"Quest for glory! Accepting our fate with the power that we own. This is a hero's story, we'll be the greatest the world has ever known!"
—Opening theme to the English dub
Fifty years ago an evil force known as Dark Bring was plaguing the planet, turning hearts twisted and corrupt with its dark power, which in turn sparked wars and turmoil. One man, known as the Rave Master and armed with special powers known as Rave used to counter against the Dark Bring, attempted to stop the madness by tracking the Dark Bring source and proceeding to destroy it once and for all...He... didn't quite get the job done.For as he thought victory was his, the source of the Dark Bring proceeded to explode, taking one tenth of the known world's landscape with it. Not to mention losing most of the Rave Master's powers in the process. Jump to 50 years later on a little known bit of land called Garage Island, where we meet Haru Glory who snags a strange-looking...um, "dog" called Plue while out fishing. One thing leads to another before he's deemed the 2nd Rave Master whose job is to bring peace to the world and save it from the lingering threat of the Dark Bring and those who wield its powers for their own selfish and destructive ends. He gains allies along the way and overall has one heck of an adventure.Known in Japan as Groove Adventure Rave or simply, RAVE. 'Twas the first manga to bring success to Hiro Mishima (who would go on to create the little known gem Monster Soul then the equally successful Fairy Tail) weaving 35 volumes in a fantastic tale of love, honor, courage, fate and The Power of Friendship. A very good read for anyone who's a fan of Shounen or just trying to get into manga in general.Was adapted into an anime in 2001 that ended in 2002 with only 51 episodes made that only cover one half of the series. However due to slow pacing, it suffered in the ratings and was cancelled.In the United States, the anime was severely edited and aired on Toonami, and didn't see the light of day again for a few years until SyFy picked it up as part of their Ani-Monday block. It did feature many Californian voice actors who would go on to betterprojects, mostly under VIZ Media or Bandai.The manga as well as the anime was owned by Tokyopop. But in 2009 they dropped the series without warning with only three volumes left to go. Thankfully, Del Ray (who are the holders of Mashima's other series Fairy Tail) picked up the series and will release the series from beginning to end. They published the final three books as a single volume.Though Rave ended years ago, it received a fun little revive in Mashima's later work, Fairy Tail. Not only are several characters designs and attitudes lifted directly from Rave, Fairy Tail eventually received a crossover OVA called Fairy Tail X Rave, wherein Haru and his gang meet their Fairy Tail counterparts.Has a started character sheet. Feel free to contribute.
This show provides examples of the following tropes:
All There in the Manual: Character bios are included in the back of each volume, giving information such as heights, birth dates, hobbies, and even blood types of all significant characters. Try taking Sieg seriously when you know that his hobby is watching clocks. Occasionally, other information like how to translate Symphonian writing or figure out someone's elemental alignment is also included. Lucia was actually born aligned to the light element before changing to dark, something which is never even mentioned as possible in the story itself and makes his name a little more understandable.
Ambition Is Evil: Slade's desire for a promotion pre-story results in King's shift from Well-Intentioned Extremist to full on terrorist, and sparks Lucia's transformation from a shy little child to a psychopath so twisted that even the lord demons feel he's worthy of bowing down to.
Amnesia Danger: Compare Elie's efficiency in battle toward the start of the series (with amnesia) and toward the end (where she's remembered a lot more). If Elie had never lost her memories, she could have been such a massive help back then. Then again, the story would be over much quicker that way.....
Anachronism Stew: While 50 years ago was very medievaleque, the present has wizards, mermaids and dragons along with flying ships and machine guns and very modern clothing
Also the Ten Powers'/Commandments' Eisenmeteor and Runesave forms are useful for fighting magic users. Eisenmeteor is a normal iron blade, which cannot be affected by magic. Runesave can cut through magic like any other sword can cut through a solid object.
Anyone Can Die: Not anyone, exactly. But anyone who isn't in the inner circle doesn't have great odds.
Make Me Wanna Shout: Used Sound. It increases Ranju's voice to a point where it can kill anyone who hears it.
No Sell: Sound Canceller. which allows Sopia to cancel sound, which is extremely useful against sorcerers who have to chant their spells.
Mind over Matter: Sky High. allows the user to control anything in air, such as weapons and those who can't resist the control. Used by Onigami user, Gobu.
Super Strength/Charles Atlas Superpower Type 56, Deep Snow, Shuda's replacement's second Dark Bring implanted in his body at birth. It allows the user to unlock his true potentials and powers, in other words eliminating the barriers to become stronger. Grants enormous power to the user by breaking the limits of the human body.
More Than Infinite: Type 61, implanted into Haja's body and the secret of his infinite power, which allows the user to have infinite magical energy.
Instant Sedation: Dux Dormir, which creates a gas that puts anything to sleep, including Sean Vivera, one of the Six Guard himself.
Breath Weapon: Hard Breath allows Reevil, one of the Six Guard to control their breath to the point that it can deflect bullets and propel grown men far into the air. It can also tear the clothes off of another person.
Instant Armor: Dress Up, used by Six Guard member, to wear anything that being shot or thrown at the user including bullets, electricity, and fire. It also allow the user to wear anything surrounding such as wind to become faster. Her most powerful "dress" is when she uses metal as armor.
Twister which allows Six Guard member, Giraffe, allows him to twist any object, no matter how hard, as long as he's touching it for even a moment, even people!
Hollywood Acid: Acid Rain, used by Six Guard leader, Lukan, allows him to dissolve anything that touches his skin, and change into acid, granting him immunity to physical attacks.
Having a Blast: Ballettänzer Zeffrea, Shuda's second Dark Bring, creates explosions at any given spot.
Extra Ore Dinary: White Kiss, Reina's Dark Bring, which creates metal from literally nothing.
Green Thumb/Attack Reflector: Yggdrasil, Jegan's Dark Bring, which allows him to absorb almost all power and attacks and control and manipulation of plants. If an enemy directly strikes Yggdrasil, the enemy will begin to sprout little seedlings which eventually morph the enemy into a tree
An Ice Person: Armure D'Etoile, used Juilus, one of the Oracion Seis, harnesses the power of ice.
Making a Splash: ZeroStream, used by Shuda's replacement, Deep Snow. It is able able to control all that flows, which includes water, wind, and even blood. This dark bring is able to use water as a shield, create tidalwaves, turn rain droplets into bullets, contort and twist enemies' bodies by a simple move of a finger, and use wind to blow away debris and enemies.
Eldritch Abomination: It holds all of the powers of the five Mother Dark Brings, and its assimilation initiates the destruction of the world. As its title suggests, it gives an individual the power to destroy dimensions. It takes the form of a dark Energy Being at full power and a slime ball in its base form.
Power of the Void: Sinclair/ Dark Mother, Lucia's primary Dark Bring. It can cause large explosions and create warped dimensional spaces with great enough pressure to annihilate anything. The explosions are similar to Overdrive but on a smaller scale.
Gravity Sucks: Vampire, Doryu's Sinclair piece. It has control over gravity and repulsion, allowing the user to either draw in the enemy or push them back. When mastered, it can "pull physical matter into darkness".
Nigh Invulnerable/The Law of Diminishing Defensive Effort: Last Physics, Ogre's Dark Sinclair piece. It it prevents the owner from being harmed by any physical attack, even if it pierces the body. Fists, bullets, & swords are all useless against this Dark Bring. It is, however, useless against non-physical attacks such as magic.
Time Master/ Healing Factor: Anastasis, Hardner's Sinclair. Its mainly resurrection, allowing the user to heal himself from seemingly grievous wounds or to call up living or non-living things that has been destroyed. He can also use it to control plants by filling them with life, restoring enemies' past wounds, and also to rebuild buildings and ruins that have been destroyed.
All Your Powers Combined: Final Story, Ashura's Sinclair piece, which is later used by Lucia. Allows complete control of all Dark Bring, and can destroy any that are used against him.
Barehanded Blade Block: Done by Sieg in his fight with Haru. Justified in that, Haru was using a magical sword and Sieg, being a sorcerer, used his magic to stop the blade rather than just his fingers.
Also, later in the series, Doryu the Demon Lord blocked Musica's spear with his finger.
The Cavalry: Everyone who the main characters have helped in the past become this when Haru and the gang are overwhelmed by Lucia's Golem Soldiers.
Changing of the Guard: From Shiba to Haru, though not fully made official until many chapters later down the line.
Chastity Couple: Let and Julia look and act like they're Vitriolic Best Buds most of the time (or Julia acts this way, and Let acts like the team grandpa). While a relationship is there if you know to look for it, you only know to look because each has a single occasion where they openly say there's something between them.
Cruel and Unusual Death: Two. While most deaths in the manga are swift, to say the least, the last king of Symphonia dies slowly from a magic induced illness shortly after becoming a father. The second, or first depending on how you want to look at it, is Sieg Hart, who starves to death over twenty years before being born. He could have avoided the situation if he'd used the fact that when first going back to Symphonia he had a hole in his gut. Haru and Elie's main character power would have gotten them back to the present some other way. Elie already pulled it off on her own once anyway.
Cry Cute: Both Haru and Elie. If you really think about it, any of the characters who end up in tears, save for the comic relief.
Cry for the Devil: Just in case you've forgotten what Lucia is fighting for, the chapter where he puts his final plan into motion begins with a flashback to his arrest. The horrified look on his little face after having witnessed the government decide his family is better off wiped off the face of the planet speaks volumes.
Cry into Chest: First Haru after he loses his father and hugs Elie in tears, then Elie after she breaks down into heartfelt sobs at the sight of Haru when he returns alive after his final battle with Lucia, tenderly hugging him.
Cut Short: The anime only covers a third of the manga before it abruptly stops, not even having Gecko Ending and ending right after the introduction of the true Big Bad. You have to read the manga to find out the rest—which is for your own benefit.
Nobody knew about the Big Bad Friend angle, only that Gale Glory had gone off in search of Rave. Haru himself had no particular interest in his father (quite the opposite) so he probably just didn't care to know. Also worth noting is that Haru's father had the Overdrive stuck in him, which as far as he knew could have gone off at any time, making staying the hell away from his children the single best thing he could have done for them in his mind.
First by Lance, then Sieg doesn't kidnap her but he comes pretty close to killing her off. She gets snatched up by an Oni and handed over to Doryu. Then Lunar takes her to Hardner. Then Ashura kidnaps her at the beginning of the final battle, then immediately after Haru gets her back, Lucia takes her away, though this one is probably justified since Lucia's the biggest of the Big Bads.
There was also an attempt by Shakuma, but that kind of backfired on him, as Elie fights back and ends up responsible for his demise.
Dark Is Evil: Even though Ruby says being aligned to the dark element doesn't make you evil, every villain whose alignment is known is dark. Even King and Lucia, who were born aligned to ocean and light respectively.
Dark Is Not Evil: Despite evidence to the contrary (and also the above), the ninth form of the Ten Commandments, the Darkness aligned Sacrifar, only went screwy with Haru because the form was made to be used by Shiba.
Death by Origin Story: Inverted. With the exception of parents every character significant enough to get a name who died in an origin story was invariably either actually alive or a spirit in an animal's body.
And Lucia, sort of. There's no other way to describe his death, which was just ambiguous enough that he may have actually made it to the original world after all.
Disk One Final Boss: King. Demon Card itself is a subversion. Heck, it looks like a highly climactic battle, except that Haru's sword doesn't have all the powers yet and there are still two more rave stones to find.
Draconic Humanoid: Let, at least initially. All members of the Dragon Race go through a phase where they spend some time in this state, before either conquering or succumbing to their inner dragon. Let conquers his and becomes more human-like in appearance afterward. His former flame, Julia, succumbed, and ended up a full fledged dragon. At least until he cures her.
Dropped a Bridge on Him: Well, more like a giant tower, but nevertheless this is how Gale Glory died, and yes it was as sudden as the trope implies.
Gender-Blender Name: Lucia. Big Bad with a girls name that means "light". Hilariously obvious in Volume 32 since whoever wrote the summary on the back hadn't actually read the story and referred to Lucia as "she" or "her" several times.
Generation Xerox: Seems to be this way for the Raregrooves, Glorys and Musicas, in fact it's a major plot point for the former that this occurs.
Don't forget Sieg Hart. He sent Haru and Elie back to the future, then parked himself on a rock so he wouldn't change the past and just sat there until he died.
And in the final battle, most characters use a suicide attack to help Haru get to Lucia. Although no one actually dies from them.
Haru himself does this at the end of the final battle after he's trapped inside the Endless after defeating Lucia. He convinces Elie (though it takes some effort) to use her magic to destroy it rather then let it destroy the world. Like the example above, he comes back to life.
High Heel-Face Turn: Many of the Oracion Seis had one of these, but Reina's is higher profile than any of the others except Shuda, who's a special case in many ways. Musica even tells her "You don't belong with these guys... because you're a good person."
Hitchhiker Heroes: The adventure begins with Haru and Plue. Then they're joined by Elie, Griff, Musica, Let...
Hoist by His Own Petard: Subverted with Six Guard's Chien, who actually grows stronger when knocked out by his own sleep power.
Humans Are Bastards: Doryu is a firm believer in this ideology. And given his past it's kind of hard not to sympathize with him.
Identity Amnesia: Elie forgot who she was when she acquired amnesia. The name she goes by she guessed must have been hers since it was tattooed on her arm. Her actual name is Resha Valentine.
Impossible Thief: A Running Gag has Musica and Nagisa stealing each other's underwear right out from under each others' clothes. Musica gets Nagisa's panties once and her bra twice; Nagisa gets his belt and later mentions having snagged his underwear as well.
Improbable Age: Ignoring that Cattleya took on the role of mom when she was 11, Griff is a six year old pervert.
Inconsistent Dub: Due to the last three volumes being published by another company, this crops up a bit. Suffixes come out of nowhere, Yuma goes from being 'Daddy' to 'Father', Star Memory becomes Stellar Memory, and the Mystical Realm becomes the Makai world.
Also at the very beginning: Haru's sword was initially referred to by its Japanese name of the 'Ten Commandments', but became the Ten Powers from pretty much volume two onward.
Incredibly Lame Pun: 90% of the dub. The other 10% is incredibly lame fight scenes. Sometimes they overlap.
In the Blood: If your last name is Glory, you're a white haired, gray eyed, justice loving hero who will end up saving the world. If your last name is Raregroove you're a golden eyed blond who started out nice and sweet, suffered some horrible tragedy, and decided to destroy the world.
Let Them Die Happy: Subverted. Elie lets Shiba die holding her, because she resembles his dead love. Turns out she is his love, who faked her death.
Life or Limb Decision: Inverted by Shuda, who opted to cut off his hand and fall to his not quite death instead of letting Haru save his life. Nearly happens a second time later, after Shuda's become one of the True Companions. Finally, Elie attempts to do this to remove a magic restraining bracelet so she can fight in the Final Battle, but is saved from doing so by Musica.
Long-Lost Relative: Lucia unintentionally recruits his step-brother and grandfather when aiming to strengthen Demon Card. Whether or not he is aware of his relationship with Deep Snow is never addressed, but Shakuma confirms that Lucia is unaware of the fact that Grandpa is the batty old wizard he's bossing around, as well as mentions his belief that Lucia neither needs nor would care to know about any family he might have left.
Manly Tears: Haru falls into a crying fit when he learns Gale Raregroove killed his mother, Sakura. Later, he has an even worse one when his father, Gale Glory, who he's been searching for all this time, pulls a Heroic Sacrifice and dies saving his son's life. He breaks down in Elie's arms from the unbearable agony of this disaster.
Gale Raregroove himself, after both Haru and Gale Glory defeat him with a fatal strike, and he has a Villainous BSOD that causes him to cry in remorse over his actions.
To a lesser extent, Musica and Gale Glory.
Played for Laughs when the Jiggle Butt Gang leader told Haru his "tragic" life story.
Morph Weapon: Haru's Ten Commandments sword, King and Lucia's Decalogue, Musica and Reina's silver.
Motive Decay: Lucia. You get the sense that, at first, he had no idea why the heck he was trying to kill everyone. In fact, he goes from wanting things like power and world domination to a twisted desire for normalcy and a plan to obtain this by destroying the world. This is because that if this world is so right, then why did his family die and his life suck so much? In the end, maybe he has no straight motive; he's just nuts.
Murder the Hypotenuse: Whether Jegan failed or never really wanted to kill Let is unknown, but he let both Let and Julia believe he'd killed the other one.
As a side note, Lucia tries to kill Haru, and very much likes Elie.
My God, What Have I Done?: Hardner when he learns that Nagisa is his daughter and realizes he had her tortured for information.
No Export for You: Tokyopop's license for the manga expired with three volumes left to go or in other words, right before the start of the climax! Fortunately Del Ray have picked it up and will release the ending of the series some time in 2010. Phew!
No Good Deed Goes Unpunished: Aciela Raregroove used Star Memory to create a parallel univierse where humanity doesn't go extinct. As a result, this universe becomes determined to make her son, grandson, greatgrandson, greatgreatgrandson, etc. as miserable as possible.
Normally, I Would Be Dead Now: Practically everyone (though some are significantly bigger offenders). Several times. No matter what happens to a character, whether they die or not seems to have more to do with plot than the actual extent of their injuries.
Paper-Thin Disguise: Two instances. The first is Shiba, who is actually introduced in the first chapter while under disguise. He removes his mask and reveals his true face to Haru, which just has a few less wrinkles and less bushy eyebrows. Later on while trapped in the past, Elie is mistaken for Resha by several Symphonians who want her to come with them. Elie, fearing Sieg's wrath, tries to get out of going with them by putting Plue on her head and saying "You seem to have mistaken me for someone without a hat".
Perpetual Poverty: Starting with the defeat of King, the gang always seems to be in financial trouble. They recruit one of the richest 'men' in the world, and he goes broke. They eventually get a rare collectable item and sell it, but over time they spend all the money they got from that. They then win over a million Edel in a contest, and Evermary spends it all on snail caps in a matter of days while they fight the current Big Bad.
Playboy Bunny: Julia working at Ruby's casino after the Final Battle.
The Power of Love: Shiba, fighting for 50 years due to his love for Resha. Haru's main reason for fighting is for Elie. Sieg Hart guarded Elie for 50 years and continues to do so in death. Basically, all three of them dedicated their life for the same girl.
Power Perversion Potential: The Dark Bring glasses. Though they're only used to see through walls and find weaknesses Elie can only imagine them being used to see through her clothes, and insists on calling them the "Pervy Glasses".
Reforged Blade: Pretty early on in the story, the Ten Commandments broke. They brought it to the blacksmith who originally forged it, "Musica," the old one. The sword is stronger thanks to advances in technology.
Reforged again by "Musica", the young one, towards the end of the series.
The Decalogue also counts, as it broke in a fight between Lucia and Haru before Endless appeared. It came back, stronger than ever.
Screw Destiny: Tattoos are introduced late in the story which allow a person to change their fate to a limited degree.
Second Love: Elie originally fell in love with Shiba when he was younger but after faking her death and suspended in animation she later meet Haru and... well you get the gist.
Senseless Sacrifice: Sieg Hart's death. It's great and all that he was willing to give up his life to get Haru and Elie back to the future (no, that's a lie, it sucked) but Elie, who by then remembered how to control Etherion, could have just used it to put them all in a deep sleep where they didn't age until the proper time having already done this once in the desired time span.
Actually a subversion. Remember the skeleton they found in front of Resha's grave? It was his skeleton. In other words, his death was necessary for the Stable Time Loop to happen. Without it, the gang wouldn't have had any idea what to do at that point, and the whole thing would have fallen apart.
Earlier on Reina dies as well in order to save countless people, including the main characters, and destroy the Silver Ray. However, with the amount of Normally, I Would Be Dead Now this series utilizes, survival was not out of the question. While it is true that her death wasn't completely pointless as it does grant Musica a fair deal of his character development, the same improvements to his character could have been made without her death, as Reina is actually present during at least one of those moments as a near death experience.
Single Line of Descent: The Raregroove family seems to be in the habit of only ever having one child, as Lucia is the sole descendent of the only survivor from the original world after his father and grandfather pass away.
Spell My Name with an S: Iulius/Julius, Doryu/Drew, Sieg/Seig/Jeid/Jade (the general), and Sieg Hart/Seig Hart/Jaker (they spell it differently whenever talking about him in Fairy Tail).
To be fair, Jaker was a result of scanlators translating from Japanese to Chinese to English.
A surprisingly large number of people spell Elie's name with two 'L's, despite it being drawn into images (and not typed up by translators) with only one L. There is a marking on her arm that comes and goes which spells her name in big capital letters, it is engraved into the back of the pendant she wears, and if you flip it you get the number 3173. These are all things that come up as plot points multiple times, meaning there's absolutely no good reason for anyone not to have noticed.
The anime and manga also disagree on whether one of the Knights of the Blue Sky was named Clea or Claire, and if one of the Big Bads is Doryu or Drew.
Stable Time Loop: The skeleton seen at the wasteland of Symphonia turns out to be Sieg Hart.
Start of Darkness: Quite a few of them. Gale Raregroove, his son Lucia, the aforementioned Doryu, Hardner, etc.
Story Breaker Power: Etherion magic. The story did its damnedest to make sure that Elie would only recover it right before the final battle and that she couldn't use it against anyone except the Big Bad during the battle and just to make sure the Big Bad doesn't go down without a fight first, Elie gets kidnapped and a bracelet which blocks her from using her magic, which she can't remove until well into Haru having the battle with the Big Bad.
Take Our Word for It: What is Wonderful Gocch's back story? We'll never know, but it was the most depressing thing Haru ever heard.
Take Up My Sword: Teased, as Haru once, when seriously injured, tells Ruby who will be the third Rave Master, and that this information will be crucial since he won't last through the fight. Since he does in survive, though, we never find out who he named.
The Talk: Invoked humorously in Volume 30, when one of the series' numerous Mentor Archetypes tells the crew that in the original timeline, the population of the world was reduced to just one person at which Elie exclaims "Only one person? But that means no more babies," to which Cool Big Sis Julia quips "Well, I guess this means we won't have to have thattalk."
Temporal Paradox: Okay, so Haru, Elie who's really Resha Valentine thrown 50 years into the future and Sieg Hart travel 50 years to the past to recover Elie's memories of being Resha. While there, Haru foils an assassination attempt against Resha but lets the assassins escape. Because of his interference, the assassins return a few days later and almost kill Resha. In the process she receives a cut on the arm a duplicate of which instantly appears on the arm of her older self, Elie. Talk about Delayed Ripple Effect. Rave also begins to malfunction when Resha is in greatest peril, kinda like Marty's hand beginning to disappear when his future is threatened in Back to the Future. Best not to try to make sense of any of it.
Thanks for the Mammary: Haru is shocked to find Elie on the other side of a door he was just blown through. Elie just wants to know how his hand ended up where it did upon his landing.
Theme Naming: Most locations on the Song Continent are named after musical genres, arguably including Haru's home, Garage Island (as in "garage band").
Traveling at the Speed of Plot: If there's no need for speed (or a need to stall) the gang must travel by foot or with Griff's horse. If they need to get somewhere fast they have either Musica's airship or, if it's out of commission (and it always is), they can hitch a ride with the resistance. The time they most need speed, they get a ride from an airship full of sorcerers who can teleport it to where it needs to be.
Unfortunate Names: Haja. His parents had to have known he'd have grown up to be evil, since they named him evil.
Villains Out Shopping: After a tiny bit of payback from Elie, the gang is content to leave Julius to enjoy his dance contest rather than take advantage of how nauseatingly low the evil general has left his guard.
What Could Have Been: Nagisa was going to be a ninja (evidence being her slipping away from Musica, causing him to grab a girl with an unusually large head). It just didn't work out.
Solasido and Remi were intended to join the main cast (most likely as apposed to Let). However, Hiro Mashima didn't want to have to take the time to shade Remi for the rest of the manga. They just get a cameo near the end instead.
Haru and Lucia's final battle was supposed to last an extra chapter, as was the talk they had afterward. Mashima miscounted the number of chapters he had left before he had to end the series, though, and there ended up not being enough time.
What Happened to the Mouse?: Feber, Haru's first enemy, never appears again after Haru defeats him with a sword. A question about him even made it into the Q&A section of one of the manga.
Furthermore, who would have been the third Rave Master had Haru died?
Every Demon Card general either dies or switches teams... except Deep Snow. What did he do after he fought Shuda? Did he just go back to Demon Card? Did Demon Card off him? Did he just go lead a civilian life? He's never shown again.
You Gotta Have Blue Hair: Sieg, of course. Hardner's hair is blue too, and Belnika also has blue/purple hair. Haru, Gale, and Let have silver hair. Shuda's hair is unnaturally red. Nagisa's is pink. Reina's is green.
You Monster!: The main cast often accuses the main villains of this, but only Shakuma truly deserves it.
Your Costume Needs Work: More like "You named your strange pet after the legendary dog Plue", but it's the same in the end.
You're Insane!: Haru yells this at King when he learns of King's motivation.