"It doesn't matter whether a cat is black or white—so long as it catches mice."
The current phase of Chinese history. After the Cultural Revolution
escalated Up to Eleven
, to the point that even Mao Zedong
regretted it, the Red Guards were arrested and subjected to reeducation. Perhaps more important than internal factors, however, would be Richard Nixon
when he visited to China in The Seventies
. Picking up on the fact that China and the Soviet Union had gradually fallen out of each other's favor (ironically, the original reason for this was because Mao felt the Soviet Union was growing less
aggressive towards the West under Nikita Krushchev), Nixon had the idea of courting China into the American sphere of influence. At the time he flew to Beijing and met with Mao, both leaders were grossly unpopular with their people, but their agreement to negotiate ties between their nations would have lasting effects. Trade began to pick up between the two superpowers, with the positive effects that such trade tends to have.
Soon after, Mao died in 1976, and the reform-minded Deng Xiaoping finagled his way into power. Taking advantage of the changing world, Deng pushed through many economic reforms, arguing that "Socialism does not mean shared poverty," and that experimenting with capitalism was, in a nutshell, the best means to achieve the nation's stated communist ends. Leading the charge were "Special Economic Zones," mostly coastal cities with looser economic controls meant to attract foreign investors (There were some fairly Unfortunate Implications
in the fact that many had been "treaty ports" seized by Western powers as semi-colonies events like the Opium Wars, but again; the ends justified the means); these lessened restrictions plus the much lower wages tolerated by Chinese workers, ironically as a result of poor economics in the many preceding decades, ensured that many foreign corporations would move their operations in. (Turn over your mouse and examine it right now; chances are it was made in China, along with most other things you own.) The enriched Chinese inhabiting the cities were then presumed to reinvest their own money inland.
Intensifying such changes, in The Nineties
, the Soviet Union fell, seeming to imply that more hardline communist nations were doomed, and Britain returned control of the rather capitalist Hong Kong to the mainland government, giving considerable influence to the course of greater Chinese affairs. By The New Tens
, things have taken off, big time. China is a massive economic powerhouse, considered to be a modern superpower, a space power, and generally, an amiable enough member of the international community. It's the second richest country in the world today (and steadily growing). Futuristic skylines rise from the cities, where a growing urban middle-class works and plays, just like their peers in Japan, Europe and America.
However, all is not fine and dandy. Even though the modern People's Republic is ultra-liberal by Maoist standards, it remains an authoritarian specter looming over the West. It's all the more troubling because those who lived through the Cold War
were used to believing that communist dictatorships were doomed to fail. The end of the Cultural Revolution
may have ceased the political
attacks against Chinese heritage, but there's little anyone can do when gorgeous classical architecture is demolished to make way for freeways and apartment blocks needed to accommodate the growing urban population, or when the people dump traditional ways in favor of emulating the imported culture they pick up on TV. Beijing
, the "Bicycle City", is now full of cars, and hence, pollution and smog clouds. China has ten of the world's most polluted cities, and much of the inner countryside is under threat as natural environments are chopped down and turned into farmlands. There has been a growing Was It Really Worth It?
sentiment among some of the Chinese citizenry who wonder if their society has lost something in their relentless pursuit for getting rich, especially in the aftermath of the Wang Yue debacle
The government occasionally cracks down
on the population again, disturbing to citizens of the "free world" who feel that it's their outsourced dollars that are allowing it to do so. With the current economic troubles in the West, many feel it's only a matter of time before China Takes Over the World
, for better or for worse. Though, at the moment, China still has a very bad wealth to population ratio (ranked 90th in the world, whereas the US is 6th) and it's economy is still well less than half the size of the United States
or The European Union
. It remains a powerful importer and exporter of natural resources like oil, gas and coal, and many speculate that China will become the
importer and exporter of resources like oil, gas and oil, replacing the United States
in that department.
In 2013, Xi Jinpingnote
developed a plan of measures known as the "383 Plan"
, which will involve a greater opening of the market, some transformations in the government and a reformation of enterprises in order to boost innovation on various levels
. The eight key areas to tackle are: cutting administrative approvals, promoting competition, land reform, opening up banking including the liberalisation of interest rates and the exchange rate, reforming the fiscal system including setting up basic social security, reforming state-owned enterprises, promoting innovation including green technology, and opening up the services sector. Within these, the plan identifies three major breakthroughs to be achieved: lower market barriers to attract investors and boost competition, setting up a basic social security package, and allowing collectively-owned land to be traded. With this, the government hopes to diminish inequality, inefficiencey and the enormous levels of corruption. The success or failure of these measures will likely determine Xi Jinping's political future. And China's future.
But what is
China, anyway? Is it a centralized bureaucratic empire ruled by tradition? A zealous communist police state? A Mad Science
experiment obsessed with progress at all costs? Probably nobody knows anymore—not even the Chinese themselves, but we'll go the easy route and say it's somewhere in between.