Demons in Christianity can inflict devastating mental assaults (see also Demonic Possession). There's also the interpretative depiction of Hell as a place of Mind Rape is an alternative to the rather-cartoonish Fire and Brimstone Hell. Specifically, this Mind Rape effect is reasoned to be self-inflicted and caused by eternal separation from God, resulting to loss of sense of purpose, sanity and even the ability to comprehend love and "everlasting happiness".
One interpretation popular in the Mormon Church is that when you stand before God you will have total recall of all you have done (except those offenses of which you've repented, i.e. confessed and forsaken) and be acutely aware of how every action you took affected those around you (meaning that in the end god won't judge you, you will judge yourself), thus it will be one big Mind Probe of your deepest memories. Which would be a pretty torturous thing if you made many mistakes in life, thus hell is a self imposed state of mind brought on by knowing just how much of a terrible person you are.
Another interpretation is that the true form of God can do this to you, hence why Islam forbids any depiction of God's true form, and why Judaism forbids saying God's true name (which is The Unpronounceable, while "Yahweh" and "Jehovah" are just approximations).
Numerous beings in Shinto Mythology can do this to you; Nekomata and to a larger extent, Kitsune, to name a couple examples.