A subtrope of MagicPlasticSurgery, this is when a person, whether by accident or on purpose, ends up with the face of another through reconstructive surgery. Usually, some kind of big accident is involved (or staged) that leads to the fateful operation, or the person might just disappear for a while and come back with the new face. However, as mentioned, this is a subtrope of MagicPlasticSurgery: it is not enough that the person has a new face, it is a ''specific'' face, the face of someone else that is known to the other characters, perhaps even a character who's a participant in the story. Also, this isn't LITERALLY having the other person's face ([[Film/FaceOff usually...]]), just having surgery to look like the other person. Bottom line is this: the person's new face is not a random or unknown one, it is a face well known to the other characters. Also, this is not the same as LatexPerfection: while that might be another way of impersonating someone, it is not at all permanent like Surgical Impersonation is, nor does it have as many dramatic options.

Many interesting phenomena can happen from a character changing his/her face like this, resulting in tropes that have good synergy with this one:
* BecomingTheMask: The character, in adopting someone else's face, actually starts living that person's life, and might even start to enjoy it and not want to go back to his previous life.
* IdentityAmnesia: A very interesting combination: a character suffers amnesia and is given someone else's face. This can lead to a TomatoInTheMirror situation in which the character eventually finds, to his horror, that he's not the person everyone claims he is. A MiningAccidentOnTroy might also play a part here. If the author wants to hit the character with the full whammy, he might go for AmnesiacDissonance, too.
* DeadPersonImpersonation: One of the more common tropes associated with this one: the person is impersonating a deceased person for some motive or another, usually revenge. If the impersonator CAUSED the original's death, it's KillAndReplace. It can also be a case of MySiblingWillLiveThroughMe: the person receiving the surgery takes this trope to the extreme, becoming physically identical to the dead relative.

Subtrope of MagicPlasticSurgery. Compare LatexPerfection. A form of ActingForTwo.

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!!Examples:
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[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* In ''GundamSEEDDestiny'', Meer Campbell, a Lacus Clyne {{fangirl}} who possessed a singing voice not unlike hers but was ''very'' different looks-wise, agrees to have surgery (and probable DNA manipulation) that turns her into an identical twin of Lacus. [[spoiler:This is later revealed to be an attempt to abuse Lacus' political influence by Gilbert Durandal, since Lacus herself refused to work with him; Meer went along with it because [[IJustWantToBeLoved she is desperately lonely]].]]
* In one case in ''Manga/DetectiveConan'', the murderer received surgery in order to make his face look like that of the protagonist's, in order to pin the murder on him and get revenge on him. He faked his voice by claiming that he was sick with a cold - ironically, The Hero actually was.
* Manga/BlackJack has done this at least twice:
** Once to save the life of a guy who's been sentenced to death as a scapegoat for a car accident caused by a rich guy's asshole son (by making him look like the son in question).
** Once to help a nurse get revenge on the incompetent boss who ruined her career (by making her look like the singer the boss is obsessed with). In the latter case, Black Jack's [[MagicPlasticSurgery ability to perfectly replicate the singer's face]] is justified by saying that he'd done plastic surgery on the singer too. Or, to be more precise, he "made her face" as well.
* In one ''Manga/CryingFreeman'' story, an organization trying to infiltrate the 108 Dragons takes two agents and reconstructs them as identical clones of Freeman, down to his body tattoos, mannerisms and even ''[[BiggusDickus genitalia]]''. Freeman returns the favor by managing to get one of them killed and impersonating him so he infiltrates the other organization in return.
* In ''Manga/PrettyFace'', the protagonist is in an accident and the surgeon reconstructs his face with a picture of the protagonist's unrequited crush. His face ends up identical to the girl's long-lost twin sister.
* In ''Anime/DuRaRaRa'' [[spoiler:Mika Harima]] was badly injured and had her face remade to look like [[spoiler:Celty's original head, which she was trying to destroy at the time, so she could get closed to Seiji, who is obsessed with said head]]. Evidently [[spoiler:Seiji]] eventually figured it out but remained in the relationship regardless.
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[[folder: ComicBooks]]
* Thomas Elliot, AKA Hush, the newest big member of Franchise/{{Batman}}'s rogue gallery, uses surgery on himself to impersonate people. Taken to a HUGE extreme, since ''he performs the surgeries on himself''.
* An old ''Franchise/{{Superman}}'' comic had a story about a man who'd had reconstructive surgery after being trapped in a fire as a boy: he'd been saved from the fire by Superboy, and asked to have his new face made to look like Superboy's as a tribute. As an embittered adult, he started committing robberies disguised as Superman.
* ''Comicbook/{{XIII}}'' utilizes this trope in conjunction with [[spoiler:DeadPersonImpersonation]] to [[spoiler:draw out members of a government conspiracy.]] After the titular conspirator kills the president, [[spoiler:the rest of the group has him killed. His wife, another conspirator as well as TheMole, hires his rival from his old army unit to impersonate her late husband so the rest of the group will come out of hiding to try and finish him off.]]
* In ''ComicBook/{{Uber}}'', [[spoiler:Josef Goebbels]] has plastic surgery to replace [[spoiler:Adolf Hitler]] after he is murdered. This is achieved through a superhuman with extremely delicate and accurate [[RealityWarping disruption halo]] powers.
* Franchise/{{Batman}} foe Killer Moth once decided to kidnap a millionaire and use plastic surgery to take over his identity. The millionaire her decided to kidnap? [[BruceWayneHeldHostage Bruce Wayne]]. At the end of the story, bullet wounds damaged his face and the new reconstructive surgery removes his resemblance to Wayne.
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[[folder:Film]]
* Probably the most literal example is ''Film/FaceOff'', where agent Sean Archer undergoes a special operation in which he has his face literally taken off and replaced with terrorist Castor Troy's in order to infiltrate his organization... and later Castor wakes from a coma to return the favor to Archer.
* The plot of 1966 Japanese movie ''The Face of Another'' revolves around a surgeon replacing his face with that of another person in order to escape his own identity.
* The amnesiac variant is seen in the movie ''Shattered'': Tom Berenger's character wakes up after an accident with full amnesia, and later discovers he's not the person everyone thinks he is.
* In Creator/EdWood's ''Jail Bait'', a crook blackmails a plastic surgeon to change his face so the police won't recognize him. The plastic surgeon responds by giving him the face of his (the surgeon's) own son, who's been falsely accused of murder.
* ''Film/DiamondsAreForever''. Blofeld has two {{mook}}s undergo plastic surgery to make them look like him in order to distract Film/JamesBond.
* ''OurManFlint''. Flint kills several Z.O.W.I.E. guards and is arrested.
-->'''Flint:''' They're impostors.
-->'''Cramden:''' Gridley? He's been with us...That's Gridley!
-->'''Flint:''' Sir, if you look around the eyes, you'll see some scars. On the bridge of the nose. Plastic surgery.
* A subplot in ''LAConfidential'' involves a ring of prostitutes who received plastic surgery to make them look like famous actresses.
* In ''Film/SherlockHolmesAGameOfShadows'', part of Moriarty's plot turns out to involve having one of his underlings undergo surgery to impersonate a diplomat at an important peace conference.
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[[folder: {{Literature}}]]
* One of the ''[[Literature/SweetValleyHigh Sweet Valley University]]'' Thriller spin-offs was based around a girl obsessed with Jessica's current boyfriend. The girl had inherited a lot of money from her late parents, so after the guy took out a restraining order against her, she used this trope to assume the identity of a popular sorority girl from her university and continue stalking him.
* A Greg Egan story revolves around an insane artist whose attempts to reenact old paintings in real life include surgically altering models (against their wills if necessary) to match the characters in the paintings.
* In Book 1 of ''Literature/{{MARZENA}}'', we have [[spoiler: Dr. Lauren who is actually a BodyDouble of the real Dr. Lauren [[DeathByOriginStory who is already long dead]]]]. Beware, you are what you think (or at least you will be soon).
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[[folder: LiveActionTV]]
* ''Series/{{Alias}}'': One faction of bad guys can do this; they kill Sidney's best friend Francine and replace her with a duplicate.
* ''Series/GetSmart'': In one of the many SpotTheImposter episodes, master impersonator Alexi Sebastian has his face altered to look like DaChief.
* The entire ''Series/KnightRider'' series starts off with the main character getting a new face, that just so happens look like the son of the man who paid for the operation.
* In the ''Series/TheManFromUncle'' episode "The Double Affair," a THRUSH agent gets Magic Plastic Surgery and voice training to look and sound like Napoleon Solo so he can replace him and sabotage UNCLE affairs.
* An assassin in ''[[Series/TwentyFour 24]]'' does this by impersonating a photographer and stealing his identity to get through security.
* Employed by various villains in ''Series/TheWildWildWest''.
* ''Series/TheIncredibleHulk'': "Broken Image" is a gangster example.
* In ''Series/LoisAndClark'', there was an attempt to use a double of Lois in order to convince her and others that she is insane... and then accuse her of murdering Superman.
* In ''Series/{{Highlander}}'', there was a double episode where a villain tried to get to Duncan by changing a woman into an exact double of his long dead love, Tessa (although the double never pretended to be her, it was a bit more complicated).
* In Series/{{Medium}}, there was a plot where a man murders his female relative, but nobody realises that she is dead because his mistress has plastic surgery to make her look exactly like the dead woman. The makers of the show liked this plot so much they used it TWICE! (s3e12 and s5e9)
* Even {{telenovelas}} doesn't scape of this: a recent one was ''El rostro de Analía'', whose plot could be described as ''Film/FaceOff'' crossed with ''Manga/PrettyFace'' [[RecycledInSpace AS A LATIN SOAP AND WITH A FEMALE DOING THE FACE EXCHANGE]]
* With the advanced technology in ''Franchise/StarTrek'', this is used in place of LatexPerfection. [[Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration Cmdr. Riker]] was turned into an alien for a recon mission, and Counselor Troi, Capt. Picard and Lt. Data were (willingly or not) changed into Romulans.
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[[folder:NewspaperComics]]
* This is done to create a double of Modesty in ''ComicStrip/ModestyBlaise'' arc "The Double Agent".
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Theatre]]
* In ''Theatre/ArsenicAndOldLace'', one of the characters is a wanted criminal who had surgery to change his appearance; the surgeon, inspired by a horror movie he'd been watching, gave him the face of Creator/BorisKarloff. (This started out as an ActorAllusion: in the original production, the actor playing the character ''was'' Boris Karloff.)
[[/folder]]

[[folder: VideoGames]]
* In ''Videogame/BorderlandsThePreSequel'', the Doppelganger DLC character was a former intern by the name of Timothy Lawrence who signed a contract to be Jack's body double in order to pay off his student loans, complete with surgery and a voice modulator (though it's hinted that he wasn't completely OK with those).
* In the second case of ''[[VisualNovel/PhoenixWrightAceAttorney Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Justice For All]]'': the murderer is revealed to be a woman who was believed to have died in a car accident, when it turned out that the one who died was actually her sister. She took her sister's identity by presenting the girl's picture while she was in surgery in order to impersonate her to take her revenge.
* Decoy Octopus, Foxhound's infiltration and espionage expert in ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolid'' uses this method to impersonate people.
* ''Videogame/SaintsRowTheThird'' makes use of this in the mission, My name is Cyrus Temple. Interestingly enough, the mistakes the boss makes while under the disguise of Cyrus Temple are different for every voice of the boss.
* ''VideoGame/BatmanArkhamCity'' - One of the sidequests involves a serial killer surgically removing his victims' faces. It turns out to be Hush, who (as in the comics) has reconstructed his own face to resemble Bruce Wayne.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: WesternAnimation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/JonnyQuest'' episode "Double Danger". Dr. Zin uses plastic surgery on a man to make him look like Race Bannon so he can impersonate Race and steal a secret formula.
* On ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' episode "The Bob Next Door", Sideshow Bob trades faces with his cellmate, who was to be released the next day, in order to enact his latest plan to kill Bart.
* An episode of ''The Adventures of T-Rex'' is centered around villains ordering their own doubles for the purpose of alibi.
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