Members of the feudal military class, they had considerable social status, and after the end of the 16th century until the mid-19th century they were the only Japanese legally allowed to own swords (with the exception of swords having blades less than 24 inches, which were legally considered wakizashi
and legal for non-samurai to own).
Theoretically, samurai were supposed to follow the bushido
code of honor, which stressed loyalty to one's master, self discipline and respectful, ethical behavior. However, the degree to which individual samurai actually adhered to bushido
(which as a formal concept may be Newer Than They Think
, according to historians) varied about as much as the degree to which individual knights in Europe adhered to the code of chivalry — which is to say, you could find everything from bandits in armor to saints of the battlefield. Although women could be and frequently were warriors, the social and military rules for them were somewhat different than for men (and the word samurai itself, being inherently linguistically masculine, was/is not technically used for females).
A popular misconception holds that the samurai were the counter-culture to the ninja
; that is, whereas samurai tend to came from the upper classes and were honorable warriors who fight face to face and use no "dirty" tricks
, ninjas tend to be from the lower classes, were skilled at unorthodox warfare
and would not hesitate to use backstabbing, poison, or spying to gain the upper hand. This is commonly seen in works featuring ninjas, in which samurai and ninja were either depicted as mortal enemies, or ninjas being mercenaries hired by the samurai to do the unsavory wetwork honorable samurai would not do
. However, the aforementioned depiction is not historically accurate. In Real Life
, while some ninjas were mercenaries, most ninjas were actually samurai themselves. The idea that the ninja were something separate from the rest of Japanese society came about during the Edo period (a 250 year long period of peace
), after Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun and unified the country. Edo-period samurai started assuming the values of the court-aristocracy, while simultaneously resurrecting centuries-disused aspects of the samurai honor code from before the Mongol invasion, and didn't like to talk about actual
warfare—they also pretended they were primarily swordsmen, while the main role of the samurai was actually Horse Archers
(and warfare in the century before the Edo Period involved extensive use of gunpowder weapons, another useful implement of war the samurai distanced themselves from during the Edo Period). Many modern historians believe the entire concept of ninjas being the counter-culture to the samurai was invented by Edo-period novelists to avoid showing recently gentrified samurai involved in anything remotely dishonorable.
Subtypes of the samurai commonly seen in anime include the Kid Samurai
and the Ronin
, a samurai without a master to serve whose 'low class' status is sometimes designed to be more identifiable.
One thing you won't hear a lot about in samurai fiction is the practice of shudo
, which means "the way of the young.
was a form of pederasty that was commonly practiced by the samurai class, and was considered a very high and noble form of love. The practice fell out of favor during the Meiji Restoration due to cultural influence from Europe (which preferred its boys to be prostitutes [facilitating plausible deniability] rather than publicly-acknowledged lovers), and has often been the victim of omission and whitewashing in both fiction and historical accounts, though it occasionally crops up in the Yaoi Genre
Samurai are popular heroes in period stories, and no few anime
feature them. Such heroes, naturally enough, tend to be paragons. Outright subversions tend to be for specific characters and even then usually criticizing the upper class as a whole. Samurai and their code of ethics were featured heavily in Japanese military propaganda during the early twentieth century
. For obvious reasons
, they are much less popular in certain Asian countries
When samurai are presented negatively, expect them to be wearing their full armor, including an elaborately designed and intimidating helmet.
When they're being presented as paragons, expect them to at least be helmet-less
, or sometimes wearing nothing but a Hakama
. Speaking of samurai armor, it was usually made of leather-backed iron scales laced with silk, or later on, iron or steel lames riveted together. While it was often coated with lacquer to prevent moisture from rusting the metal, it was never made of wood like some sources claim
Not to be confused with the Cyber Punk
" character type. A more modern take is the Corporate Samurai
, who takes the general ethos of the samurai and applies it to a modern setting. The Distaff Counterpart
is Yamato Nadeshiko
, a Japanese woman expected to be loyal, respectable and capable of fighting.
See also Jidai Geki
. Japanese Spirit
also incorporates a lot of old samurai tropes and virtues into modern manga.
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Anime and Manga
- The band of brothers who make up The Hakkenden.
- One episode of Haré+Guu started showing samurai fighting a war in feudal Japan. Turns out Guu was just watching TV.
- Mazinger Z: In episode 26 Dr. Hell praised Kouji Kabuto, stating that he had to have blood samurai because he was a strong, courageous and tenacious warrior, right like a samurai.
- Rurouni Kenshin is set in the late 19th Century during the Meiji Period of Japan, a few years after the abolition of the Samurai caste. A major part of the story centers around the last generation of Samurai trying to adjust to life in post-feudal Japan. The main character, Himura Kenshin, is sometimes described as a Samurai being a highly skilled swordsman but he was never actually a member of the Samurai caste, coming from a poor farming family. He also plays with this trope a bit seeming to fully obey Bushido while acting as Battousai and disobeying it when in his less violent state of mind, preventing many fellow Samurai from committing Seppuku, dishonoring them.
- House of Five Leaves: The main character and a few others.
- Jin in Samurai Champloo is the most prominent example, as is anyone in the show related to his past. There's also the "Samurai who smells of sunflowers" who Fuu convinces Jin and Mugen to help her track down he's her father, and a Japanese Christian. Also worth noting is that while serving as the narrator, Manzo the Saw comments explicitly on the homosexual practices of samurai noted above.
- Ryoko Mitsurugi in Real Bout High School.
- Bleach: Soul Society is modeled on medieval Japan. With the Soul Reapers filling the role of the samurai class, emphasis is placed on courage, loyalty and obedience. Particular examples include Byakuya and Komamura, whose zanpakutous sometimes manifest as warriors wearing traditional armour.
- Manji and a number of other characters in Blade of the Immortal most however are just "thugs that just happen to be born into nobility" (like most were during the 18th-century).
- While not an actual samurai, Juubei from Get Backers seems to follow the same basic honor code, to the point where characters will actually use the word when describing himboth flatteringly and not-so-flatteringly.
- Hatsu from Tower of God. Even though he is Korean, he follows a strict code of honor similar to that of a samurai. Also, he wields katana.
- Ohgami Itto from Lone Wolf and Cub, along with many other characters.
- Ken Akamatsu's use of the Shinmeiryuu sword school in his stories (Love Hina, Mahou Sensei Negima!) is a way for him to bring samurai into the setting, because Everything's Better with Samurai. That and to depict Implausible Fencing Powers.
- Gintama in all its wacky glory.
- The Kage Summit arc introduces the Land of Iron, which is a neutral country with no ties to any ninja villages, defended by samurai, who wear armor similar to stormtroopers. The samurai are stated to be a powerful military and even the regular samurai are able to use Laser Blade and Sword Beam techniques to destructive effects. Of the samurai, only three are named: Mifune, the leader of the samurai and a master of Iai; Okisuke, Mifune's bodyguard who is a scarred and bald man wielding two swords; and Urakaku, who is Mifune's other bodyguard, though few details are known about him. As might be expected, all of them but Mifune instantly lose any fight against a named character.
- Gato's henchmen are referred to as Samurai. While technically, they could be samurai (but are more likely to be a pair of bandits who only carry that name because they serve one of the world's richest men), their adherence to the Bushido code leaves much to be desired.
- Greatshot in Transformers Victory is modelled on a samurai - in the Japanese version, he even has the appropriate speech pattern.
- In School Rumble, Harry (the American) is freaked out when he first sees Harima's partially shaven head, mistakenly assuming that it is a "Samurai haircut." He later refers to Harima as "the one with the Samurai haircut," and seems to be under the impression that Harima is some sort of super warrior for awhile.
- Amidamaru from Shaman King.
- Mifune of Soul Eater, arguably the strongest character with no special powers to swing a blade.
- Lupin III: Goemon Ishikawa XIII, descendant of the real historical figure/folk hero of the same name. The historical Goemon was closer to a Ninja version of Robin Hood than a Samurai, though he may have been born into a Samurai family. XIII himself is actually what we call a Ronin, but is never called that In-Universe.
- Micaiah Chevelle of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha Vi Vid
- In addtion to sharing the surname of a Japanese World War II ace, Major Mio Sakamoto from Strike Witches is modeled after the historical image of a samurai—she puts honor above everything, is protective of her subordinates, and lives to fight. Plus, she has a katana.
- Hanaukyō Maid Tai. Chief Security maid Konoe Tsurugi, in demeanor and military training.
- Graham Aker of Gundam 00 adopts the way of bushido in the second season, despite being American. His idea of the code of bushido was also rather skewed, considering he only cared about fighting his Worthy Opponent and was extremely disrespectful to his superiors. This got played up to such an extent that his In-Series Nickname became "Mr. Bushido". He even dolls up his personal mobile suits with armor and weaponry designed to evoke samurai imagery. It is subverted in that many people, in universe and out, consider him a total idiot for these actions, which he drops in time for The Movie.
- In The Prince of Tennis, Rikkaidai sub-captain Genichirou Sanada follows several of the stereotypes associated with the samurais. He's Tall, Dark and Handsome, extremely stern and proud (or tries to be, does NOT tolerate anything similar to indiscipline, is a Heir to the Dojo specialized in kendo, etc.
- In Yu-Gi-Oh! 5Ds, Sherry's Battle Butler Mizoguchi uses a deck based on the concept. While hardly a Samurai himself, Mizoguchi follows a code he believes is similar to bushido, comparing it to his desire and willingness to protect Sherry at all costs.
- Senki Zesshou Symphogear has Tsubasa Kazanari, whose personality is based on that of a warrior. She vows her life for the battle, frequently calls herself as a sword and sentinel, and her Armed Gear has a katana as its default form. Additionally, her battle songs feature traditional Japanese instrumentals.
- A kid known only as Samurai was the very first one-shot character to appear in the Pokémon anime, in the episode "Challenge of the Samurai". He dressed like a samurai and used bug-type Pokemon.
- Shigurui exists partially to call out the darker, more screwed-up parts of samurai culture, in response to the romanticization of samurai and feudal Japan in Japanese culture.
- The other wiki has a page on Samurai Cinema., this very wiki has Jidai Geki.
- Most of Akira Kurosawa's filmography have samurais as the main characters:
- The Last Samurai
- Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai is a film about a modern samurai (Forrest Whitaker) serving a mob boss on the streets of Jersey City. He reads passages from The Hagakure, a Samurai code, throughout the movie.
- Zatoichi, the blind swordsman, is not technically a samurai - he's actually a low-class masseur and gambler - but the films are still considered codifiers of the Samurai genre. Zatoichi has all the traits of the typical Ronin; wandering from town to town and helping the helpless. There have been twenty seven films, including a crossover with Yojimbo, and a 100-episode TV series.
- Sword of the Stranger
- Almost all the male characters in Yoji Yamada's film The Twilight Samurai are samurai. Technically. But it's set in the period right before the Meiji Restoration, by which time most samurai were essentially bureaucrats.
- The Jedi of Star Wars are directly based on samurai. Darth Vaders armor is based off samurai armor.
- Gackt's character Yoshi is a samurai in the film Bunraku.
- All the main characters of 13 Assassins, except for Kiga.
- Gate of Hell is an interesting example, as the main character is a samurai, but the story is about unrequited love and obsession.
Live Action TV
- Super Sentai finally got around to using a samurai theme in 2009 with Samurai Sentai Shinkenger.
- After his appearance in the drama Fuurin Kazan, Gackt started getting cast in roles as a Samurai. Since then he has been cast as a Samurai in the upcoming movie Bunraku, as Nemuri Kyoshiro in a theater play, and was one of the main features of Koei's Samurai Festival.
- The recurring sketch on SNL where John Belushi plays a samurai dressed like Yojimbo speaking pidgin Japanese in various jobs like "Samurai Delicatessen" or "Samurai Hotel" with Buck Henry always as a customer.
- Highlander had an episode entitled 'The Samurai', where Duncan washes up in Japan during its isolationist period. Samurai Hideo Koto helps him even though it's illegal and he should kill him. Eventually, he gives Duncan his signature katana and when he's told the Emperor's men are coming, he commits seppuku with Duncan as his second. Duncan much later helps his descendant because of a promise he made to the family.
- All of the Riders in Kamen Rider Gaim are based on different kinds of warriors, but the samurai motif gets special treatment as being that of both The Hero and the Anti-Villain that serves as the main antagonist.
- The Samurai class in Dungeons & Dragons 3.5 (while seen as possibly the worst basic class in the game if one doesn't count NPC classes like Commoner note ) is contrasted with the Paladin in the text, with it being noted that the Paladin might ask if an order given by one's superior is just, while a Samurai would say to that Paladin "You dishonor the lord by questioning his orders".
- Legend of the Five Rings plays the trope very straight, and actually gets a fair number of the societal details right as well - although Bushido is a somewhat bigger deal than it was in real life, primarily for dramatic purposes.
- In Pathfinder, the samurai is a sub-class of the cavalier. Ironically, despite the fact that the samurai is perhaps an iconic Lawful-requiring class, the Pathfinder samurai has no alignment restriction, nor does its parent the cavalier. This is particularly noteworthy when contrasted with D&D, where they both had to be Lawful, and especially since Pathfinder does retain many of the classic alignment-restrictions on classes (The Paladin must be Lawful Good, bards and barbarians must be Chaotic, druids must be Neutral, monks must be Lawful).
- The samurai creature type in Magic: The Gathering, introduced in Kamigawa. All of them have Bushido as a keyword ability. Notable examples are Toshiro Umezawa and Daimyo Konda.
- In the Yu-Gi-Oh! card game, there are the Six Samurai, and the forbearers, the Legendary Six Samurai.
- The Onimusha franchise stars a samurai in each iteration, with varying degrees of historical accuracy.
- Sakura Shinguuji in Sakura Taisen is a true samurai and not a Kid Samurai, despite her youth.
- Ryuuya in AIR.
- There's a Samurai class in several Final Fantasy games, including Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy X-2, and Final Fantasy Tactics. There's also a summon named Yojimbo ("bodyguard") in Final Fantasy X which is obviously based off of a samurai.
- Yojimbo happens to be the name of a samurai movie directed by Akira Kurosawa.
- As far as individual characters go, Cyan from Final Fantasy VI fits this character type completely, with his use of formal speech (Ye Olde Butcherede Englishe in the NA translations) and a wide array of katanas/Eastern-style swords.
- Also, Auron from Final Fantasy X. A lot of his appearance is due to traditional depictions of ronin, including the arm being kept inside his robe and the jug of sake hanging from his belt. Also, Auron starts that game with a BFS that is called a katana, (although it looks more like a cross between a katana and Sanosuke's zanbato from Rurouni Kenshin) and most of his other weapons are named after famous Japanese sword smiths, although not all of them look much like traditional blades.
- From Final Fantasy VII we have Sephiroth, who's also got a Samurai theme going on. Big Fucking Katana included.
- By Word of God, Cloud and Sephiroth were inspired by Miyamoto Musashi and Sasaki Kojiro respectively - in legend, Musashi beat his rival Kojiro to death using a sword carved from a boat oar. Cloud's sword resembles an exaggeratedly huge traditional Japanese boat oar, but sharpened down one side. Sephiroth uses an exaggeratedly long nodachi, as Kojiro's signature weapon was an unusually long nodachi.
- Minamoto no Yorihisa from the game and manga/anime Harukanaru Toki no Naka de.
- Kamui of Arcana Heart.
- Sanger Zonvolt of Super Robot Wars Alpha is one, insofar as that it's possible for an ethnically German Super Robot pilot. In the same series, Brookyln "Bullet" Luckfield is also one, but he doesn't adhere to bushido that Sanger does; in effect, it makes Bullet more of the Kid Samurai trope. The straighter example occurs in Super Robot Wars Original Generation with Rishu Togo, a master of the "Jigen" sword-style, to which Sanger and Bullet are his pupils.
- Most characters in the Samurai Warriors series are Samurai; they also appear in the Warriors Orochi crossover series.
- Samurai Gunn, which pairs up a combination of said warriors with firearms.
- The Ace Attorney games have a franchise of samurai-themed tokusatsu series- The Steel Samurai, The Pink Princess, and The Nickel Samurai.
- Mass Effect: According to her own word, Samara's warrior code is based on a mix of this and Knight Errant.
- Imperial warriors from Red Alert 3 are high-tech Samurai, with rifles and beam katanas.
- The Dragon Clan's third tier unit in Battle Realms is the Samurai. At least one of their Zen Masters, Otomo, is one as well.
- Samurott from Pokémon, an odd combination of this and a sea lion.
- Way of the Samurai, though the PC and most NPCes are Ronin.
- The cast of Hakuōki are mostly Shinsengumi.
- Total War brings us Shogun and Shogun 2, both set in the Sengoku Jidai (excepting the Expansion Packs Rise of the Samurai and Fall of the Samurai). They come in many verities, from samurai Archers and Gunners, and various types of cavalry, to the Stone Wall Naginata wielders.
- Leagueof Legends has Yasuo, a recent samurai-turned-ronin, and Master Yi, who is closer to a monk in the story, but includes mostly samurai visual elements.
- Warcraft III: The orcs' Blademaster hero is a weird combination of samurai and ninja: a sashimono-carrying Critical Hit Class who speaks in faux-Asian English but has moves that involve sneaking up on an enemy for huge damage and creating illusions of himself. Even stranger is that Grom Hellscream, noted Berserker and Leeroy Jenkins, is a Blademaster.
- The Webcomic Harkovast features a samurai called Shogun as one of its main protagonists.
- In The Order of the Stick Miko and the rest of the Sapphire Guard are samurai. Though as she tried to explain to Elan that's not her character class (see D&D), their class is paladin and samurai is simply a title.
- Ironically in Transformers Animated, Prowl was a noble ninja, which is technically impossible. But when he put on an upgrade that looked just like Samurai Armour, he turned into an arrogant, callous jackass. He later gets it back. At which point he learns not to be a jackass while using it, and uses the armor for the rest of the season.
- Samurai Jack: Jack, naturally. (Many fans, however, have pointed out that Jack fits the title of "ronin" better, at least according to traditional terms, as he is a Samurai with no liege.)
- Beast Wars has Dinobot, a Predacon/Maximal who refuses to accept dishonorable means of victory (such as slipping) as valid and, in the end, proves his loyalty to the Maximals, albeit at the cost of his own life. His robot-mode helmet also evokes a samurai, as does his sword (which is quite reminiscent of a katana); the contemplation of harakiri after he percieves himself as having failed the Maximals also invokes the thought of a samurai comitting harakiri after failing his master.
- Yagyu Jubei
- Miyamoto Musashi
- Etsu Inagaki Sugimoto an immigrant to America and the writer of the memoir Daughter of the Samurai was the daughter of a Daimyo's officer in the Meji era. Her descriptions of the lifestyle sound anticlimactic, roughly similar to an orientalized variation of the life of an out of the way British country gentleman. The only thing interesting that happened to her father was the civil war where her father took the Shogun's side and was pardoned by The Emperor. One thing she notes though was taking her American children to the family estate. One of them asked what a specially kept bucket was for and she was embarrassed to explain that every important Samurai had one for his head in the event that The Emperor should require it.