Hello darkness, my old friendPaul Simon and Art Garfunkel (both born 1941) first came together in 1957 under the name Tom & Jerry, but rose to fame as Simon & Garfunkel almost ten years later, mostly due to their hit "The Sound of Silence" (1965). Both men were childhood friends growing up in Queens, New York a few blocks away from each other.With the release of "The Sounds of Silence", Simon & Garfunkel became one of the Trope Codifiers of folk-rock alongside The Byrds. The song was also their first hit on the pop charts, reaching the number one spot on New Year's Day in 1966. Subsequent hits included "I Am a Rock", "Homeward Bound", and "Scarborough Fair/Canticle", which combined the English folk ballad "Scarborough Fair" with an anti-war poem sung in counterpoint. Later, their fame took an ever bigger boost when their music was used in the film The Graduate, which not only included their older songs (which was rare at that time for film) but also new material like "Mrs. Robinson".The duo split up following the release of their album Bridge Over Troubled Water in 1970. Simon went on to experience a Breakup Breakout and a successful solo career, while Garfunkel is still best known for his efforts with the duo, although he's also known for singing the Theme Song of Watership Down and for his acting roles in such films as Catch-22, Carnal Knowledge, and Bad Timing (while Paul Simon appeared in Annie Hall and One Trick Pony). They have reunited (and broken up again) several times over the years. Most famously, they came together for a 1981 free concert in Central Park, which drew a crowd of over half a million.
I've come to talk with you again
Because a vision softly creeping
Left its seeds while I was sleeping
And the vision that was planted in my brain
Still remains within the sound of silence.
I've come to talk with you again
Because a vision softly creeping
Left its seeds while I was sleeping
And the vision that was planted in my brain
Still remains within the sound of silence.
— "The Sound of Silence"
Principal Members (Founding members in bold):
- Art Garfunkel - lead vocals, piano (195770, 1975, 19811983, 1993, 20032004, 20092010)
- Paul Simon - lead vocals, guitar (195770, 1975, 198183, 1993, 20032004, 20092010)
Studio and Live Discography:
- 1964 - Wednesday Morning, 3 AM
- 1966 - Sounds of Silence
- 1966 - Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme
- 1968 - The Graduate
- 1968 - Bookends
- 1970 - Bridge Over Troubled Water
- 1982 - The Concert in Central Park
- 2002 - Live from New York City, 1967
- 2004 - Old Friends: Live on Stage
- 2008 - Live 1969
They/Their work feature examples of:
- Accent Upon The Wrong Syllable: "The Sound of Silence"'s first verse features "Because a vision softlyY creepING left its seeds while I waAS sleepING". In fact, the emphasis for that part in nearly every verse is wrong.
- Aerith and Bob: The duo's last names form a bit of an odd couple: Simon is a rather mundane last name, Garfunkel much less so.
- Album Title Drop:
- Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme. A bit of an inversion, as the title comes from the lyric itself (the lyric being from the traditional song "Scarborough Fair").
- From "Old Friends": "Old friends / Sat on a park bench like bookends."note
- All Are Equal in Death: The ending of "Sparrow".
- American Title: "America" has the singer go on a journey with his girlfriend, a journey with no fixed destination in search of the essence of the country he calls home, and could hardly have any title other than the object of their search: America.
- And Now for Someone Completely Different: "Voices of Old People", which precedes "Old Friends", consists of Real Life interviews from residents in a Jewish old age home.
- Anti-Christmas Song: "Seven O' Clock News/Silent Night"
- Before My Time: "A Simple Desultory Philippic":
- Big Applesauce: The duo are New Yorkers through and through, and have sung many songs referencing their hometown, including "Bleecker Street" (named for the Greenwich Village thoroughfare), "The Only Living Boy in New York", and "The 59th Street Bridge Song", and the city was the logical place for the performance recorded for their triumphant 1981 live album, The Concert in Central Park.
- Big Guy, Little Guy: Garfunkel (standing at 1.83m or 6 feet tall) towered over Paul Simon (1.6m/5'2") in height.
- Blah Blah Blah: In "Save the Life of My Child":A patrol car passing by halted to a stop
Said Officer MacDougal in dismay,
"The force can't do a decent job
'Cause the kids got no respect for the law today"
(Art then sings in bored tone) and blah blah blah...
- Book-Ends: The aptly-named pair of "Bookends Theme" songs on the aptly-named Bookends album aptly bookend the A-side of the album.
- B.S.O.D. Song: "Patterns"
- Call-Back: "Save the Life of My Child" off of Bookends has a sample from "The Sounds of Silence".
- Central Theme: Nearly all of their songs involve an inability to communicate. Some overt, some subtle. Becomes Harsher in Hindsight when they broke up.
- Changed for the Video: When they performed "The Boxer" live for their 1981 concert in Central Park, the song has an entire verse (starting with "Now the years are rolling by me/They are rocking evenly") that is absent from the original version of the song as recorded on Bridge Over Troubled Water. On the album, that part of the song is an instrumental break.
- Christmas Songs: Although both men are Jewish they still managed to record several of these.
- In 1967 they recorded two carols ("The Star Carol" and "Comfort and Joy") for a planned Christmas single. It was never released, though the A-side turned up on a couple of multi-artist Christmas compilations and both songs were eventually included in the Old Friends box set.
- Their rendition of "Go Tell It on the Mountain" from the first album. And "Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night".
- Concept Album: Much of Bookends is tied together with the themes of aging and decaying love. Also, it has that song from The Graduate on it.
- The Cover Changes the Meaning: "Wednesday Morning, 3 AM" is a melancholy reflection from a man taking comfort in his lover's company one last time before the law takes him away. "Somewhere They Can't Find Me" changes the instrumentation to angry rock and adds new lyrics in the form of a chorus (including the title line) that indicate the singer plans to flee, unrepentant. Note that the same band released both the original and the cover.
- Driven to Suicide:
- Contrary to what the narrator of "Richard Cory" thinks, the title character's wealth has not brought him happiness, and one night he goes home and shoots himself in the head.
- The title character in "A Most Peculiar Man", an anti-social shut-in, turns the gas on before going to bed one night and asphyxiates himself.
- Dying Town: "My Little Town"
- Either/Or Title: "A Simple Desultory Philippic (or How I Was Robert McNamara'dnote Into Submission)".
- Exactly What It Says on the Tin: "A Simple Desultory Philippic" is exactly that: a simple desultory (meandering and unfocused) philippic (denunciation or diatribe).
- Fading into the Next Song: Almost every song on the first side of Bookends leads directly into the next one.
- First, the initial, guitar-only appearance of the "Bookends Theme" is just fading away as the first note of "Save the Life of My Child" crashes on top of it.
- Then, just as "Save the Life of My Child" fades out, the humming that precedes the first verse of "America" starts to fade in under it.
- As the organ riff that concludes "America" disappears into silence, the sound of a match being struck appears over it to herald the next song, "Overs".
- Although there is a definite break between "Overs" and the next "song", "Voices of Old People", the conversations therein are just ending as the opening of "Old Friends" appears under them.
- But perhaps the most striking example comes in the last two songs on Side 1, as the string score of "Old Friends" reaches its final notes just as the guitar riff of the "Bookends Theme" begins appearing under it - to the point that it's hard to imagine the two songs played separately.
- A Friend in Need: The singer of "Bridge Over Troubled Water" tells the object of the song that he'll be there for them whenever they are struggling - as the refrain clarifies, "like a bridge over troubled water".I'm on your side/When times get rough/And friends just can't be found
- Getting Crap Past the Radar:
- In "A Simple Desultory Philippic":
- Some interpret the Traveling Salesman of "Keep the Customer Satisfied" as being a drug dealer.
- Greatest Hits Album: They've had several. The first of them, released in 1972, is notable for its inclusion of live versions of "Homeward Bound" and a couple other songs in place of the studio originals.
- Have a Gay Old Time: The lyrics for "Homeward Bound" use the term "one-night stand" to mean "a one-off performance by a touring act" rather than "a sexual encounter with no expectation of further interaction". Both terms would have been used at the time, and might still be understood, but now the sexual meaning has completely taken over.
- The Hermit:
- The singer in "I Am a Rock" has "built walls, a fortress deep and mighty, that none may penetrate" and spends his time shut up in his room with his books and his poetry, touching no-one and being touched by no-one. This is a personal choice; he says he has "no need of friendship" and says of love that "if I'd never loved, I never would have cried".
- This appears to be the case with the title character in "A Most Peculiar Man", who is described as having had no friends, not being friendly to anyone he met, and giving the impression of preferring to lead a solitary existence. The last verse reveals that the truth was more complicated, as he was Driven to Suicide by some sort of inner torment, but his lack of human interaction means that he took the reason for his pain to his grave, leaving him remembered only as an anti-social shut-in.
- Heterosexual Life-Partners: This is most notably expressed in "The Only Living Boy in New York" which is basically about Paul missing Art (the "Tom" in the song; in the early days when they performed as "Tom and Jerry," Art was "Tom") when the latter went to Mexico to film Catch-22.
- Hypocritical Humor: "A Simple Desultory Philippic" has the singer snipe about someone being uncultured for not knowing who Bob Dylan is... and reveal himself to be just as uncultured for not knowing who Dylan Thomas was (much less that he inspired the stage name of the man born Robert Zimmerman).
- "I Am" Song: "I Am a Rock" - not literally, just in the sense of the singer cutting himself off from social interaction rather than risk the pain that he believes outweigh any pleasures love and friendship might bring, becoming an unfeeling "rock".
- I Just Want to Be You: The refrain of "Richard Cory" ends with the line "Oh, I wish that I could be Richard Cory." (Richard Cory, meanwhile, probably wishes he could be someone else, someone with real friends.)
- Imagine Spot:
- "Fakin' It"Prior to this lifetime
I surely was a tailor
Look at me:
(Good morning, Mr. Leitch! Have you had a busy day?)
- All of the next song, "Punky's Dilemma", where the singer fantasizes himself and other things as objects.
- "Fakin' It"
- Intercourse with You:
- "Cecilia", going by a strictly literal interpretation of the song; the bridge features the lines "Making love in the afternoon with Cecilia / Up in my bedroom".
- "Baby Driver" has a refrain that features the line "I wonder how your engines feel", and finally makes things more explicit in the last verse when the singer says his parents are away and invites the girl to "come into my room and play", clarifying that "I'm not talking about your pigtails / But I'm talking 'bout your sex appeal".
- In the Style of...: Their early recordings as Tom and Jerry were inspired by The Everly Brothers' sound (whose song "Bye Bye Love" was covered on the Bridge Over Troubled Water album).
- Last Note Nightmare:
- "Richard Cory" features this with a stinger just before the final chorus, sure to startle.He freely gave to charity, he had the common touch
And they were grateful for his patronage, and they thanked him very much
So my mind was filled with wonder when the evening headlines read:
Richard Cory went home last night and put a bullet through his head.
- The lyric then continues with "And I wish that I could be, yes I wish that I could be, Oh I wish that I could be Richard Cory." Of course, this was adapted from the poem by Edwin Arlington Robinson, which ended basically with the spoilered line.
- Their Bookends album has a First Note Nightmare at the start of "Save The Life of My Child", the second track of the album; made more jarring by the fact that the prelude was so gentle and puts the listener in a relaxed state of mind...and then WHAM.
- "Richard Cory" features this with a stinger just before the final chorus, sure to startle.
- Laughing Mad: The end of "Cecilia", the singer's equivalent of throwing up his hands and giving in.
- Lesser Star: Former Trope Namer. Art Garfunkel has been characterized as the junior partner in the duo, and there is truth in that, as Simon sang, played guitar, and wrote all the music, while Garfunkel only sang. For many fans, that was enough because Garfunkel was by far the more talented vocalist. As such, Garfunkel had a big hand in the vocal arrangements, and helped create the close harmonies that were one of the group's calling cards. One way to observe what Garfunkel brought to the act is to listen to The Concert in Central Park and pay attention to the Paul Simon solo tunes sung by the duo: "Me and Julio Down by the Schoolyard", "American Tune", "Late in the Evening", "Slip Slidin' Away", and "Kodachrome". The sound of the Simon and Garfunkel performances is very different from the original Paul Simon versions.
- Live Album: The Concert in Central Park, and the archival releases Live from New York City, 1967 and Live 1969.
- Location Song: "America"Counting the carsOn the New Jersey TurnpikeThey've all comeTo look for America,All come to look for America,All come to look for America.
- Lonely at the Top: The title character in "Richard Cory" is the scion of a wealthy family and seems to have all the possessions and friends he could ever want, but his "friends" are just hangers-on, and he is so desperately lonely in spite of his wealth that he "put[s] a bullet in his head" one night.
- Loners Are Freaks: Deconstructed in "A Most Peculiar Man". The title character is gruff and anti-social, but clearly hurting below the surface, judging from his decision to turn the gas on before going to sleep one night and commit suicide by asphyxiation.
- Lyrical Dissonance: "I Am A Rock", "The Sun Is Burning".
- Name and Name: The duo simply used their last names for their band name: [Paul] Simon and [Art] Garfunkel.
- Never Be Hurt Again: "I Am a Rock" describes the feelings of someone who doesn't want to love any more because they were hurt by it once.Don't talk of love
Well, I've heard the word before
It's sleeping in my memory
I won't disturb the slumber of feelings that have died
If I never loved I never would have cried
- New Sound Album: Their debut, Wednesday Morning, 3 AM, had more of a traditional acoustic folk sound; the second album, Sounds of Silence, was where they shifted to more of a rock instrumentation and approach. The former album even had "The Sounds of Silence" in its original folk-style arrangement, whilst the latter introduced the familiar folk-rock version.
- Not Staying for Breakfast: In "Wednesday Morning, 3 AM" (and its quasi-remake, "Somewhere They Can't Find Me"), the singer knows that he will have to leave his girlfriend before she wakes up a few hours from the day and time in the song's title, as he is facing arrest for knocking over a liquor store. (In the original, he seems resigned to this fate; in the remake, he has decided to flee.)
- Nuke 'em: "The Sun Is Burning" features two sunsets — one is not the sun.
- Obsession Song: "Why Don't You Write Me", complete with a threat of suicide near the end.
- One-Woman Song:
- "Mrs. Robinson" and "Cecilia" both pay tribute to the fictional women named in their titles.
- "Kathy's Song" directly names Paul Simon's sometime girlfriend Kathy Chitty (who is also the Kathy in "America" and several other songs).
- The Emily of "For Emily, Whenever I May Find Her" is sometimes said to refer to American poet Emily Dickinson, although other interpretations hold that she is also Kathy Chitty, or even a more abstract source of solace rather than necessarily a lover.
- Putting the Band Back Together: More than once. The duo reunited for a single song, "My Little Town", in 1975. In 1981 they came together for a free concert in Central Park, New York City, which drew a crowd of over 500,000 people. This led to a world tour and their first new album in over a decade—until Simon mixed Garfunkel's vocals out of the album completely and released it as a Paul Simon solo album titled Hearts and Bones. In the 1990s the duo toured together briefly, and in the 2000s they reunited again and toured extensively.
- Refrain from Assuming:
- "Feeling Groovy" is actually "The 59th Street Bridge Song," but few people remember that.
- That song where Simon wishes he could be a hammer rather than a nail or a forest rather than a street? It's called "El Condor Pasa", not "If I Could".
- Repurposed Pop Song:
- "The Sounds of Silence" was used during the film adaptation of Watchmen. It is also the opening song for The Graduate, which also uses "Scarborough Fair/Canticle" several times.
- "At the Zoo" was used for advertisements for the Bronx Zoo and the San Francisco Zoo in the late 1970s, though this may overlap with "Isn't It Ironic?" due to the song being more of an allegory for human nature. However, Paul Simon himself later re-purposed the song in the form of a children's book with the same title.
- "Bookends" was used as a New Year's Eve song for a while by networks, reminiscing about the past year in a montage.
- Riddle for the Ages: The four letter word written in crayon on the subway wall in "A Poem on the Underground Wall". Wild Mass Guessing has ensued on that, ranging from "LOVE" to "FUCK". Garfunkel's concert intro for the song implied it was the latter (it was inspired by graffiti they saw in the subway while shooting the cover photo for Wednesday Morning, 3 AM).
- Ripped from the Headlines: Paul Simon wrote "A Most Peculiar Man" after reading a notice in a London newspaper about a suicide.
- Rockumentary: Simon and Garfunkel: Songs of America is a rather unique television special that aired on CBS in 1969. Much of the special is a fairly conventional rockumentary featuring interviews with the duo, footage of the duo working in the studio, and film from the 1969 tour. This portion includes Early Bird Cameos of "The Boxer", "Bridge Over Troubled Water", and "So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright". The rest of the film is a series of montages of the social and historical upheavals of The '60s (civil rights protest, Robert Kennedy's funeral train, etc), with Simon and Garfunkel songs as the musical accompaniment.
- Rule of Symbolism: A lot of it. For example, any time a betrayal is implied, thirty pieces of silver (or dollars) is referenced.
- Safety in Indifference: "I Am a Rock" is all about this.I've built walls,
A fortress deep and mighty,
That none may penetrate.
I have no need of friendship; friendship causes pain.
Its laughter and its loving I disdain.
- Sarcasm Mode: At the end of "A Simple Desultory Philippic", Paul Simon sarcastically says, "Folk rock" and drops the harmonica.
- Scatting: "The Boxer" and its "Lie la lie" chorus.note
- Single Stanza Song: "Bookends Theme", the last song on Side 1 of Bookends (and the guitar riff from which opens the album), sounds as though it's a stray verse from a longer song, but it really is just four lines long:Time it was and what a time it was, it was
A time of innocence, a time of confidences
Long ago it must be, I have a photograph
Preserve your memories, they're all that's left you.
- Society Marches On: "Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night" in particular. Gee, Lenny Bruce died this year?
- Soundtrack Dissonance: "Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night". Big time.
- Something Completely Different:
- On Bridge Over Troubled Water, "Baby Driver" (a silly little Intercourse with You song in great contrast to the very serious tone of most of the other songs) and "Bye Bye Love" (a cover of The Everly Brothers, and possibly a Call-Back to their earlier years as "Tom and Jerry").
- On Bookends, there's "Voices of Old People", which consists of people in a New York City retirement home making conversation with Art Garfunkel.
- The Sound of Silence features the instrumental track "Anji", composed by Dave Graham.
- The Something Song: "The 59th Street Bridge Song" and "Kathy's Song".
- Spoken Word in Music: "Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night".
- Spy Cam: Referenced in "America". Paul and Kathy are amusing themselves on the Greyhound bus they have boarded in Pittsburgh by making up stories about the other passengers, and come up with the following:She said, the man in the gabardine suit was a spy. I said, "Be careful, his bow tie is really a camera".
- A Storm Is Coming: Inverted in "The Sun is Burning".
- Streetwalker: "The Boxer"Asking only workman's wages I come looking for a job
But I get no offers
Just a come-on from the whores on Seventh Avenue
I do declare
There were times when I was so lonesome I took some comfort there
- Take That!:
- "A Simple Desultory Philippic (or How I Was Robert Mc Namara'd into Submission)" is a rather savage Bob Dylan parody.
- "The Boxer" was also interpreted as a Take That! to Dylan, but Simon has Jossed that interpretation, explaining that it was actually about himself in a period he felt like he was constantly criticised. Dylan's own Cover Version of it was seen as a Take That! in return.
- "Blessèd" from Sounds of Silence is one to those "Christians" who pay lip-service to the dogma without understanding it. It's a reminder that the Second Commandment is "love thy neighbour", not "love thy white neighbour" nor "love thy well-off neighbour". Anyone, no matter how "low", is blessed.
- There's No Place Like Home: "Homeward Bound" has the singer, a touring musician, finding himself longing for the end of his tour, when he can go back home again.Homeward Bound, I wish I was homeward boundHome, where my thought's escapingHome, where my music's playingHome, where my love lies waiting silently for me
- This Is a Song:
- "Song for the Asking" announces itself with those exact words: "This is my song for the asking."
- "Leaves That Are Green" features the line "I was twenty-one years when I wrote this song."
- Travel Montage: A musical version in "America". In the first verse, Paul and Kathy decide to go on a journey together with the modest funds they have and board a Greyhound bus in Pittsburgh, Paul already having spent four days hitchhiking there from Saginaw, Michigan. In the second verse, the bus heads east across Pennsylvania, and when we last see the duo, Kathy is sleeping and Paul is counting the cars on the New Jersey Turnpike, implying they are heading for New York City.
- Traveling Salesman: "Keep the Customer Satisfied".
- Updated Re-release:
- "Wednesday Morning, 3 AM" and "Somewhere They Can't Find Me" are more or less the same song, though the former is done as a folk ballad while the latter is poppier and begins with a bit of "Anji".
- "A Simple Desultory Philippic (or How I Was Robert Macnamara'd Into Submission)" from Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme is a darker, more cynical version of "A Simple Desultory Philippic (or How I Was Lyndon Johnson'd Into Submission)" from Paul Simon's British album The Paul Simon Songbook, with the skewering of Bob Dylan's musical style more overt in the later version.
- "The Sounds of Silence" was originally released as a folk tune with the duo singing and Simon playing acoustic guitar. It went nowhere, and the duo broke up. Then the record company dubbed a whole new electric arrangement (guitar, bass, drums) onto the song and released the single again. It was a hit, and Simon and Garfunkel's career took off.
- Vocal Tag Team: Though Paul Simon did the vast majority of the songwriting, Art Garfunkel would sometimes take over the lead vocals (most notably on "Bridge Over Troubled Water", which only briefly features vocals from Paul Simon).
- Vitriolic Best Buds: Very much, as anyone who's watched Paul snipe at Art onstage can verify. Simon has referred to Garfunkel as "my partner in arguments" on occasion.
- Wanderlust Song: "America" is a fictionalised account of a journey Paul Simon undertook with his then-girlfriend Kathy Chitty to satisfy their desire to travel across America in search of what made the country what it was.
- What Could Have Been: Simon considered singing "Bridge Over Troubled Water", but gave it to Garfunkel instead. He now claims he regrets doing so, as he would get jealous while the crowd cheered at Garfunkel for signing a song he wrote and helped produce.
- Writers Cannot Do Math: Jokingly invoked on the label for the "Fakin' It" single in 1967, which listed the song's running time as 2:74. It was either a Stealth Pun (the song's called "Fakin' It" and it has a fake time listed) or a sneaky way to fool radio stations into thinking the song was under three minutes.