In the Cabin Pressure episode "Qikiqtarjuaq", Arthur is highly enthusiastic about flying to the eponymous community to look at polar bears. According to The Other Wiki, there is a theory that "Arthur" means "watcher of the bear".
Carolyn's name is a feminine derivative of "Charles" which means "free man". Carolyn is very glad to be free of her rotten ex-husband Gordon.
Spoofed in Nebulous, with an evil race of flame beings called Infernons. Rory is puzzled by this and asks if they infer things - 'or infer nothing?'. Later lampshaded when they start setting fire to things and he announces, "Oh, like 'inferno'."