Jade: I know your magic words! [Starts chanting] [Nothing happens]Alice sees Bob successfully accomplish a spell or mystical feat and later attempts to accomplish the same spell or feat by merely copying or repeating their words and/or actions and fails for the titular reason. Usually occurs when it takes more than the Magical Incantation and Magical Gesture. The magic may be in another language that requires understanding before use. It may be because as a Muggle, Alice can't cast magic. Or By the Power of Grayskull! only works for Bob since only he has the power of Greyskull. Maybe the sun wasn't at the right height. Whatever the case even if the character is Awesome by Analysis, the feat won't work by observation. The results of when a character uses a spell where more than the Magical Incantation matters will vary. There may simply be no effect or the spell could backfire. If a villain tries to use a hero's spell and fails due to lacking something necessary for success like The Power of Friendship, expect a "Reason You Suck" Speech. Aversion of this trope are rarely examples since then words do make the magic and it is a case of Magical Incantation works for anyone. In Role-Playing Games the inability of Muggles to cast spells by repeating the words is standard. To have it otherwise would mess up the game balance. Compare/Contrast By the Power of Grayskull!, where the words do heavily matter but usually only certain characters can use the words successfully.
Jade: Come on already!
Magisters: Yon twain knoweth nothing about our magicks.
Jackie: That's what I've been trying to tell you!
Jade: Come on already!
Magisters: Yon twain knoweth nothing about our magicks.
Jackie: That's what I've been trying to tell you!
— Jackie Chan Adventures, "The Chan Who Knew Too Much"
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Anime and Manga
- In Fist of the North Star, a mook tries the Hokuto Shinken on Kenshiro, of all people, even daring to tell him "You're already dead" and count down the seconds to Kenshiro's death. Of course, the mook was the one who was already dead.
- In Fairy Tail, Laxus attempts to use Marakov's, his grandfather spell, Fairy Law, which targets anyone the user considers an enemy, to eliminate the entire guild. When it fails, despite having enough power and invoking it to activate, one of his friends reminds Laxus that his heart can't lie to his magic and the guild members are still his True Companions.
- Bleach. Kido spells are spoken, but they only have effect if used by spiritual beings such as Soul Reapers.
- In The DCU, Johnny Quick's sidekick Tubby Watts tried reciting Johnny's magical formula of ("3X2(9YZ)4A") note in order to give himself Super Speed like Johnny's. It failed. A later Retcon established that the 'formula' was actually a personal mantra that would only work for Johnny (and eventually his daughter).
- In the "Irredeemable" Story Arc in Fantastic Four, Doctor Doom defeats the Four using magic (and a Deal with the Devil). He even locks Richards in his own spellbook library, secure in the knowledge that Mr. Fantastic cannot manage even the apprentice-level spell that would unlock the door. And he's right. Doctor Strange has to show Reed that magic requires admitting something about the self and one's relationship to higher powers, not just saying the right words.
- In Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality, Harry assumes this is the case:
You couldn't really need to say 'Wingardium Leviosa' in exactly the right way in order to levitate something, because, come on, 'Wingardium Leviosa'? The universe was going to check that you said 'Wingardium Leviosa' in exactly the right way and otherwise it wouldn't make the quill float?
- A simple experiment shows he's Wrong Genre Savvy, and the words in fact do matter, right down to syllable length.
- Fright Night (1985): After one of the heroes tries to use a crucifix against the vampire to no effect, he learns that it's more difficult than that.
Jerry Dandridge: You have to have faith for that to work, Mr. Vincent!
- Bedknobs and Broomsticks, the man who invented the spells from what he thought was a nonsense book could not use them, but Angela Lansbury's character, Miss Eglantine Price, could because she actually believed in magic. It took a great deal of concentration (and telling his reflection to believe in something for once in his life) before he could finally get one to work after being shown numerous times that magic existed.
- Later, Miss Price gets a hold of the magic words on the MacGuffin that she had been searching for throughout the film...and they do not work. The man then explains that none of the magic words she had been using for her spells were the "real" words or preparations; he had found them, but spiced them up a bit before selling them on. He suggests she tries the same (read: they all sing a song)- and it works.
- In Hellbound: Hellraiser II, the psychopathic psychologist uses a traumatized girl to open the puzzle box, thus summoning the Cenobites to Earth, figuring that this way it'll be the girl who gets dragged to Hell and not himself. But as Pinhead puts it, "It is not hands that call us, it is desire". They leave the girl in peace and go off in search of the one who truly summoned them.
- In the Discworld series, it's repeatedly noted that magic lies in the user's attitude and determination - chants, cauldrons and blood offerings are generally there because of the Rule of Cool.
- Mentioned in Making Money: the golems won't obey orders even spoken in their native tongue, unless the person giving the order is dressed like an Umnian high priest in golden robes, aka Moist's suit.
- Also, the actual chanting done by the Wizards in the Necromancy department is meaningless, any old chanting will do as long as it sounds the part. Even then, this is only because they're trying to summon dead necromancers, who are big on tradition.
- Same thing in Wyrd Sisters as the names of instruments of demon summoning are immaterial as long as the general sound and intent is there. Turns out a big copper ladle is quite useful for bopping an uncooperative demon.
- In I Shall Wear Midnight, a very powerful but untrained witch casts a spell that other witches think is nonsense, overlapping with Achievements in Ignorance.
- Present in The Dresden Files, but the words are still an important part of the spell. The incantation is as much a part of the spell as pointing and drawing up power, so wizards will use nonsense—but consistent—words rather than real ones, to avoid the risk of accidentally misfiring.
- The words are part of a personal, mental construct that a given mage uses to make the spell, and they seem to need a personal connection to the wizard. In a flashback scene, Harry is trying to start a fire with magic, and is using his teacher's words, and can't manage the actual spell until he makes up his more familiar "Flickum Bicus" incantation.
- The reason Wizards use dead languages and nonsense words for their spells is that the incantation becomes linked with the spell in their mind, so if they use a word from a language they speak regularly, they could burn their house down whenever they say "fire."
- Harry at one point in Fool Moon uses a completely non-verbal spell, but isn't able to do much more than the minimum necessary to not die at the moment (something big and nasty had its hands around his neck), and he nearly died from the after-effects of the spell anyway.
- Harry Potter:
- The Cruciatus Curse Harry tried using on Bellatrix Lestrange did work, but due to his own lack of desire to hurt her, it was really weak in effect. It applies to all Unforgivable curses, as their user has to desire to hurt others for them to work at all, and without pure malice (which is quite different from the righteous fury that Harry tried to channel into his Cruciatus against Bellatrix) their effect will be less than desired.
- Another Harry Potter example, it is made quite clear that a wand and an incantation do not magic make, you have to be a wizard to use magic. Filch trying to learn magic via Quickspell would be an good example.
- The fact that wizards have to go to Wizarding School. You can't just say the words and wave the wand, you have to know how to do it. note
- Parseltongue (the ability to speak with snakes) apparently is not magical as such. Ron is able to open the Chamber of Secrets by just making the same sounds that Harry did when he opened it. He had no idea what he was saying but it worked because it was the sounds rather than the knowledge of the actual words that were required opened the door.
- Rowling has stated that even less flashy magics, like potions-brewing or divination, can't be done by Muggles.
- In The Bible, there is an account of non-believers who attempt to cast out a demon by repeating the words Paul used to successfully excorcise one. The demon, being a bit of a Deadpan Snarker, replies "Jesus I know about, and I know about Paul, but who are you?"
- The Dark is Rising, the second novel in The Dark Is Rising series. Before Will Stanton reads the Book of Gramarye, Merriman tells him that only an Old One can use the spells and Words of Power in the book. Even if a human being could read the Book he couldn't use them.
- A Wizard in Rhyme plays with this. Magic is treated as a neutral force that responds to any kind of symbol as a vehicle for the user's intent. Words aren't strictly necessary, but happen to be the most accessible, convenient, and reliable symbols to use, especially when arranged in verse. Thus, the use of verse is so prevalent that most spellcasters never bother with any other method.
- Shown from a mage's perspective in Roger Zelazny's second part of The Chronicles of Amber and in The Changing Land. Words are not the whole spell—they are just the trigger part, and without a properly readied magic they are meaningless.
- In Ra, it's not enough to speak a spell. The mage must think through and understand it as well.
- In the second Rivers of London book, Lindsey tries to copy one of Peter's spells, and he explains to her that you can't just say the words, you need intense practice and an innate ability. Which she does.
- In The Tygrine Cat, Mati realizes he's forgotten Etheleldra's chant upon trying to enter Fiåney on his own for the first time. However, Sparrow's mealtime song about "mackerel, mackerel, smoked and sweet" works just as well. He disregards using chants from then on.
- Journey to Chaos: Spells are nothing more than a Power Crutch. They help with focus but are ultimately unnecessary. What you really need for magic is to understand the magical theory behind the spells. Novices like Eric need them but experts like Basilard and Dengel do not.
- A Mage's Power: Eric improvises a death spell by saying "From its toes to its head, make that monster dead!" but because he has no idea how necromancy works, it's an impotent rhyme.
- Charmed only a magical being, such as an actual, magical witch, can cast spells. If a mortal tries it, the mortal is just speaking a rhyme. In the episode Animal Pragmatism: a group of mortals (mortal= non magical "normal" human) find a loophole. They cast a spell by playing a tape recording of Phoebe chanting a spell, and it worked, because Phoebe did the rhyming.
- Xena: Warrior Princess: Several people attempt to cast a magic spell from a scroll, to no effect. Gabrielle deduces that they are using the wrong meter and accidentally casts the spell herself. Hilarity Ensues.
- In Merlin, the second episode shows how Merlin struggles through a long night in order to master the spell he needs to save Arthur, even though he can say the Incantation properly, it's not enough for him to use that spell.
- In the Supernatural episode "The Curious Case Of Dean Winchester", the Winchesters run into an Irish warlock called Patrick who takes years from people's lives with a deck of enchanted magic cards, and uses it to extend his own life indefinitely. When Dean loses 50 years in a gamble, he tries to reverse the process by breaking into Patrick's safe and stealing the cards. The warlock interrupts them and tells them not to bother.
Patrick: The magic isn't in the cards, idiots. It's in the 900-year-old witch.
- Dungeons & Dragons: verbal spell components, are sometimes required. A mundane person speaking the words will have no effect at all: you have to have magical power/knowledge for the spell to work.
- Conversely, the "Silent Spell" feat allows a caster to disregard the verbal component and still have the spell take effect.
- Verbal spell components spoken by Muggles have no effect in Mage: The Ascension.
- In Mage: The Awakening, people gain magic by having their souls joined to one of the Supernal Realms. The High Speech is a handy Power Crutch to make spells a bit more reliable, but without that connection, it can't be used or even reliably perceived.
- In Shadowrun, magic words normally just make it easier for the magician to focus their mind; thus the words are personal, they often skip the words when they aren't stressed or otherwise distracted. However, in a sort of double aversion, their magic can break in such a way that the words are required… but the requirement is for the same "whatever you made up" words as before.
- Myst: Gehn believes that this is the case, thinking that only those with D'ni blood can use The Art. The people of Terahnee believe the same thing, that Ahrotahntee (book-worlders, people native to an age) cannot use the Art. They're wrong; it's proven time and again that what matters are the books, ink, and words used, not the nature of the person writing them. Indeed for Gehn, it's something he should have known, since his mother was a full-blooded Ahrotahntee (native to Earth in fact) and she was perfectly capable of the art. Then again, cognitive dissonance is pretty much Gehn's stock in trade.
- In Tales of the Abyss, Tear needed to understand the meaning of the fonic hymns before she could use them whether she knew the words or not.
- The Thu'um in The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim. It is possible for ordinary mortals to learn it, though it takes a lifetime of training and effort to master it. Anyone without that training would not be able to make the Shouts do anything. The Dragonborn can take shortcuts because he/she has the soul of a Dragon, and even the Dragonborn has to study the words of power and absorb the souls of other Dragons first. Ulfric Stormcloak himself was taught by the Greybeards to learn the ways of the Thu'um but used what he knew (the Unrelenting Force shout) to assert himself as the "true" High King of Skyrim and reestablish Skyrim as independent from Imperial puppet kings. The thing about Dragon Shouts is you have to understand deeply on what they mean, not just the translation but the real very essence of the word.
- This koan from the Jargon File:
A novice was trying to fix a broken Lisp machine by turning the power off and on.Knight, seeing what the student was doing spoke sternly: "You can not fix a machine by just power-cycling it with no understanding of what is going wrong."Knight turned the machine off and on.The machine worked.
- In Real Life of course, millions of people fix machines just this way, every day. Half the trick to successfully solving a problem by power-cycling is remembering that there is a difference between power-cycling and rapidly hitting the power switch/button; the other half is knowing when you've got a problem you can solve by power-cycling.
- In the Ben 10 "Hero High" series by Mr. Evil, Alexander Sovereign, while studying Gwen's magic, realizes that the words she speaks to use her magic mean nothing. He points out they are only a way to focus the power to what she wants it to do and after training long enough can use the magic to do what she wants without words.
- Mentl in The Challenges of Zona, when he arrives in Erogenia, begins to learn about his own innate magical abilities, which are tied to his abilities as a musician. As a result, he is able to use lyrics to his favorite rock-and-roll songs as powerful spells; he once incinerated an attacker by singing "Great Balls of Fire" by Jerry Lee Lewis, and a counterpart of his from the future incorporated the lyrics to "Get Back" as a time-travel spell.
- Played with in morphE. All of the spells in the series are standard and can be taught or read about in books. However casting is tied closely to how the mage views reality and magic. Tyler can only cast by comparing what he is doing to fictional precedent. Billy can only cast by exerting his will over reality. Curio "codes" his spells using a mentality of adjusting the attributes and statistics of the world around him. Despite this, they are all learning the same school of magic. Tyler and Amical even use the exact same spells, though Tyler does not need to physically touch people like Amical does.
- Parodied in this Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal comic.
- Cargo cults, Pacific island tribes whose islands were used as bases by various militaries in WWII. From the islanders' point of view, these military people didn't have to farm their own food - instead they built an airbase and called for food and other supplies to be brought down in cargo planes. After the soldiers left, the islanders tried to call for supplies themselves and built their own airbases; but since they were only copying appearance and didn't understand the underlying technology, the planes never came.
- A more explicitly word-based version is "cargo cult programming", when novice programmers copy code snippets without understanding what the snippets mean, thus risking a totally different result from the original.
- It's not uncommon for children to try to do something they've seen on TV. If what they saw was a result of some kind of special effect (or was part of an animated show), then they will inevitably fail. For example, what DBZ fan didn't try to use the Kamehameha when they were a kid?