Moths often serve this function in comics and cartoons. While there is a real-life clothing moth whose caterpillar-like larve will sometimes eat through sweaters and other woolen items over time, the cartoon version will swarm and strip their unwary victims in seconds (usually just down to their underwear in kid-friendly shows).
Anime & Manga
Blame!Academy introduces the "Women's Clothing Disintegrating Beam Emitter", a parody of the main character's weapon and running gag.
Those Who Hunt Elves: The potion which will make any elf naked. A useful way of dealing with cursed armor, in fact.
Full Metal Panic? Fumoffu has the "full monty", a nylon- and other petroleum-based product-eating bacteria. Of course, none of the infectees or the audience get to learn about this until the end of the episode, everyone thinking up to that point that it's a highly virulent and lethal bio-weapon.Hilarity Ensues.
"Flans Exarmatio", the series' primary disarming... and fanservice spell. Or magic in general, really. Almost anything that appears in the series has probably been used to destroy clothes on at least one occasion.
Asuna:(to Negi) Can you not solve anything without blowing people's clothes off!?
It is worth noting that for the first few chapters, the eponymous Negi casts "Flans Exarmatio" whenever he sneezes. The idea behind this is that he's still young and doesn't have full control of his magic yet. Also, he's a specialist in Wind-based magic. Put them together...
Negi once miscasts a memory erasure spell as a panty erasure spell.
He also has an unfortunate tendency to end up in combat with Takane D. Goodman, who has the unfortunate habit of making her clothes out of magic. If she's knocked out, they vanish. And if she fights Asuna...
The "Martian Army" is armed with rays that only destroy clothing.
It later also features a clothes-eating octopus.
Bastard!! features Dark Schneider's girlfriend being subjected to an evil forbidding slime. You can guess what it turns out to do.
To Love-Ru has a teleporter example, and many others. Weird alien technology leaving people naked is a running gag in the series. For example, Lala's clothes are created on her by her sentient robot helper, which she wears in the form of a hairclip, and if it ever gets knocked off, distracted, or dizzy, her clothing vanishes in a poof. Another device randomly switches costumes out for cosplay (including Hadaka Apron and Hadaka... whipped cream) oufits. Yet another device is a clothes dissolving gas. Lala, for the most part, doesn't care, but the rest of the cast does.
In the first OVA, Lucy's clothes disappear because they were from heaven and were revoked.
When Hades tries to kill Wendy, Horologium teleports her out of the way... without her clothes, much to the shock and embarrassment of everybody present, especially poor Wendy. Horologium makes up for it by providing Wendy another outfit.
The Dragon Zirconis does this to humans it wants to eat since it doesn't like the taste of clothing.
High School D×D: One of Ise's first skills is called Dress Break that is nothing but this.
In Transformers: Kiss Players, the titular girls can do a Fusion Dance with Transformers to boost their powers, but the process somehow destroys their clothes.
In the Director's Cut of episode 6 of Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann, all of the female members of the cast up to that point (including the roughly 4 year old Darry) are wearing towels. The villain has a device that can tighten or loosen them. At first, this is used to slowly suffocate them, but then little Gimmy takes the controller and releases the tension. But, under the direction of Kamina, Gimmy turns the dial even further, causing the towels to fall off. Ends up subverted as the girls were all wearing swimsuits underneath.
In Sword Art Online episode 10, Asuna assumes that Kirito wanted to have sex with her and makes her clothes disappear, one by one, until she is in her underwear. Of course, when he nervously clarifies that he just wanted to spend time with her, she angrily beats him up.
The "Ecchi Moth Swarm" card from the Tank Vixens collectible card game destroys all Tops and Tails containing the keywords Cotton, Denim, Lace or Silk.
A ray that destroys fabric featured in a Shadow Lady story in Big Bang Comics.
In "The Mind Molder" arc in the Doc Savage series published by DC Comics in the late 1980s, "Monk" Mayfair was tasked with coming up with a way of rendering their foes' gasmasks inoperative. He concocted a gas that dissolved polymers, forgetting that he was wearing a polyester suit.
In Green Lantern, when a power ring puts you in a uniform, you'll be back in your own clothes when the ring is deactivated. This isn't the case with Star Sapphires.
The cover◊ of DC Comics Legends mini-series issue 5 has Captain Marvel standing amidst piles of superhero costumes strewn around him, suggesting that something (or someone, as the issue itself reveals) has removed the heroes from their clothes.
Firestorm does this to Plastique during her first appearance. He vaporised her costume, leaving her naked and humiliated in public, while he took the bombs that had been attached to her costume away to explode in a safer area.
In one of the Teen Titans Go!! comics, Mad Mod makes clothes that control people. When Cyborg uses a sonic device to destroy these clothes, everyone who wore them becomes naked.
In Steampunk Swimsuit #1, Dr. Frankensteam creates an auto-tailor to help her model change into and out of swimsuits quickly. The device goes berserk and starts stripping members of the audience.
A particular Richie Rich comic book story involved Richie being repeatedly caught and packed into various boxes and shrink-wrap (only up to the neck) by his prankster cousin, Reggie van Dough, using complicated machines. When the usually good-tempered Richie finally has enough and starts chasing Reggie, Reggie bumps a lever and is caught in a machine which spits out two packages. Richie is extremely alarmed until he discovers that the smaller package only contains all of Reggie's clothes.....
In one of the early "Spy vs. Spy" strips from MAD (and reprinted in the first collection) the Black spy creates an invisibility "potion," and envisions himself being able to attack the White spy unseen. The White spy, however, see him testing it on a mouse, and dilutes the mixture with seltzer water. When the Black spy drinks the concoction on a street corner, where he hopes to ambush the White spy, the diluted potion makes only his clothing disappear (although it appears that his clothing simply instantly disintegrates), and he is arrested (and given a nightstick to the head) by a police officer who was nearby.
The original, off-continuity print version of The Order of the Stick that appeared in Dragon Magazine has a strip featuring Belkar's Wand of Dispel Clothing, which he aimed at Haley, but which hit Elan instead.
A popular G-rated version in Peanuts had Charlie Brown repeatedly getting stripped down to nothing but his shorts after getting hit with a line drive while on the pitcher's mound. It's never explained exactly how getting hit by a baseball could remove your clothes, which arguably adds to the humor. Lampshaded in The MovieA Boy Named Charlie Brown when another player complains that they're going to be there all day if Charlie Brown has to get dressed again after every pitch.
Why bother making up spells? There are fics that use Diffindo (disassemble) and Evanesco (vanish). Though the latter has the problem that you can't get the clothes back.
Ash's New Look has Meowth use his Fury Swipes to stripe all of Ash's clothes with the exception of his briefs.
Films — Animation
From Interstella 5555, the process turning the kidnapped aliens into humans (during "Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger") includes lasers reducing their clothes to shreds — while not grazing their skin at all.
Films — Live-Action
Hong Kong film Hex After Hex (Che yuen joi che) features a bizarre scene where a ghost girl turns into Darth Vader, carrying a lightsaber that removes peoples' clothes.
Appears in Scary Movie 4 when they Reverse the Polarity on the body-disintegrator, ending with mass weaponized Fan Disservice to the characters (which we are not privy to, fortunately). For reference, the representatives were so disgusted, the Japanese ambassador committed seppuku on the spot.
The remake of The Italian Job has a character expressing his desire to purchase a stereo system powerful enough to do this. He finally gets it and, during the end credits, we see him try it out on an attractive girl. A pity that she is offscreen when her clothes are blown off.
One of the non-lethal superhero weapons used in Mystery Men is an energy beam that makes clothes shrink. It's used on some already scantily-clad women, making them writhe and moan. One can presume that eventually they burst (the clothes, not the women).
The orgasm piano device in Barbarella strips the subject first.
In Loose Screws, one of the students comes up with a chemical to put into the girl's swimming pool that dissolves all fabric.
In Zapped, Scott Baio undresses women using telekinetic powers. In the sequel, Zapped Again, a new actor gains the same ability, and uses it to the same ends. Both movies are not available due to Willie Aames later finding religion and becoming Bibleman. He can't stop those clips from appearing on YouTube, though. And anyway, Baio's character uses his magic power for other things too, such as humiliating bullies and winning at roulette.
In Dark Angel: The Ascent, a few minutes after the demoness Veronica arrives on Earth, she is inexplicably turned human and her clothes vanish. She later switches between human and demon form several times and nothing happens to her clothes.
In The Malibu Bikini Shop, the guys wind up with a bunch of left-over green scrubs from a hospital that they make into camo-themed bikinis. The thread, however, was suturing thread (the kind that dissolved when left in the body). Cue extreme Fanservice under the closing credits when the wearers are running in the surf..
Old joke: A woman is having an affair. One day, her husband comes home early, so she hides her still-naked lover in the closet. However, her husband looks in the closet. The lover claims that he's an exterminator taking care of a moth infestation. You can probably guess the punchline:
Husband: But you're naked. Lover:(looks down) Those little bastards!
One of the Norby books (by Janet and Isaac Asimov) has a "clothing dissolver" gas in the backstory. One character was kicked out of the Academy because he placed it in the air circulation systems of a space station.
A short science fiction story from the 1950s or 1960s featured a village of two factions, neither of which (allegedly) admitted the existence of the other. The factions were distinguished by the clothes they wore. The space traveler main character solves the problem by emitting some kind of radiation that melted everyone's clothes.
In the Discworld novel Unseen Academicals, Mr. Nutt ghost-writes a love poem for Trev Likely, and recalls his mentor Lady Margalotta as joking that love poetry is just another way of getting a young woman to take all her clothes off. Given his Literal Mindedness and lack of experience with romance, Nutt wonders if speaking poetry will literally cause the recipient's clothes to fall off.
This is a Shout-Out to Illuminatus! author Robert Anton Wilson, who in The Historical Illuminatus series, has his unworldly adventurer Sigismundo Celine conclude that the purpose of poetry is to charm, implore, morally blackmail, or otherwise persuade impressionable young ladies to take their clothes off.
In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, a popular party prank using the finite improbability generator is to make all the molecules in the undergarments of one's hostess move three feet to the left. Presumably this could be done to her outergarments as well, provided it's the right sort of party.
Sandry from the Circle of Magic universe is an ambient thread mage or "stitch witch", and repeatedly overpowers difficult people by either threatening to embarrass them, actually embarrassing them, or creating problems for them that make embarrassment a secondary consideration, such as causing their armor and their horses' tack to fall apart by pulling out the stitching (or doing the opposite, causing their clothes to bind together cocoon-like so they can't move).
And in the first book of Tortall by the same author, Alanna's opponents at one point cast a spell which removes her clothing. This is very embarrassing to her, since it also reveals the fact that she is a girl to Prince Jonathan.
In the fifth Myth Adventures book, Aahz tells a story involving a spell that apparently teleports the targets' clothes away. Thanks to the other characters ignoring him and talking over him, we never get the specifics.
John Brunner's short story "Galactic Consumer Report No. 2: Automatic Twin-Tube Wishing Machines" mentions a related problem with one of tested household matter replicators. Women's clothing created with it becomes transparent in an hour. The company apologizes and states that the responsible employee has been institutionalized because of voyeurism.
In the short story The Exalted by LSpragueDeCamp the Mad Scientist prankster builds a device that nullifies friction and makes clothes crumble to threads.
In Esther Friesner's New York by Knight, a dragon magically removes his victim's clothing with just a glance, instantly making her the image of a chained and helpless maiden.
Doctor Who has The Defabricator, a ray gun which disintegrates only the target's clothes.
Captain Jack: Defabricator. Does Exactly What It Says on the Tin. Am I naked in front of millions of viewers? Trin-E & Zu-Zana: Absolutely. Captain Jack: Ladies, your viewing figures just went one up.
In "Ménage à Troi," the Ferengi who've kidnapped Deanna, Lwaxana, and Riker use their transporter to remove the women's clothes. In their society, women aren't allowed to wear clothes. Which is two reasons we've never seen much of actual Ferengi society. Of course, as Betazoids regularly go naked to formal functions, the Trois are more annoyed than embarrassed.
Lwaxana: I should have known. Even their transporters can't be trusted!
In the episode "The Most Toys", having abducted Data and unsuccessfully ordered him to wear something other than his uniform, Kivas Fajo splashes a solvent on him which dissolves his uniform. He then explains Data's choice to go naked or follow his programmed sense of modesty and wear the other clothing.
In "In The Flesh", Chakotay claims to have been in a transporter malfunction where his clothes got stuck in the pattern buffer and he materialized on the transporter pad wearing only his comm badge.
In "Q2", Q's mischievous son uses his Reality Warper powers to make Seven of Nine's clothes disappear. He's rather disappointed when this doesn't faze her. Having spent most of her life among the Borg, the idea of modesty is somewhat mystifying to her.
Red Dwarf series 8 features Lister and Rimmer trying to use a genetically altered microbe to take the skins off a mountain of potatoes they've been ordered to peel. The microbe does its job, but it also eats away their clothes and hair.
In Extras, Patrick Stewart (Adam Westing as a Dirty Old Man) describes a script he's written where he plays a character with awesome psychic powers, which he uses solely to cause women's clothes to fall off.
Stewart: Oh, they try to cover up, but I've already seen everything.
In an episode of Bewitched, Aunt Clara magics up clothes for Samantha and Darrin to wear to a party, but because she is an Inept Mage, the clothes disappear a few hours later, leading to Darrin getting arrested for indecent exposure (he was left in his underwear). Luckily for Sam, when she noticed that her clothes were dissolving, she was able to magic up replacement clothes before anyone noticed her.
In the Hercules: The Legendary Journeys episode "One Fowl Day", Ares humiliated Iolaus and Autolycus by chaining their wrists together, zapping their clothes away, and stranding them in the middle of nowhere. He also enchanted them so anybody they met would see them as monsters and be unable to understand them.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy: The most popular use of the early finite improbability generators involved teleporting people's underwear three feet to the left (in accordance with the Theory of Indeterminacy).
In Changeling: The Dreaming, it is often easier to target spells at someone's clothes than at the wearer. This can go very wrong, or very right depending on your intentions. A popular example is to keep someone out of a battle by making their clothes (and hopefully them) superjump away from it.
In the Third Edition GURPS supplement "Mixed Doubles", a superhuman called the Liquidator can liquefy matter... including another super's costume. The background stated that he hadn't used this ability on a female metahuman yet, and that the likely result would be a) outrage from her and b) considerable coverage from the media.
A spell reserved for fae and the humans raised by them will have all clothing slip off the target and tangle around its feet. The GM is advised to penalise use as combat preparation, since that'd be bad roleplaying for the character type.
Another spell disintegrates dead matter, but not living bodies, so it can be used for this effect.
One of the joke items featured in an April issue of Dragon was the "Snazzy Ring", a magical ring that would make the wearer's armour take on the appearance of an elegant gown or suit, while still providing the same level of protection. Unless it went wrong, in which case it left you genuinely naked and destroyed your outfit, making it The Nudifier as well if you roll a 1.
Kingdom of Loathing has several examples. Due to the minimalist stick-figure art all are depicted only in text.
The "Depantsing Bomb" works on anything, even enemies that aren't wearing pants.
The naughty paper shuriken, on the other hand, only affects the pants of enemies that can drop pants-type items. Its description actually specifies that "it seeks out whatever's holding up an opponent's pants and severs it". The effect is also more useful because it makes the pants drop more likely and stuns the enemy by getting it all tangled up in said pants.
The high-level boss Zombo can make a face so scary that "you're scared right out of your pants" the first time he lands a hit. On the second hit your hat flies off, and with the third "you jump right out of your shirt".
In The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, there is a quest for the Daedric Prince Sanguine which requires the Player Character to cast the spell "Stark Reality" at a dinner party. The spell strips everyone in the vicinity to their undergarments. This is pretty appropriate for Sanguine, who's pretty much a Captain Ersatz of the Greek Dionysus.
Also the "Ring of Disrobing" from the "Shivering Isles" add-on, which unequips all the players of clothes.
The Bartolls from Super Robot Wars. A requirement for you to be put as its pilot is to be stripped naked first. If you get caught by it, get ready to strip. However, instead of funny, this is usually played for Nightmare Fuel and Fan Disservice.
The Succubus is a creature that removes armor and clothes before she gives you a "Very Educational Experience", which gives you +1 level and increases your wisdom (other, often detrimental effects are also possible, mind you). Of course, low-level characters may simply just go Out with a Bang, so the technique should only be attempted by higher leveled characters. Either way, the Succubus is a very useful way to remove cursed armor. After all, the succubus is among the original Horny Devils.
Disintegration Blasts first destroy your armor. Then they instant-kill you.
In Russian adventure game Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, there's a prank spell. It looks like a cure for petrification, but actually just disrobes the caster. Used by the protagonist for tricking the Big Bad into removing her magical protections.
In X-COM Apocalypse, the Entropy Gun. It's a homing bio missile which on hit starts to dissolve all your armour and weapons. On its own it doesn't do any damage, however, dissolved ammunition tends to fire. Including grenades.
The maggots and giant snails in Metal Slug III. While they simply melt any male characters they manage to spit on, they have a rather more... specific... effect on the females. Which still kills them, for whatever reason.
Also monster-clones of female characters dissolve in the same way when they are killed with conventional weapons.
Final Fantasy XI features Lamia generals in the sieges of Aht'Urghan who, among other annoying AoE spells, can strip you of all your visible armour and weapons leaving your punching the air in your skivvies. Strangely, the spell does not remove your rings and earrings; one should still accessorize when their pants are dropped, shouldn't they?
Zenka from Super Cosplay War Ultra, being one who cosplays Sanger Zonvolt, has the Unyou no Tachi move (just like the original) and what does it do when it hits male characters? Cuts down their clothes.
Dragon Age: Origins – Awakening can cause your imported character save from the previous game to start the game in their underwear if they are wearing certain DLC armor.
Ultima VII has the "Vas Nudi" spell, which causes people's clothes to disappear. You cannot learn it yourself though, it's only used by one NPC seductress.
World of Warcraft has the boss abilties Pillage from Subetai the Swift and Naked and Afraid from Sha of Fear, both greatly reducing your stats while making your character appear naked.
In the Strong Bad E-mail "senior prom", Strong Bad tries to prank the Entrapment All Up On the Moon Dance by bringing in a device that makes everyone's pants "poof away". Guess what? He's the only one at the prom indisputably wearing pants.
Girl Genius: Dr Bunbury's Wacky Weave Destabilizer; the reason so many performer women, including Zeetha, wear metal/leather underwear.
One of the heroes fires an "Equipment Failure" ray at a pair of assassins, one of which is a guy. The two suddenly-naked killers flee, and almost get arrested for public nudity.
Again used by Sarin the wizard a couple of times: once as punishment for a very nosy magic user, and another to solve a hostage situation by blowing away all the equipment held by both the hostage taker and the hostage.
Intragalactic has the Nuditizer (link NSFW), apparently a piece of medical equipment. Which could come off as really handy when emergency access to the body is needed fast. It sure seems faster than scissors.
The Adventures of Fifine has an unusual variant: Naked Island. Just arriving on the island by whatever means will obliterate clothes.
This was misdiagnosed by Bud (in that Bud thought that this was all that happened, but the truth was far more complicated) in a strip of Wapsi Square. Later, Monica seems to have developed a built in version usable on others, starting here. Links are NSFW and contains some spoilers.
In Accursed Dragon, Coven tells Rawn to cast a levitation spell on him. She accidentally only levitates his clothes. Fortunately he kept his underwear, but his primary concern was that everyone could now see he was a dragon.
Evon attempted to teleport herself and Herodotus to a distant city, but only teleported their clothes. There's an entire bonus chapter devoted to them getting new clothes.
One of the less frightening items held by the SCP Foundation but certainly one of the more disturbing examples of this trope is SCP-1755 which was intended by its creators (two bored college grad students) to function as a nudifier. It now has the potential to affect every piece of cotton clothing on the planet and to eventually render the cotton plant itself extinct.
SCP-539 is a disc that, when thrown, causes all kinds of impossible accidents to divert attention from the thrower. The first test has all the observers suffer a "sudden wardrobe existance failure".
Donald Duck, in Disney short How to Have an Accident at Work (1959): A scene card explains to the audience, "Loose clothing and machines JUST DON'T MIX!" Donald gets caught by a machine roughly resembling a riveter, grabbed first by his conspicuously loose tie. The machine follows up by turning his outfit to shredded bits. Hand covers crotch follows after what's left on him falls to the floor.
Kid Rot from Grossology has the ability to cause all organic material to rot with a single touch, including clothing. He himself is exempt from this because his clothes are synthetic (and thus, do not rot). This is a foreshadowing of who he will become, since Abby notes this before we find out he's Kid Rot.
Saturday Night Live's TV Funhouse cartoon series had an episode of The X-Presidents where Bill Clinton wants to join the X-Presidents and creates this robot that has a magnet that sucks the clothes right off people's bodies.
In the Tripping the Rift episode "Miss Galaxy 5000", Six is reciting a poem during the talent portion of the eponymous Beauty Contest when Chode McBlob decides to liven things up by zapping her with a "Clothes B Gone" device.
In Codename: Kids Next Door, Sector V tries using a "Nude Torpedo" against Professor XXX-L; however the coordinates were wrong and instead it hits them. And note that it happens at the North Pole — sure, the kids weren't happy about the nudity, but the cold was a much more pressing matter. (Numbuh Two tried to make light of the situation by saying that at least now they knew it worked.)
Bob Clampett's Looney Tunes short Eatin' on the Cuff is another example of fast-acting clothes-eating moths.
A '70s Sesame Street cartoon has a man getting disrobed by moths.
In the "Treehouse of Horror" episode parodying Fantastic Voyage, white blood cells eat away Marge's jumpsuit although, as she comments, "They know just when to stop".
Milhouse accidentally strips himself completely nude with a botched magic spell in their Harry Potter spoof, triggering a Naked Freak-Out.
Kabuto, the main villain of Tokyo Mater is essentially the automobile equivalent of this. "The loser will be stripped of all modifications... and become STOCK!!!"
On Jimmy Two-Shoes, Heloise trains moths to partially do this to Beezy, to get rid of the fear sweater he was wearing. Unfortunately, their orders were to eat green, and Lucius just happened to be walking by wearing an all green suit.
Nanobots eat The Powerpuff Girls' clothes in "Nano of the North", rendering them stark naked (using their arms to cover themselves).
The Venture Bros.: Dr. Venture, working for Prof. Impossible's team, is abandoned in the freezing Arctic, and quickly discovers the high-tech temperature-regulating bodysuit issued him is only effective above a certain temperature, and disintegrates off of him in the cold.
In a multi-part episode of GIJoe, a Fake Defector joined Cobra and gave them a formula for a near-invicible armor. When his true alliance was revealed, he then used a weapon that destroyed everything that was treated with it. While this was never intended to fit this Trope, seeing as the Cobra soldiers had treated their uniforms with the stuff, it kind of ended up as a PG-rated version of it. (Their underwear remained, but some might say that made it even more humiliating when the Joes trounced them.)
Chowder: In "The Birthday Suits", Mung's dish causes people's clothes to shrink till they burst (although it leaves their underwear intact).
The controversial "perv-scanners" being installed in airports around the Western world don't literally remove your clothes, but generate 3-dimensional images of the person being scanned and allow for layers of clothing to be taken away virtually. But in defiance of this trope, the employees that monitor the scans never see the person being scanned, the images produced are not in colour and are of low enough resolution that your genitalia aren't worth looking at, and the files are deleted once the scan is over. Or at least, they're supposed to.
Note that despite what the link says, the video doesn't show the bikini dissolving entirely. What appears to happen is that only selected crucial parts (like a small portion of the strap) dissolve. This still leaves you with a bikini that won't stay on.
A Real Life inversion has been created by scientists at Imperial College, London. Reported in New Scientist magazine, the device can be used to spray a liquid onto a person's skin where it turns into a fabric.
Locusts have been known to consume green clothes, while they're still being worn in particularly bad plagues. Hopefully, they won't strike on St. Patrick's Day.