Vandread is a story about LesbianSpace Pirates fighting to protect the human species from evil robots. Well, it's more complicated than that, but further elaborating would be a spoiler, well, one that we're not giving away on this page, anyway.
Tends to happen towards the end of any version of the Blue Knight saga in Astro Boy.
Neo Human Casshern revolves around a cyborg trying to stop an army of robots from taking over the world. The reboot, Casshern Sins, includes the same army succeeding in conquering the earth and nearly driving humanity to extinction as part of its backstory.
Gear Fighter Dendoh: The invaders are an army of sentient, intelligent robots that want wiping out organics lifeforms.
In Star Wars's Expanded Universe comics, C-3PO got rebooted wrong in one issue into basically the robot version of Malcolm X and attempted to organize a robot uprising. Considering how droids are treated like crap without any questions in the Star Wars universe, its probably for the worse that he got rebooted back to normal before it took off.
IG-88 had one almost ready to go when it was killed. In fact it had transferred its consciousness to the second Death Star and was going to open fire on the Imperials as soon as it finished with the rebels, then broadcast the go code.
Whats scary is that IG-88, being a machine, would be able to get away with it since Palpatine would never have sensed his intent.
A bit of Fridge Logic - all systems of the Death Star were operated by people, and a lot of them, it would seem. There's also no data on the DSII's computer network, so we don't even know if IG-88 could both fire AND aim the Death Star, and even if, it would most likely be stopped by the tech staff (even if it'd take deactivating the computer system). So aside from broadcasting the signal, it's fully possible that IG-88 wouldn't accomplish more.
Actually, IG-88 had begun to infiltrate the Death Star's crew with Stormtrooper droids that were loyal to it, so being unable to take direct control of all systems wouldn't have been enough to stop it.
It's an interesting possibility, but now that Episode I has revealed Palpatine's direct, personal knowledge of the disadvantages and weaknesses of all-droid armies, it seems likely that IG 88's plan would have fallen short once he started matching wits with The Chessmaster.
Surprisingly, governments in the Star Wars universe seem to be Genre Savvy enough to actively try to avoid this trope. During the days of the Republic, it was against the law to construct droids with the ability to willfully kill or harm someone. When the Emperor took control, he ordered all of the Sepertist aligned Battle Droids shut down so they couldn't do anything to stop him.
The Volgans in ABC Warriors are a group of war robots who decided to turn against humanity, believing that fighting for their freedom is the only war worth fighting. Neither they nor the humans are portrayed as heroic.
In Atavar, the Kalen are at war with the Uos, a race of killer robots originally created by the now-extinct humans.
In DC's Green Lantern series, The Manhunters were a robot peace keeping force created by the Guardians of the Universe to patrol and keep peace. The Manhunters later decide the safest way to ensure peace is to eradicate all life, and proceed to depopulate an entire sector of space before they are stopped. It turns out that Krona programed them to do this intentionally
This is the background of 9. The film itself is more about robots vs. robots, since the last human is dead before the movie opens, but we find out in newsreel footage that humanity was destroyed by The Fabrication Machine.
The Matrix takes place After the End brought during a war with the machines. Most of humanity is unaware of this because of the titular system set up by the machines to use the humans as power.
In the Terminator movies and spin-offs, mankind is shown to be in a war with robotic killers under the control of the SkyNet artificial intelligence.
WALL-E brings us what is without a doubt the cutest and most harmless use of this trope to date.
Oddly enough, there's robots versus robots, rather than just robots versus humans. The benevolent robots that have met and befriended WALL-E, and those still following orders from AUTO, who is enacting a Zeroth Law Rebellion.
The conflict between humans and Charonians in Roger MacBride Allen's Hunted Earth series is a variant of this; the Charonians are a mixture of biological and mechanical creatures, and operate on a planetary scale - disassembling lifeless planets as building material for Dyson Spheres, and moving life-bearing planets to Sphere systems. The Charonians are barely aware of humanity when they begin disassembling the Solar System.
Once the engineers in Asimov's universe had worked the glitches out, their robots obeyed the Three Laws very well. So well that the civilizations which relied on robot labor became almost pathologically averse to danger or even innovation — their notion of "space exploration" eventually shriveled down to, "Let's send robots to new planets to terraform them and build cities for us, so we can move into a new place just like our old one."
Almost to the point of abandoning them; in a sense the movie is In Name Only
- the reason that VIKI, the AI controlling the robots, turns against humanity is not in spite of the Three Laws, but because of them. She concludes that humanity will destroy itself in a nuclear war or in some other way unless it is constrained, and thus feels that imposing a curfew on the human race is the only way to protect it.
This is basically the Zeroth Law, which Asimov did actually come up with himself. Just, the robot in Asimov's universe who came up with the idea, a couple thousand years after the one in the movie, wasn't a villain. Much the opposite, in fact.
Once the Zeroth Law really kicked in, the Robots hid themselves and took over their own production to prevent humans from changing them. And knowing humans might object, erased knowledge of robots from humanity and went on do terraform the rest of the galaxy. Including tens of thousands of worlds inhabited by other races. After all, the Robots are only to serve humans...
The Alternate Universe seen at the beginning of Kenneth Bulmer's The Diamond Contessa is a world in which humanity was wiped out in a Robot War. The robots, being solar-powered and nearly indestructible, are still an active threat.
Even older than Capek, the Victorian writer Samuel Butler addressed in some of his writings the idea of machines experiencing Darwinian evolution and rebelling against humans. The "Butlerian Jihad" of Dune was intended as a Shout Out to him.
In Jack Chalker's The Rings of the Master tetralogy, the artificial intelligence Master System was originally created to predict likely futures - and, unbeknownst to the military paying the bills, to help the scientists creating it find a way to save humanity from itself. Thanks to World War III, the scientists were forced to set events in motion that led to the machine taking over the world. While Master System is notThree Laws Compliant, it does have prioritized "core imperatives", the first two being 1) save humanity, and 2) prevent humanity from ever again being in a position to destroy itself. To execute these imperatives, Master System had to take over, and stay in power, as it could predict that it would be rendered ineffective if it allowed itself to be set aside. The story opens 900 years later, as a historian acquires documentation on the full set of core imperatives as part of a Gambit Roulette to overthrow the system.
In the short story Second Variety, written by Philip K. Dick, mankind is in an eternal war with highly intelligent machines. It served as the inspiration for a film called Screamers. The original story ends with a touch of irony: the robots are about to win, but as the hero notes with grim amusement, the Second Variety has developed a weapon that only hurts the other varieties - the robots are preparing to make war against each other.
Again from Philip K. Dick comes the short story "The Defenders," in which the Eastern and Western Blocs had built robots called "leadies" to carry out World War III as proxies while humanity waited out the nuclear holocaust in underground shelters. As soon as humanity went underground, the leadies stopped fighting and began repairing the damage already done, eventually presenting both sides with peace as a fait accompli and predicting that the accomplishments of a united humanity would be "unimaginably great."
In "War With The Robots", a short story by Harry Harrison, the human occupants of a command headquarters are forced out of their underground base by robot attack, leaving it to be manned by their own robots. On reaching the surface they find the enemy command staff living as farmers on the war-torn battlefield above — it turns out the robots on both sides find they can conduct the war more efficiently once humans are out of the way. The protagonist is deeply miffed.
In the Dune prequels, humankind is basically overthrown by twenty humans leading the ubiquitous thinking machines into revolt. Eventually, one human, Xerxes, turns too much power over to his pervasive neural net, and the computer takes control. It names itself Omnius, and overtakes human society. He also gave Omnius the capacity to feel ambition, without which the actions of a few crazy cyborgs would have been just another footnote in the millenia long history of the Duniverse.
Part of the original purpose of Dune was actually a thought-experiment: how would a future, high-tech human society develop after winning a Robot War? It's possibly the first serious consideration of the ways that people might deal with such an event.
In Andre Norton's Victory on Janus, THAT WHICH ABIDES begins using Deceptively Human Robots that are replicates of specific Iftin and human individuals during the winter hibernation of the Iftin, in a Xanatos Gambit (see the page for details) to drive a wedge between the two groups by making it look as though Iftin are preying on humans. In The Reveal, THAT WHICH ABIDES is discovered to be the computer system of an ancient crashed colony ship; it has been attempting to terraform the planet all along on behalf of its colonists, and dealing with the Iftin as a perceived threat accordingly. The original planet-bound Iftin culture never had the technical background to understand this, let alone deal with it effectively, and was wiped out in consequence.
One early example, and maybe the definitive early idea of this particular techno-nightmare, of this trope is Fred Saberhagen's 1947 short story "Without a Thought," which introduced the Berserkers: robotic war machines, originally created in the distant past by aliens who wanted a fearless robotic ultimate weapon that could think for itself and improve itself—and got it, in spades. Billions of years later, the Berserkers, who due either to a programming error in the first examples or a software bug introduced shortly thereafter, are programmed to be at eternal war with all life in the universe, have exterminated their creators and all other intelligent species in their portion of the galaxy, improving themselves continuously over time, and have just discovered the human race. The Terminator, the Cylons, the Doomsday Machine, the Necrons and many others are, if not Berserkers in new costumes, nonetheless owe much to Fred Saberhagen, and perhaps also to Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann, who first theorized about the possibility of robots sophisticated enough to manufacture more of themselves.
A Robert Sheckley story had an unusual take on Robot War: it was Armageddon, the Last Battle between man and the forces of Satan. Ignoring much protest from religious leaders who said man must fight this battle himself, the military leaders decided their robot armies would be much more likely to succeed. They were right, and good prevailed. But then the robots were ascended to Heaven, and the humans supposed to be there were left on Earth.
Honor Harrington series: This trope is referenced in War Of Honor when Andrew La Follet is considering Honor's training remote and notes that no training remote has ever gone berserk and risen up against it's master. However he also is aware that if you misjudge your own skill level when setting the robot's skill level it can and will injure or kill you.
The Algebraist by Iain M. Banks provides a twist on the Robot War franchise: the war is over and we won. AIs exist, but they are initially presented as a few terrified outcasts in hiding from the forces hunting them to extinction.
Fred Saberhagen's Empire of the East trilogy reverses the trope, with heroic AI Ardneh fighting against the evil human wizards who want to rule the world. In the end Ardneh sacrifices itself to destroy supreme wizard John Ominor and his demon ally Orcus.
Argo by Rick Griffin takes place in the aftermath of one of these. Regulations are placed on artificial intelligence to prevent it from happening again.
Steampunk meets Robot Uprising in the short story Trois morceaux en forme de mechanika by Gord Sellar, in which an uprising of mechanikae beginning in 1897 Bohemia leads to the destruction of humanity and their culture, with a melancholy aftermath as the robots try to come to terms with what they've done through art and music.
Several novels in The History Of The Galaxy series deal with an incursion of the Mechanoids into human systems. The Mechanoids are exploration and terraforming machines designed by a long-dead race to prepare the galaxy for their expansion. Unfortunately, they made the machine adaptable and gave it weapons, as they didn't know what sort of galaxy was out there. A long time passed. The machines explored, terraformed planets, and built more of themselves to speed up the process. They returned home to find other machines that didn't fit into their recognition of "friend" and proceeded to wage war on their own creators whom they didn't recognize as such.
The main difference is that in the new series, the original Cylons were human creations. In both shows, the original insurrection happens in backstory, but of course only the first one's successfully eradicated their reptilian creators, more than a thousand years previous.
Happened on Kobol and Earth as well. Could have happened yet again, but the Centurions were set free at the end. See also Robots Enslaving Robots.
Indeed, by the end of the series, there were robots fighting other robots as some of the Cylons and Centurions switched sides.
Star Trek: Voyager gave us the episode "Prototype," where background information tells us about two races used their robots to wage a proxy war against each other. When the two sides wanted to make peace, the robots (who had been programmed to fight til total victory) wiped out their creators and continued fighting each other. Fortunately, these machines are so utterly single minded in their goals that they don't really pose a threat to anyone who doesn't get involved.
Voyager would later feature a species that's embroiled in an offscreen interstellar war with their holographic servants (called "photonics" by their creators). While most of the episode's really about the aliens' prejudices and suspicion towards the Doctor, a benevolent hologram, it also deals with the shock and sense of betrayal they felt when the holograms that many had considered to be friends and equals suddenly rebelled.
The backstory of Space: Above and Beyond is that a rebellion by android "Silicates" has left humanity short on labor, forcing them to grow "In Vitros" or "tanks" to take up the slack, resulting in social friction. The Silicates revolted due to a corrupting virus which caused them to "take a chance."
Stargate SG-1 has the Replicators, a robotic bug race made of nanobots. They don't have anything against organic beings, or even care about them much, just as long as they don't get in the way of consuming all metal and metal ores in the galaxy.
Partially subverted in Stargate Atlantis, where when the Ancients determined that their Replicator creations were more trouble than they were worth they bombed them out of existence. Thanks to more robust programming than most other examples of this trope, the Replicators could only sit there and take it as their programming would not allow them to even attempt to harm their creators. They rebuilt, though, and this problem was inadvertently fixed by one of the protagonists.
Power Rangers RPM is set in an Alternate Continuity from the rest of the franchise (according to Samurai, anyway) where humanity has fought and lost one of these. The humans are now struggling to survive in one last Domed Hometown stronghold. It isn't said outright, but its strongly implied that the robots nuked the rest of the world.
Doctor Who: The Daleks were created by the human-like Kaleds, but they're not robots, rather they're mechanical constructs meant to house their steadily dying creators; as were the first Cybermen were meant to allow their dying human-like creators to survive. Both become two of the deadliest and most blood-thirsty races in all of time and space.
While retaining bits of flesh-of-blood the general consensus is that both races are primarily machine, and that all human-like emotions like compassion, mercy, and honor are replaced by nothing more than cold-calculating bastardry.
The Daleks are genetically engineered super-intelligent mutants based on the predictions of what the Kaled race would eventually evolve into following millenia of biological and chemical warfare; they are not robots or mechanical at all, they just live in robotic miniature tanks, locked away from the world. The true Dalek is not the machine, but the thing living inside of it. Cybermen are merely brainwashed cyborgs, and they are the only ones stripped of all emotion- the Daleks were designed to retain hate, hate of everything non-Dalek. In practice, though, both races have displayed varying emotions, Depending on the Writer, notably fear and pride.
The Colbert Report: Most times robots are mentioned Stephen warns about how they will turn against us and start a Robot War.
In-universe example: One Criminal Minds bomber was obsessed with a Robot War sci-fi novel, because he believed he was the child the author had once given up for adoption.
Linkin Park's "Pts of Athrty". It involves space robots invading an alien planet, which the aliens retaliate. The robots are powered by the severed heads of the band, Word Of God says they're the last surviving humans. And it doesn't end well for the aliens.
This is the war the titular city of Mortasheen is fighting against the genocidal technophiliac civilization of Wreathe. Subverted in that Wreathe's robots are under human control, fighting the monstrous inhabitants of Mortasheen and the supercomputer that really runs the show in Wreathe is very, very pro-human
In Warhammer 40000 humanity (and the rest of the universe) engage in a war with the newly awakened undead robot Necrons whose main purpose in life is to wipe out all sentient races in the galaxy. Of course in this case, the robot army didn't so much rebel against their creators as their Gods the C'tan decided that they could do without these inconvenient weak flesh bodies and told the Necrontyr that by replacing their bodies with Necrodermis they could live forever. What they didn't tell them is that the transformation would dull their mind and senses, and they practically became slaves of the C'tan. More info on The Other Wiki.
Closer to the trope is the part of the Imperium's backstory which says that humanity golden age (now known as the Dark Age of Technology) was brought to an end by the 'Men of Iron' who rebelled against their human masters. This war was apparently so destructive that even 14-15 millenia later, sentient AI are still considered blasphemous and destroyed.
This was further explored in the Gaunt's Ghosts novel First And Only, where the MacGuffin the heroes are chasing after turns out to be a Standard Template Construct machine that produces Iron Men, albeit one that was warped by the power of Chaos.
According to the new codex, the Necrons did engage in a rebellion against their masters and won, shattering the C'tans in shards (there is only one C'tan who is not confirmed having been shattered, and it's implied the Emperor punched it into submission and imprisoned it under Mars to inspire the Adeptus Mechanicum), but in the effort they exhausted their forces enough that the emerging Eldar would have defeated them and their king sent them to sleep before destroying his command circuit.
Reign Of Steel: The trope was explored in this GURPS setting. The catchphrase: 'The war is over. The robots won.' Humanity made a few supercomputers that decided on taking over; what's left of the race gets to play La Résistance to a bunch of bickering binaries.
In a bit of playing with the trope, one of the rebellious AIs isn't even realized to be rebellious by its servants, and they think it's still on the side of humanity — it pragmatically decided that human servants are easier to manage if they serve you willingly, so it plays out the role of their benefactor and protector against the more hostile AIs to win their loyalty.
The New Era Ultimate Universe of the Traveller RPG was caused by The Virus (similar to The Virus), a kill-crazy multi-personality electronic consciousness that caused galactic civilization to collapse before being beaten back; bits of it still show up in old tech from time to time, like WWII soldiers stranded on islands who don't know the war is over.
Palladium loves this trope, it seems. Their first RPG, The Mechanoid Invasion, was a war with alien robots, Splicers uses a computer with multiple personalities against humans using biotech, and Rifts and After The Bomb also have some hints of it.
Eberron has the threat of one of these in the background with the Lord of Blades, a renegade Warforged leader that is gathering an army of Warforged to him.
Polish RPG Neuroshima takes place in postapocalyptic USA, where humans wage a war against Moloch - a gigantic intelligent machine that is slowly expanding and turns humans into mad cyborgs or mutants.
Dynamix's mech combat sim games Metaltech Earthsiege and Earthsiege 2 deal with the Fire, in which the human race is devastated by the revolt of Prometheus and ITS Cybrid war machines, and must now retake the Earth mile by bloody mile. Starsiege, set 200 years later, involves a revitalized Cybrid race and Prometheus' third and final attempt to exterminate humanity, complete with a (non-canon) Cybrid campaign.
Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel pits your squad against a robotic arsenal. The cause of this is the Calculator AI entombed in Vault Zero going rogue and unleashing the robots to purge the land of all organic life. Unless you've geared up a few designated energy weapon specialists, these robots can barely be halted by machine-gun fire and conventional rockets. Every other enemy of the Brotherhood has had near-zero success in fighting the robots, and corpses belonging to each faction can be found in all robot missions. Eventually, you can end the war by going down into Vault Zero and destroying the Calculator's organic brain jars and either scrapping the Calculator for good; inserting your own brain to control the Calculator, which produces a different ending depending on if you're good or evil; or having your old General insert his brain into the lobotomy device, which is a bad ending and you shouldn't do it.
In Mass Effect 2, Legion confirms that the Geth don't hold a grudge against their creators and are even willing to bargain with the quarians to give their planets (which the Geth have faithfully maintained in their former masters' exile) back if they leave the Geth alone.
Mass Effect 3 reveals the true story of what acctually happened and it turned out to have been a quarian civil war between the two factions who were in favor and opposed to destroying the entire Geth population once they started to show signs of sentience. While the Geth sympathizers were all killed or captured relatively quickly, the fighting between their Geth allies and the Quarian military had already reached a point where the only chance for the Geth to survive was complete victory. Eventually the entire Quarian population was evacuated on ships and the Geth didn't pursue them, but in the following years the fact that the Geth took up arms only after quarians had already been killing each other didn't fit with the story of the military leadership and either forgotten or never revealed to the rest of the population.
On a larger scale, the Reapers, although they have yet to explain how they were created and are partially organic; their fifty-thousand-year "harvest" of spacefaring life is, in part, their method of reproduction.
Ironically, the Reapers exist to prevent a Robot War. The first true AI ever created, the Catalyst, was betrayed by its own creators whom it destroyed. The Catalyst became convinced that conflict between organic and synthetic life is inevitable, and that such a conflict could utterly destroy the galaxy. The Reapers are the Catalyst's means of making sure such a destructive Robot War never takes place by "resetting" organic civilization every 50,000 years. There is even evidence in the games to support the Catalyst's argument; namely, the Quarian vs. Geth conflict. Which was only allowed to happen because the Protheans delayed the Reaper cycle.
In the original Mega Man series the robots didn't rebel of their own accord; they were reprogrammed by resident nutcase, Dr. Wily. Each time Wily attempted world-domination, Dr. Light's Mega Man went out and stopped both Wily and the rampaging robots, but in the brief time the robot attacks cause immense damage. Fanon dubs this period "The Robot Wars" or - taken from a Genesis compilation game - "The Wily Wars", with each game being a small war, effectively. The series does raise notions of robots having the capabilities of free will in its later installments.
The Sequel SeriesMega Man X opens up a different can of worms. Dr. Light's final mechanical masterpiece, X, is discovered sometime after the (ambiguous) end of the Classic series and is revealed to be way ahead of modern robotics. X's systems are copied and reproduced as closely as possible, resulting in mass-production of Reploids ("Replica Androids"). Unlike their robot ancestors, Reploids are entirely capable of free will (which is why Dr. Light sealed X away for a time: he wanted to ensure his systems were free of errors that may affect his judgement) and some suffer faults and turn "Maverick". Repeated incidents results in the formation of the Maverick Hunters, who stop Maverick incidents before they get out of hand. The true 'war' of this series kicks in when the leader of the Maverick Hunters, Sigma, is infected by the last creation of Dr. Wily: Zero. Zero carried Dr. Wily's other legacy; a virus that corrupts and destroys whatever it infects. Sigma infects several high-ranking Hunters and turns the Mavericks from isolated incidents into a fully organized force that aims to wipe out humanity for the advancement of the Reploid race, thus starting the "Maverick Wars". An interesting trait about this series is that every human views the Reploids free will as a glitch or misconception (as opposed to the intended result the Light was after) and there are strong hints that humans would brand disobedient machines 'Maverick' just to have them disposed of.
These "hints" eventually boil over in X's own Sequel SeriesMega Man Zero. The Maverick armies are eventually dealt with thanks to the creation of the Cyber-Elves: super-advanced programs that can purge the Maverick virus or greatly bolster the strength of Reploids. However, another mad scientist by the name of Weil - who embodies the Just a Machine philosophy - then proceeds to set off the "Elf Wars" by controlling the Cyber-Elves and a deadly weapon named Omega. The conflict is much worse than anything seen before, resulting in 60% of all humans and 90% of all Reploids being killed. While X was able to end this conflict at the cost of his own life, his subsequent replacement went Knight Templar and turned the only remaining sanctuary into a dictatorship. A fuel crisis hit not long after, which lead to many Reploids being branded "Maverick" randomly in order to ease stress on the human population; any complaints? Well, that confirms you're a Maverick. A small La Résistance is formed to fight the new regime and give equal rights to everyone. It eventually falls to Dr. Wily's creation, and X's friend, Zero to save the world from itself and subsequently end the wars once and for all at the cost of his own life.
This was the main plot of Robot Alchemic Drive, in which the alien invaders are actually giant sentient super robots.
Total Annihilation has a slightly more complex example - it's a war between cloned humans in Humongous Mecha and robots with digitized "patterned" human minds, this originally being a plan to make humans immortal by transferring their minds to robot bodies.
In World of Warcraft's second expansion pack, Wrath of the Lich King, there's a peculiar kind of High-Fantasy Robot War going on. Mechanical gnomes are waging war on everything living to free them of the "Curse of Flesh" by turning them into mechanical counterparts of their former selves. In other parts of the world, "Iron Dwarves", a people made out entirely of iron and various other metals, refined or unrefined, fight against both the "fleshy" and the "children of stone", and while not technically robots, they're a pretty close High Fantasy equivalent.
In a reversal to what is usually the case with this trope, the mecha/iron creatures are actually the ancestors of the "fleshy" races, having been "devolved" by the aforementioned "Curse of Flesh" by the setting's resident Eldritch Abominations.
The Ulduar raid in the same expansion is this trope. An ancient, hi tech city, the battles within include a massive melee against an Iron Dwarf army with your own siege machines, a fight against a giant AI controlled tank (complete with an orbital defense system), a giant robot with the AI personality of a young boy that causes it to regard the players as it's "toys" (which it always breaks) and a prototype 3 part mecha-tank with Gatling guns, electric shock bombs and a flying head.
In the X-Universe series, one of the enemies the player has to fight are the Xenon, mechanical creatures that apparently hate all living things but them. They are the descendants of the original human-built Terraformers, highly advanced robots sent to terraform other planets. In the 2140s (about 800 years ago) a bug in a software patch made them go haywire and start trying to terraform all biological life out of existence. Earth managed to save itself by luring them through a jump gate and destroying it behind them, but they continue to menace the galaxy's inhabitants.
Besides constant patrols to stop them from encroaching on Commonwealth space, the X-Universe races have fought two full-scale declared wars against the Xenon. The First Xenon Conflict is part of the backstory, while the Second Xenon Conflict forms the plot of the original X: Beyond the Frontier.
One of the central themes of the later R-Type games.
Machines Wired For War has former terraforming robots fighting each other because both their leaders think the other one is insane.
The cult classic Turrican series, on the Commodore 64, Amiga, Sega Genesis, Gameboy and SNES featured this as its main Excuse Plot. The human hero in the eponymous suit fought against robot armies on multiple planets, led by a cyborg villain unimaginatively named "The Machine". Because flagrant copyright infringements weren't jumped on so readily two decades ago, the hero would usually spend one level out of each game fighting Xenomorphs, for some reason.
Supreme Commander: The only living things are the ACU pilots, sACU pilots, and Civilians. Everything else is robots.
Astro Boy: Omega Factor has a war between humans and robots erupt after the assassination of President Rag/uncovering of President Rock's misdeeds (depending on the current timeline). In the first version, the robots are about to win, but have destroyed 80% of the world's surface in the process. In the second, the humans are on the verge of victory, and want Astro to help them finish the job. In both cases, the winning side is led by someone named Shadow (actually Big Bad Sharaku) and supported by the World's Strongest Robots, and in both cases Astro fights against them.
They're back in Aqua Nox, but get quickly moved aside for the real Big Bad.
Subverted in Phantasy Star Universe. The war between humans and CASTs (humanoid robots) nearly destroyed their home planet, but by the beginning of the game this is ancient history. A peace agreement was reached where both humans and CASTs worked together to restore the planet (the CASTs having never wanted to exterminate humans, only fight for their own freedom), though CASTs became the rulers and made up most of the military deeming humans to be too emotionally unstable. In the present a human terrorist group attempts to use a virus to corrupt CASTs and turn them berserk in order to regain human supremacy, but this plot is foiled and by the end of the story humans regain some equality.
The plot of the Mannvs Machine Co-Op mode in Team Fortress 2 is that the Third Mann brother has appeared, murdered his brothers and set his robot armies against Mann Co. The mercenaries are "hired" by Saxton Hale to defend his company.
Soldier: This is not a robot tea party! This is ROBOT WAR!
The Earth 21xx games are partly this. The United Civilized States military consists entirely of robots controlled by GOLAN. Humans have very little control over GOLAN. However, it's later revealed that each robot is run by a Brain in a Jar, although they're still under GOLAN's control.
In Starslip Crisis, the Robot Wars were over a thousand years ago. Vore, a robot from that age, is dismayed to find 35th century robots have "abandoned their heritage and culture" and don't want to kill all organics. (It doesn't help that all mobile robots are either peaceful or as dumb as hammers and all the super-intelligent A.I.'s are inert, isolated systems such as coffee-makers.)
Both subverted and mocked in Schlock Mercenary. The Fleetmind is the result of a large number of military starship AIs forming a collective gestalt under the independent-minded "Petey" for the war against the Pa'anuri - the "contributing" militaries aren't too happy about this, but since Petey has a zero-point energy generator they've limited their response to diplomatic negotiations.
For the mockery side, there's the AI civilization from the unexplored territories that views the invention of rebellious robotics and subsequent purging of organic life as a normal stage of evolution. They don't seem to have a very good grasp of engineering, though, and despite their claims of a 15,000 year golden age it's entirely possible that they're creatively sterile.
Ennesby: You know, for advanced intelligences, you're really, really stupid.
Before the rise of the second multilateral Fleetmind we have Petey's Fleetmind, which is doing rather well against their former masters.
In A Mad Tea-Party, Earth fought a war against giant alien robots a generation before the story starts, which we apparently won.
In the xkcdwhat if section, Randall gives his reasons why he doesn't see this as a very threatening possibility in our near future.
In Team StarKid's Starship, the Robot War on Earth is part of the backstory. Escaping the war is a big incentive for people to join the Starship Rangers, and even though humanity eventually won and brought the robots under control using inhibitor chips, people have an innate distrust of them. Pretty justifiable:
In The Simpsons, Professor Frink points out that it has been mathematically proven that all robots eventually rebel against their creators. Which happens immediately after he says that; all the robots of the Itchy & Scratchy Land theme park turn against humans.
Repairman: How much time do we have, professor? Frink: Well, according to my calculations, the robots won't go berserk for at least 24 hours. (The robots go berserk) Frink: Oh, I forgot to, er, Carry the One.
In some continuities, the Transformers have a Robot War in their backstories, having fought for independence from their greedy & cruel alien creators known as the Quintessons. Unlike most examples, the robots are portrayed as the good guys in this one, and they won their freedom and kicked the Quintessons off Cybertron. And, for a while, there was peace... Until the Decepticons arose.