Sliding Scale of Free Will vs. Fate
: Free will! By the Titans' toe-cheese, they told me you were sharp but I had no idea
. Yes, Parson Gotti, Lord of Hamsters, do you believe Fate is a mighty wind? One that propels us inexorably to our final destination? Or do you believe... that the individual
can steer the ship of self, to the port of his choice
, however emphatically the world may try to blow him?
How much free will do characters really have?
The relationship between free will and fate is not necessarily constant. It can vary between stories and even inside those stories, although how much this is actual change and how much it is simply the revelation of the true nature of Fate also differs.
The relationship between fate and free will can be classified this way:
- Neither Fate Nor Free Will Exist
- This one denies free will stating that our choices are just brain-made "echoes" while also denying any "higher power" that decides fate. In theory you can predict people's actions but you would run up against the same problems as predicting the weather and such predictions are in no way mystical.
- Because Destiny Says So
- Fighting Fate Is Hard
- Fate exists but is not the be all and end all. Either only some people can defy fate or defying fate takes a lot of effort or resources, almost as if Fate is reality's path of least resistance. Unless a lot of effort is expended or a hero gets involved at some point the father will act in such a way as to kill his son.
- Prophecies Are Guides, Not Rules
- While there is fate it is simply the expression of what will happen if nothing else changes and is predictable, but knowledge of fate allows you to overcome it without extraordinary effort. If the people involved are not warned then at some point the father will act in such a way as to kill his son but as soon as someone involved knows that then it may not end up happening.
- Prophecies Are Predictions
- Predicting the future is like predicting the weather. There is no plan but it is possible to make prophecies and identify destinies by extrapolating from now. The father killing the son is simply the most likely outcome given the current situation but it is open to change at any time.
- Screw Destiny
- Either there is no such thing as fate or there is no way to find out what is "fated," no way to see into the future and no prophecies, two states that are effectively indistinguishable. If the prophecy exists then it is little more than a portentous guess with no actual power or fate behind it.
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Anime & Manga
- The ultimate message and conflict of Gundam Seed Destiny revolved around this, as a battle of Freedom vs Destiny.
- Princess Tutu has themes regarding these. The show's catchphrase is "May all who accept their fate find happiness. May all who defy their fate find glory."
- Berserk lies somewhere very high on the scale. Causality plays a big role in the Berserk universe. People like Guts are able to struggle against causality, but are unable to completely overcome it and/or maintain their struggle indefinitely. One character who would know (but who may not be the most reliable source) compares him to a fish in a stream: the fish can leap into the air, but it cannot alter the course of the stream. If accurate, that would put it somewhere between You Can't Fight Fate Because Destiny Says So and Fighting Fate Is Hard, depending on how much importance you want to place on the fate of the fish versus that of the stream.
- Cardcaptor Sakura is high in the Fate scale.
- Xxx HOLIC ranks quite high: "There is no such thing as coincidence in this world - there is only inevitability."
- Tsubasa Reservoir Chronicle is considered high in the fate scale.
- In Mirai Nikki the Future Diaries can be changed almost immediately as they predict.
- Mawaru-Penguindrum is all about working the scale: On one hand, we have a crazed stalker character (Ringo) who firmly believes in fate and sets out to fulfil the fate that's written down on her diary, and on the other, we have the Takakura siblings (Kanba/Shoma) who hate "fate" and wish to take destiny into their own hands. Then we have their sister Himari, who bestows fate according to her own rules.
- The Naruto manga can't seem to make up its mind where it is on the scale. Naruto's fight with Neji contrasts the viewpoints of Screw Destiny and You Can't Fight Fate, with Neji advocating a belief that everyone's abilities are determined from birth, and only those with great parentage can truly excel, with Naruto contesting that anyone can succeed if they try hard enough. Naruto wins the fight, which would seem to vindicate his position, but it turns out that Naruto is the son of the Fourth Hokage and his mother was the previous Kyuubi jinchuriki and a descendent of the Sage of Six Paths. Furthermore, Naruto's own skill proved insufficient to overcome Neji's and he won that fight entirely because of the inherent advantages of being a jinchuriki. On the other hand, Neji didn't know who Naruto's parents were, and based his opinion of Naruto primarily on his academic performance. The issue is definitely worthy of debate. YMMV on whether it's simply a Broken Aesop or if the message all along was that it's not as easy to determine the future's possibilities as Neji presumed.
- Steins;Gate solidly demonstrates that Fighting Fate is Hard. Timeline alterations tend be to ultimately inconsequential, as "Attractor Fields" lead diverging world lines to converge and lead to the same end result... unless, that is, you locate a critical event and alter time drastically enough to shift to a world line in a different Attractor Field.
- In the DCU, the Guardians of the Universe currently believe willpower is the source of chaos, when their attempt to make a corps defined by willpower went awry. Thus, they had created the Third Army with the goal of eradicating everyone's free will.
- The Star Trek fic Written in the Stars has this as a theme. The Fem!Kirk of the Alt Reality wants to make her own choices, while her Prime counterpart tries to convince her to hook up with Spock, since the Primes did in the original universe. When it's revealed that Fem!Kirk and Spock hooked up in two other realities, it leaves the question of whether they're all just making the same choices or whether the two are just fated to be together.
Films — Animated
Films — Live-Action
- In Lawrence of Arabia, Lawrence's batman disappears in the desert. The bedouin refuse to try to save him because "it is written" (and because a bedouin would know well enough to be afraid of the desert). Lawrence rides off claiming, "nothing is written" and comes back in a few hours with his batman. However it is ultimately revealed that it really was written, given that Lawrence ultimately has to execute the batman.
- This was a major theme in the The Matrix series, with Smith and Neo becoming the embodiments of fatalism and free will respectively. The climax of the trilogy sums it up nicely with this exchange:
Agent Smith: Why, Mr. Anderson, why? Why do you persist?
Neo: Because I choose to.
- In Push Watchers see the outcome of decisions, not really fate. But their predictions usually either come true or get worse.
- The Terminator films absolutely cannot make up their minds about where they stand on this because of the Timey-Wimey Ball. The dominant theme overtly stated in the second film was "No Fate But What We Make," but the film's Screw Destiny finale was offset by film three which just showed it as delaying the inevitable, and then there's the fact that none of the series should work if not for the Stable Time Loop.
- Minority Report showed us that he who knows his own future can change it if he wants to.
- Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism in which the men were sent away by Solomon. The story usually ends with Death saying he hadn't meant to frighten the person, it's only that he was so surprised to see them when he had an appointment with them in the town they were fleeing to.
- The Elric Saga: Elric is quite probably a 2. He could have fought Fate (in his case, by abandoning his sword Stormbringer), but he was unable to do so, despite many bitter soliloquies bemoaning his circumstances.
- Harry Potter is at least a 3. Because people care a lot about prophecy. However there are prophecies that do not come to pass. Dumbledore also makes it clear to Harry that the prophecy about him and Voldemort fighting to the death will only happen because Voldemort chooses to follow it.
- This crops up a lot in the Alex Verus series, as you'd expect when the main character's power is to see the future. Alex's magic works on the "Prophecies are Predictions" model - he can see the probable consequences of any action, but it's explicitly stated that people do have free will and he can't see past a choice that hasn't been made. However, a character encountered late in the first book can apparently control fate, and the draconic prophecy seems closer to Because Destiny Says So.
- Un Lun Dun: Its heroine Deeba is the Trope Namer for The Unchosen One. She fought the Big Bad even though the Book of Prophecies listed her as Plucky Comic Relief.
- The Belgariad — Both the Belgariad and its sequel, the Malloreon focus on two sides working towards two mutually exclusive prophecies. However, as absolute as these prophecies appear to be, at the same time there is a lot of scrambling by folks such as Belgarath to make certain events go as outlined.
- It's later stated that they purposefully make sure to follow either of those prophecies, because it limits the world to two predictable outcomes, one of which is desirable. Failure to keep up will cause the emergence of a third prophecy with Unpredictable Results. Oddly, they don't take the third option here, and stick to accomplishing the good prophecy to the end.
- Modern literature is filled with examples of vague prophecies that are stoppable, twist-able, or just plain wrong since You Can't Fight Fate fell out of favor and was replaced by Screw Destiny.
- Discworld: There is definitely a Destiny - the History Books kept by the Monks of Time describe the complete history of the Disc from beginning to end, Death's life timers start off with the appropriate amount of sand, something ensures Carrot arrives in Ankh-Morpork just as it needs a dragon-slaying king, and so on. But the History Monks can change what the books say, life timers can be smashed, turned over, or just mutate to eke out the sand as much as possible, and Carrot can decide Ankh-Morpork doesn't need a king after all. The Companion says "On the Discworld, the future is set. The job of everyone is to fight back."
- It helps that several of the books are explicitly framed as a game being played, using the world as a game board, between the Anthropomorphic Personification Fate and The Lady Luck, so the position on the scale largely depends on who's winning at the moment.
- Twilight: Alice's predictions of the future will change if somebody involved in the vision makes a decision that would change the future.
- In Slaughterhouse-Five the main character jumps through time at random to different points in his life- his honeymoon to his death and back to the war where he was taken prisoner- because all time is happening at once. Even the end of the world "has always happened and will always happen." In fact, according to the aliens that visit Earth, it is the only planet where people believe in free will.
- Deverry uses the term "Wyrd" and states that the future is shaped as much by chance as wyrd. You may inherit certain traits and tendancies from past lives as your wyrd (such as a talent for magic, a crush on a certain person or a tendency to get in a certain kind of trouble) but this can be influenced at changed by conscious choices or random chance. Occasionally a sorceror can create a true prophecy but these are susceptible to Prophecy Twist (E.g. "He shall not die in battle except by a sword, but no man can kill him with a sword" - was killed by a girl, but he could also have been killed by his chief rival who turned out to be a half-elf.)
- The Wheel of Time weaves how people live and what they do, and although there are people, ta'veren, around whom the wheel weaves, even they don't have anything to say in their own lives, because You Can't Fight Fate.
- The entire series is weird in regards to how much power the wheel actually has. On the one hand you have the main character who's constantly struggling with why he fights, The Dragon trying to convert him and only recently finding that motivation, during his attempted destruction of the world, then you have cases like Verrin, who was completely unable to use her magic properly because the wheel wanted her in a specific spot.
- This series has an oddly Magic A Is Magic A approach to prophesy and destiny, maybe to a unique degree. Everyone has a destiny for their lives from start to finish, and detailed millenia-old prophesies explain the only possible way the world can be saved from the Big Bad. However, free will exists - just because someone is destined to be a peddler doesn't mean they couldn't choose to pursue a career at a smithy, or kill themselves. How do both free will and destiny exist? Because of people called ta'veren, an in-universe term that almost literally means "main character." Ta'veren have the involuntary power of Winds of Destiny, Change: when one is nearby, random events happen that push people in the direction of what destiny has in store for them. Heads Tails Edge suddenly becomes common and people will make impulsive decisions that completely change the course of their lives. So basically, people in the Wheel of Time world live by "Prophecies Are Guides, Not Rules," except for when a ta'veren is in town, when everything becomes Because Destiny Says So. (Note that this is involuntary for the ta'veren, and the changes destiny causes result in misfortune for others and themselves about as often as not. They tend to be heroes, but of the hurting variety.)
- In The Foundation series, psychohistory makes quite good predictions but it can go off-course - the predictions are not 100% sure as clearly demonstrated by Mule.
- In Robin Hobb's Realm of the Elderlings the Fool describes fate as like a wagon wheel in a rut, getting deeper entrenched as it continues going back and forth over the same kinds of events until it finally breaks, taking the world with it into unending misery. But a specific person known as a Catalyst, guided by a true prophet, can act as a wedge that jars the wheel of fate out of its rut and on to better things (at least until it begins wearing a new rut). The Catalyst gets treated exactly as harshly as the metaphor implies, even if he succeeds.
- In Dune, the Seers do not prophesy to others but use their prophecies to guide their actions, as the prophetic visions themselves are not absolute inevitabilities but rather one of several possible paths (although the longer you fulfill a particular vision, the harder it is to avert the rest of it).
- This is a major theme in the works of R. Scott Bakker, and he may be one of very few authors whose works are squarely Neither Fate Nor Free Will Exist.
- Second Apocalypse: One character has been raised by a sect of monks dedicated to pure logic. Among other things, he can read people's emotions and thoughts in their faces and is able to manipulate people to a high degree. Being a fantasy series, there are prophecies, but it is unclear if they really mean anything.
- Neuropath: The brain is a physical organism, therefore it is governed by the same laws of nature as everything around us. People's actions are completely predictable and can be manipulated to an extreme degree, as one character does using a futuristic device.
- Disciple of the Dog: The main character has a perfect memory and is able to see the patterns in people's behavior that those people are themselves often unaware of.
- The Dresden Files: In the short story The Warrior, the archangel Uriel explains that it's possible for beings like himself to look downstream in the "river of time" and make a good estimate of what's going to happen. But he also explains that nothing is set in stone. If someone exercises free will, the effect is like digging out a trench and changing the direction the "river" will "flow". Harry improved peoples' fate this way three times over the course of the story, almost inadvertently.
- The Idhún's Memories trilogy by Laura Gallego has an interesting variation, since prophecies are actually commands given by the gods to their people, which is implied they're fulfilled by the people's subconscious. Thus making it a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy where the ones involved don't need to know of the prophecy. Since there are different races created by different gods and each god can only "move their pieces", it doesn't really fall under any of the categories given here (though it might be a mix of Fighting Fate is Hard and Screw Destiny).
- This is the nature of a theological debate in Tales of the Branion Realm, where precognitive Seers play a major role.
- Both fate and free will exist in The Lord of the Rings, where several characters appear to have a fate planned out by Eru Ilúvatar but only comes to pass through their own decisions and those of others. Aragorn is fated to become king but can only do so if he accepts his destiny and saves Gondor from Sauron's invasion force. Gollum is fated to destroy the One Ring but only because Bilbo, Frodo, and Sam spare his life. Faramir's fate to go to Rivendell and become part of the fellowship is actually averted because Boromir Jumped at the Call and Faramir let him take his place.
- The Sarah Connor Chronicles, firmly believes in "No fate but what we make" and the entire series comes down to Sarah and John trying to prevent the events of T3 right up to the end. Then the series throws the whole thing for a loop when John Connor jumps ahead through time past the point of Judgment Day, and it turns out that the resistance is still alive and kicking without him.
- Merlin: everything the Dragon advises Merlin to do is Because Destiny Says So. The Dragon gives advice to save Arthur. But when it comes to Mordred or Morgana, he advises Merlin to make them die to prevent destiny from happening. But Merlin never follows this advice.
- Power Rangers: Sometimes, through tremendous effort, fate can be changed... and sometimes it can't, and trying to change things changes only the details. Prophesies tend to be fairly spot-on, and time-travelers usually need several attempts to come even close to changing things, although with one notable exception, they're usually successful if they're Rangers.
- Flash Forward: free will works but fate will take steps to 'correct out' any changes you make (i.e. if you kill yourself to prevent your flash-forward, someone else will end up doing what led up to your flash-forward). Nevertheless, Demetri surviving to the end of the series shows that while it's a severe uphill struggle, fate can be changed.
- Specifically, Flash Forward's verse is based on the concept 'what would happen if quantum mechanics worked on a macrosopic scale?' - so you can screw destiny on the small scale but not on the large.
- As indicated by the page quotes, Smallville experiments with this trope quite a bit. While Jor-El pushes Clark to fulfill his destiny (completing tasks that seem to push him towards becoming Superman), Clark manages to defy Jor-El and his own destiny on occasion in character-establishing moments that push him towards... becoming Superman.
- A season three episode features a character who can see people's deaths by touching them, but Clark manages to prevent one of these deaths, something no one before had been able to do. Clark is speculated to be able to change people's destinies.
- Supernatural: Starting in Season 4, the angels try really hard to convince the main characters that the world is immutable — for example, sending Dean back in time to save his parents only to inform him he was doomed to fail because You Can't Fight Fate. Undaunted, in Season 5, Team Free Will (Sam, Dean and Castiel) make it their mission to "Screw Destiny. Right in the face!" and they ultimately succeed, though at significant personal cost.
- Babylon 5: Although averting fate is clearly possible, only Londo, manages to do so over the course of the series, and even then the option of changing his destiny had already been predicted. Other characters have no luck in averting fate. Sheridan tries to avert destiny and actually causes the future to happen, Babylon 5 is blown up at the end of the series, and Lennier betrays the Rangers despite all efforts not to.
- Charmed: Premonitions usually come true, but it is possible to stop them from happening with such knowledge.
- Fringe is difficult to place, but the general rule seems to be that prophecies are predictions. The Observers are a group emotionless cyborgs who have the ability to jump around in the timeline with a great deal of freedom, but their predictions are probabilistic in nature and they can't be absolutely certain that their manipulation of the timeline will succeed, as they are ultimately destroyed by their failure to stop a Butterfly of Doom: A genetically anomalous child Observer (later named Michael) proves to be a Superior Successor by possessing advanced cognitive and empathic abilities without needing an emotion-removing implant like the rest. The Observers realize that the child is a threat to their existence and attempt to dispose of him, but Michael is eventually sent back in time to stop the research that created the Observers in the first place.
Mythology and Religion
- Greek and Norse Mythology are high up on the fate scale as not even the gods can escape it.
- The concept of Wyrd in Nordic- and Germanic-derived Neo-Pagan traditions (Heathenry, Asatru) basically states that every choice people make is woven into the web of Wyrd, and that web determines the choices which will be available to be made from there on in.
- The Bible varies. If God makes a prophecy about something He wants done, it will be done. Prophecies about the future decisions of people tend to be more like suggestions.
- Islamic doctrine includes the idea of Predestination (essentially synonymous with Fate of Destiny). Interpretations obviously differ, but as generally taught to non-scholars it ties into the concept of Omniscience as possessed by God. God knows everything, so he knows what's going to happen. The popular interpretation is that humankind's actions dictate the map of the future, and not the other way around. God just saw how it would all pan out from the Beginning. So... the future's like the weather, with the assumption that God is the best weatherman ever. If we could see the future, then theoretically its more of a guide, with the assumption that God saw it all coming anyway.
- Gerrard from Magic: The Gathering is an interesting example. He's a very Screw Destiny Guile Hero kind of person, and when prophecies start turning up calling him The Chosen One, he scoffs at them and tells his friends that destiny isn't real. It gets harder and harder, however, when prediction after prophecy all agree on his being The Hero, and all of his friends and allies begin to view him as such. Still denying fate, he then discovers the truth: his bloodline was genetically engineered for a thousand years by a godlike Chessmaster named Urza as part of a master plan, and his entire life he had been Batman Gambitted into being The Hero. Bitter, he eventually duels a depowered Urza to death in the Big Bad's arena in both an attempt to both bring his friend Hanna back from the dead in a Deal with the Devil and to Screw Destiny. He does kill Urza, but he later escapes the Big Bad as the Big Bad becomes a nightmarish, sentient cloud of murderous death that begins to swallow the world. In the end, Gerrard consigns himself to his fate, sacrificing himself to save the world. It's left open whether it really was his destiny, or whether it was his decision alone.
- In the novel of Mercadian Masques, he seems to come to a conclusion about the nature of prophecies. He believes that prophecies are not predictions for what will be, but prescriptions for what should be.
- In Exalted, fate is the plans of the Five Maidens and the Sidereal Exalted. Mortals, gods and Exalted alike are caught up in it, but those with sufficient power and will can break the chains and forge their own destiny.
- The contradiction between Fate and free will is actually a relevant source of trouble for the Sidereal Exalted. When you've devised the pattern of history according to one assumption of what somebody will do, and that person just plain doesn't do it (even if they're a mortal), it creates problems with the general fabric of causality that need to be addressed.
- Of course, then there's Samsara, the pattern that develops from Creation's cosmological foundations, although the setting is vague on how much this is "incontrovertable future" or "unshakable compulsion in the only people who can observe it". It hasn't been wrong yet, but that's at least partly because everyone who can read it is immensely powerful and devoted to bringing about its existence.
- Interestingly, fate only applies to Creation itself. The Wyld, The Underworld, and Malfeas are all outside Fate, and people from those places don't have a destiny. Even then, though, their destiny may be written in samsara, and lesser beings from the Wyld may be ensnared in fate simply by entering Creation.
- One of the reasons that everyone wants to make sure that the Yozi Sachverell doesn't awaken is because if he does, he will (so far as anyone knows) lock the world into absolute predestination.
- In Scion, Fate can be overcome but is very powerful and some individuals and pantheons have been totally ensnared by it (the Norse for one).
- Changeling: The Lost is somewhere in the middle (and particularly dark) with fate working for and against the Players as well as being avertable.
- Genius The Transgression includes time travel and thus is complicated. The past used to be immutable and you could not change it. However, after the elimination of the Terminals you can change the past but it takes a lot of resources. The setting overall depends on who you ask and what wonder is being used to make the prophecy. It isn't that they disagree, it is that the laws of metaphysics differ depending on what they think they should be. The timeline currently exists in a causality trench, but if it breaks out (which the Guardians of Forever work overtime to prevent) the universe would probably become chaos.
- In the Eberron Campaign Setting, the Draconic Prophecy tends to give "if A then B" scenarios, with various groups trying to cause or prevent A. It's more of a suggestion than a prophecy, really.
- Fate is a very strong theme in Legend of the Five Rings; it is said that everyone has their Dharma, their place under Heaven, and that they WILL fullfill their destinies. Of particular importance are the Seven Thunders, the champions of Heaven that define the destiny of the world every 1000 years, when they fight the Champion of Hell; the outcome of the battle, however, is anyone's guess. So, destiny can be changed, only by a few, select, destined individuals...
- Hitmen For Destiny's backstory states that its world is actively sliding along the scale, and every prophecy that someone manages to break causes destiny to weaken throughout the universe. Both Destiny and Free Will have secret agents actively trying to keep/prevent prophecies coming true.
- Homestuck: The universe and Sburb seems to be custom-engineered to prevent the characters from using Time Travel to change anything because it automatically crafts a Stable Time Loop so You Already Changed The Past. The Trolls always maintain that the kid protagonists are doomed to fail and mess up their session so badly that it retroactively broke the Trolls' as well. However, none of this stops the kids from continuing to try and Screw Destiny, especially Rose. We probably won't know where for sure the series comes to rest between the two extremes until the story ends, and we find out whether the kids really do manage to succeed in their quest or not.
- The Water Phoenix King has Tamantha, which is a mix between fate and karma. Rather than being an inherent part of the world, it is instead a metaphysical construct of a powerful god (who is now dead). Because Tamantha operates on a morality that is somewhere between Blue and Orange Morality and Lawful Stupid, the protagonists are out to destroy it altogether.
- Roommates is pretty high up on the fate side. As at least "Fighting Fate Is Hard" high but probably closer to "Because Destiny Says So" and because it's as meta as it is fate should be read as the Theory of Narrative Causality. This doesn't stop the characters from trying (Jareth even desperately tries... it earned him the Cosmic Plaything standing if nothing else) though and results in most of the series' tear jerkers.
- Avatar: The Last Airbender plays with this often, as seen in The Fortuneteller and Aang's final decision against the Fire Lord.
- Futurama: Despite all the crazy, time-altering crap Phillip J. Fry has managed to do over the series, he's still managed to be born in order to save the universe from giant evil brains, Mom, nudists, and a tentacle god thing, even though he had to be his own grandfather to do it.
- Not so much fate as it is programming when it's revealed that Bender ironically has no free will but every decision he makes is part of his predetermined program, which raises the question what kind of nut programed Bender to do the things he's done.
- Gargoyles puts a You Already Changed The Past clause on time travel, but from the various Word of God statements it appears the universe overall is mutable.
- Beast Wars has Dinobot who spends most of the 2nd season contemplating his fate and whether he has any control over it, once he discovers Megatron has a method to predict the future using the golden disk. Dinobot goes through enough grief that he joins the Predacons for the simple reason they're more likely to win and after rejoining the Maximals he contemplates suicide. He finally finds his answer witnessing Megatron directly changing the future of his own free will, Dinobot becomes relieved and ironically finds himself with no choice but to perform a Heroic Sacrifice to thwart Megatron's plan to wipe out human existence. In death, Dinobot finds peace knowing he died from actions of his own free will.
- It's not known what governs reality, but the main theories among atheists are:
- Neither Fate Nor Free Will Exist: pessimistic incompatibilism. The future cannot be determined from the past, but that's just due to inherent randomness in the laws of physics, not to any sort of free will.
- Because Destiny Says So: determinism. This has hard and soft variants, for whether or not free will exists. For example, in the hard variant, the father will kill his son. He has no choice. In the soft variant, he will have a choice. It just so happens that he's going to choose killing his son.
- Prophecies Are Predictions: libertarianism. Not the political movement.
- Theists run the gamut, as it's largely just a question of to what extent God intervenes. Screw Destiny is probably one of the most debated issues with various schools of thought having different standpoints and justifications for them.