Age of Adz'' transmutes the ''Illinois'' and ''B.Q.E.'' sound into--in the words of the official site--"an explicit pop-song extravaganza" with "a few danceable moments."
** ''Carrie & Lowell'', considering [[DarkerAndEdgier its]] [[DespairEventHorizon subject]] [[TearJerker matter]], retreats back to Sufjan's traditional indie folk sound with small bits of electronic tinkering for an atmospheric, ambient effect.
* NoodleImplements: The ''Illinois''[[note]]the vinyl version, specifically; the name on the CD version omits everything after "Predicament"[[/note]] track "To the Workers of the Rock River Valley Region: I Have an Idea Concerning Your Predicament, and It Involves an Inner Tube, Bath Mats, and 21 Able-bodied Men."
* NotChristianRock: Several of his songs deal with his faith, but it's debatable whether he actually qualifies as a Christian rock artist. Stevens himself doesn't seem to consider himself one, although he acknowledges some of his earlier music could be considered Christian rock, saying, "I don't think music media is the real forum for theological discussions. I think I've said things and sung about things that probably weren't appropriate for this kind of forum. And I just feel like it's not my work or my place to be making claims and statements, because I often think it's misunderstood."
* NotSoDifferent: Sufjan ends "John Wayne Gacy, Jr." by stating that in his refusal to act morally superior to anyone, he and John are this.
-->''And in my best behavior''\\
''I am really just like him.''
** After noting how many young boys he killed, Sufjan asks "Are you one of them?", a question possibly posed towards John himself, since he was abused as a child in the same way that he abuses his victims and is therefore caught in a vicious cycle.
* OneManSong: "Jason", "Romulus", "Vito's Ordination Song", "Abraham", "John Wayne Gacy, Jr.", "Adlai Stevenson", "Saul Bellow", "For Clyde Tombaugh", "John My Beloved", "Visions of Gideon".
* OneWomanSong: "Djohariah", "Tonya Harding".
* OverlyNarrowSuperlative: The press release for ''Songs for Christmas'' called it "the stocking stuffer of the century! Which isn't saying much, considering the century is still so young!"
* PerspectiveFlip: The most common interpretation of "A Good Man is Hard to Find" is that it's from the perspective of the villain of Creator/FlanneryOConnor's short story of the same name.
* PrecisionFStrike:
** "I'm not fucking around" from the end of "I Want to Be Well."
** "Fuck me, I'm falling apart" from "No Shade in the Shadow of the Cross."
** "This world is a bitch, girl" from "Tonya Harding."
* {{Pun}}: "The Predatory Wasp of the Palisades...", which off of the album ''Illinois'', includes the line "I can't explain the state that I'm in."
* QueerRomance: The most common interpretation of "The Owl and the Tanager" is that it's about an unhealthy and/or emotionally painful gay relationship (the two main characters are explicitly male in the original iteration of the song, but the genders are left vague in the version that made it to the ''All Delighted People'' EP).
* RaisedByGrandparents: The narrator of "Romulus".
* {{Reconstruction}}: After dismissing Christmas as a social construct, and Christmas music as emotionally manipulative garbage, Sufjan attempted with ''Songs for Christmas'' to record something that captured "that creepy Christmas feeling".
* RearrangeTheSong: It's safe to say Sufjan is fond of this trope.
** Sufjan has released five different version of "Chicago": the original, the acoustic version, the "adult contemporary easy listening" version, the "Multiple Personality Disorder" version, and the demo version.
** ''Run Rabbit Run'' rearranges ''Enjoy Your Rabbit'' in its entirety for a string quartet.
** There are two versions of "All Delighted People" (the regular one and the "classic rock" one).
** There are also two versions of "Tonya Harding" (one in D major, one in Eb major).
** Several official remixes and demo versions of several ''Carrie and Lowell'' tracks exist (to say nothing of the ''C&L'' LiveAlbum, which often features extensive rearrangement).
** A handful of songs on his Christmas albums also get this treatment.
* RepurposedPopSong: "Chicago" got a lot of play; it was used in the ''Film/LittleMissSunshine'' trailers and several TV shows in quick succession.
* SavingChristmas: Parodied in the comic included in the ''Songs for Christmas'' box set.
* SesquipedalianSmith: Sufjan himself. And he has a brother named Marzuki Stevens and a sister named Djohariah Stevens.
** ... and one sister named [[AerithAndBob Megan.]]
* SelfBackingVocalist: On ''The Age of Adz'', particularly "I Walked", and on ''Carrie & Lowell''.
* SelfHarm: Referenced extensively throughout ''Carrie & Lowell''.
** The narrator of "The Owl and the Tanager" is a cutter.
* SexForSolace: Part of "No Shade In The Shadow of the Cross" may be describing this.
--> Like a champion
--> Get drunk to get laid
* ShownTheirWork: ''Illinois'' and ''The Avalanche'' are dense with allusions to geography and local history.
* ShoutOut: ''Many''.
** He uses lyrics from "[[Music/SimonAndGarfunkel The Sounds of Silence]]" on the title track of ''All Delighted People.''
** "The Man of Metropolis..." from ''Illinois'' is about {{ComicBook/Superman}} being created in Illinois. Superman was also infamously included on initial editions of the album but removed to avoid issues with copyright.
** The title of ''Come On Feel the Illinoise!" is a play on Music/{{Slade}}'s "Cum On Feel the Noize".
** "A Good Man is Hard to Find" is based on a short story by Creator/FlanneryOConnor.
** "Christmas Unicorn" samples Music/JoyDivision's "Love Will Tear Us Apart".
** Carl Sandburg (or, rather, his ghost) appears as a character in the second part of "Come On! Feel the Illinoise!", and the song "Chicago" is very loosely inspired by his poem of the same name.
* SnowySleighBells: Used extensively in his Christmas songs.
* TheSomethingSong: "Vito's Ordination Song".
* StepUpToTheMicrophone: [[Music/MyBrightestDiamond Shara Worden]], previously featured on backing vocals, sings the lead vocals for the second movement of "Impossible Soul".
* StudioChatter:
** Several folkier songs begin with Sufjan counting off the time.
** And his cover of "I Saw Three Ships" ends with someone saying "I played terrible."
** "Ding-a-ling-a-ring-a-ling" also ends with someone saying "Alright, let's do a real song."
** "The Henney Buggy Band" opens and closes with studio chatter, ending with Sufjan asking, "That sounded pretty good, didn't it?"
* SucksAtDancing: [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5jWiZ18ez0 Sufjan himself.]] [[TropesAreNotBad Not that it's]] [[NarmCharm a bad thing]].
* SurvivalMantra: "I want to be well, I want to be well, I want to be well, I want to be well..."
* TalkingToThemself: From "Vesuvius":
-->Sufjan, follow your heart, follow the flame or fall on the floor
-->Sufjan, the panic inside, the murdering ghost that you cannot ignore
* TitleTrack: ''A Sun Came'', ''Seven Swans'', ''All Delighted People'', ''The Age of Adz'', and ''Carrie & Lowell'' all have one. In fact, ''All Delighted People'' technically has two (an original version and a classic rock version).
** "Come on Feel the Illinoise!" is technically this for his fifth and most famous studio album, [[EitherOrTitle commonly referred to simply]] as ''Illinois''.
* UncommonTime: Quite common in Sufjan's world. Too many examples to name, but "The Tallest Man, the Broadest Shoulders" deserves a special mention.
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''[[TheStinger ...and I shake the dirt out]] [[LongTitle of my sandals as I run.]]''