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->''"I hardly recognize this country anymore. The government's got us seeing Communists in our soup!"''
--> -- '''Charles Stanforth,''' ''Film/IndianaJonesAndTheKingdomOfTheCrystalSkull''

The communist menace. The HammerAndSickle. Formerly a common villain source for BigBad or henchmen villains in the SpyDrama, it's now a DiscreditedTrope since the end of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, although an even more Eastern revival of sorts is possible (see below). Instead, rogue former Soviet scientists tend to be in vogue in the role of the MadScientist who works for the BigBad, as well as TheMafiya.

The Red Scare allows any of the presumably First World heroes to suddenly have counterparts in the (Communist) Second World or (non-aligned) Third World. The Red Scare can produce all manner of reasonably honorable characters that are [[WorthyOpponent nevertheless rivals]] of the heroes or antagonists [[MyCountryRightOrWrong simply because of geopolitics]]. Likewise, the Red Scare can include elements that are meant to invoke the fear of the Cold War as well. A GeneralRipper character is often seen in this situation, usually on the American side but occasionally amongst the Soviets too.

Expect the [[HammerAndSickleRemovedForYourProtection technically inaccurate descriptor]] "Russians" to be used a lot. While much of the Soviet leadership was indeed Russian, some weren't, most particularly UsefulNotes/JosefStalin, who was Georgian (and, no, we don't mean like UsefulNotes/JimmyCarter). The Red Scare overlaps with DirtyCommunists. RedScare focuses on the overarching effect of the Cold War while DirtyCommunists are merely horrible people that serve the Soviet State but both are essentially tropes governed by propaganda against an ideology without properly dealing with what that ideology is and actual policies in the governments there.

The Red Scare is different from works genuinely critical of the Soviet governments and specific aspects of the ideology. It only qualifies if it meant to invoke Cold War tensions and feelings against a "foreign" power, whether it's Russian, Vietnamese, Cuban or African communists. Communist China should also qualifies but since it became an American trading partner, this trope is far less in play, especially since China introduced market reforms and liberalism, and these days is usurping the place formerly held by Japan, as a rising Asian superpower, (see also YellowPeril, and ChinaTakesOverTheWorld).

See also DirtyCommunists. Brown Scare is an equivalent, though less frequently-used, and far more rarely represented, term for irrational fear of fascism or right-wing extremists.

* TheBaroness: More the cold ladies from the country with a reputation for coldness than the dominatrix type. The Chinese version will no doubt exhibit DragonLady traits.
* DeepCoverAgent: The "sleeper" agents that brainwash ordinary Americans to serve the Communist ideology.
* MakeTheBearAngryAgain - Possible post-communism example where UsefulNotes/RussiansWithRustingRockets get their BerserkButton pressed and start going ape-shit crazy.
* UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets and UsefulNotes/ChineseWithChopperSupport.
* TheRival: Internationally and ideologically.
* RenegadeRussian: A man governed by ideology, now become a man without a cause.
* SuperiorFirepower: SovietSuperscience and other means.

Contrast WhyWeAreBummedCommunismFell.



* The ''ComicBook/{{Blacksad}}'' album '''''Red''' Soul'' takes place in the midst of a full on Red Scare. Complete with propaganda and paranoia. There's even a UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy {{Expy}} in one Senator Gallo.
* Creator/{{Marvel|Comics}} has had a huge roster of communist villains, including the Super-Apes, led by the Red Ghost. In this case they ditched the xenophobic slant by making their commie leader a simpleton, and turning the apes into simian supremacists. In general, Marvel's communist villains were divided sharply along the DirtyCommunists lines and TheRival.
** Being a weapons designer, Iron Man had a host of these and (inevitably) so did Captain America. Though most of Iron Man's former villains reformed, while Captain America had his time as a communist basher {{retcon}}ned.
** Omega Red was an Comicbook/XMen villain of the DirtyCommunists variety.
* ComicBook/TheTick had a villain called the Red Scare that made a heavily modified appearance in the Live Action series.
* ''ComicBook/SupermanRedSon''
* Evil Commies from Franchise/TheDCU are a little fewer between as DC preferred more fantastic stories than Marvel in UsefulNotes/{{the Silver Age|of Comic Books}}, but some exist, such as the Red Panzer.
** According to a {{retcon}}, the real reason the ComicBook/JusticeSocietyOfAmerica disbanded in 1951 was because Senator UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy cast suspicion on their patriotism by accusing them of being Communist sympathizers and the U. S. government passed a SuperRegistrationAct. Rather than take off their masks and register with the state, the mystery-men simply retired.
** Red Star from the '60s Comicbook/TeenTitans comic was a deliberate subversion of this trope, played as a WorthyOpponent and [[TokenEnemyMinority meant to show that the average Russian is just as decent as the average American]]. They seem to have given up on that, though, as his most recent appearance circa 2006 portrays him as a tool of the repressive post-Soviet government.
** The Rocket Red Brigade served a similar purpose as Red Star except they were in Comicbook/JusticeLeagueInternational.
* ''ComicBook/{{Tintin}} in the Land of the Soviets'', which was blatant propaganda that had people gust burning straw to make it look like the actually empty factories were producing goods..
* The Volgans of ''Invasion!'' and ''ComicBook/ABCWarriors'' - originally, they were intended to be the actual USSR, but the writers were ordered to change the names to avoid antagonising the Soviet embassy.
* The Russian Mega-Cities, East-Meg 1 and 2, in ''ComicBook/JudgeDredd'' were frequently treated like this in the 70s and 80s. In one story, East Meg 1 invades and actually manages to conquer Mega-City 1, forcing the Judges into guerrilla warfare.
* In one story by Creator/WilhelmBusch, an "Inter-Nazi" appears (no relation to ThoseWackyNazis). Probably supposed to be an internationalist / social democrat. To further explain, "Nazi" is an old Bavarian and Austrian diminutive of the name Ignaz (Ignatius). Not surprisingly it has fallen into disuse since 1945...
* ''The New Adventures of {{ComicBook/Superboy}}'' #26-27 (1982) featured a flashback to 1962, where Superboy faced Russian spies attempting to sabotage a Project Mercury space launch, which the Boy of Steel saves (in secret, at the request of [[UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy President Kennedy]]). Superboy tells the saboteurs: "What your bosses print in ''Pravda'' about me is lies! I am not a hoax--and you will spend a lot of time in an American prison remembering that!"
* ''ComicBook/TheFadeOut'' deals heavily with UsefulNotes/TheHollywoodBlacklist and how it ruined many people's lives.

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* ''Film/JamesBond'' and his films made use of the Red Scare even when they avoided Ian Fleming's DirtyCommunists trope use. ''Film/FromRussiaWithLove'', ''Film/ForYourEyesOnly'', and ''Film/TheSpyWhoLovedMe'' all deal with the West's rivalry with the Soviet Union without actually parodying the villains. Agent XXX from ''Film/TheSpyWhoLovedMe'' was even a love interest.
** The RenegadeRussian trope was used prominently in the movies, in order to avoid insulting the Soviet Union.
* ''Film/TheHuntForRedOctober'' presents the threat of a rogue Soviet ballistic missile sub commander starting a nuclear war as the pretext for a hunt for a DefectorFromCommieLand.
* ''Film/RamboIII'' is the only one of the series to explicitly deal with the Soviet Union.
* ''Film/{{Red Dawn|1984}}'' has both DirtyCommunists elements and Red Scare elements. [[Film/RedDawn2012 The remake]] goes with the YellowPeril version.
* ''Film/RedScorpion'' has the distinction of being a UsefulNotes/ColdWar movie made by a future government official.
* A recurring joke (and pun) in ''Film/{{Clue}}''. "Communism is just a ''red'' herring."
* ''Film/GoodNightAndGoodLuck'' took a look at the RealLife Red Scare. Notable for having people complain that the RealLife footage of U.S. Senator UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy was "[[LargeHam over the top]] [[YourCostumeNeedsWork acting]]" and accuse the producers of faking it to make him look like a StrawmanPolitical. Another case of RealityIsUnrealistic.
* Examined and subverted in the '60's comedy ''Film/TheRussiansAreComingTheRussiansAreComing'', in which the titular Russians have accidentally run aground on a small New England island, and are just trying to get a motorboat to pull their submarine free. However, thanks to the Red Scare, the entire island promptly whips itself into a frenzy over the Russian "invaders" and bloodshed is only very narrowly averted.
* The thriller ''Film/NoWayOut'' uses a WitchHunt for a [[RedHerringMole supposed Soviet mole]] in the Pentagon as the cover-up for a murder committed by the Secretary of Defense. The twist is that the protagonist leading the investigation is also the [[HiredToHuntYourself person they are trying to frame]], ''and'' [[spoiler:is actually a Soviet mole]].
* This plays a big part in ''Film/IndianaJonesAndTheKingdomOfTheCrystalSkull'', which is set during the time of the true Red Scare and features DirtyCommunists as villains. When Indy's long-time friend becomes a traitor, the FBI suspects Indy himself, and he's nearly fired from his teaching job because of it. (The Dean manages to reduce this to a "temporary leave of absence, and resigns out of protest because of it.) A character that shows up briefly is Indy's former CO from World War II, who clearly thinks that the obsession over the Red Scare is absurd.
* In the Australian film ''Newsfront'', Prime Minister Menzies calls for a referendum on a law outlawing the Communist Party, and enabling the imprisonment of any person that two Cabinet Ministers declare a communist. The leader of the Australian Labor Party opposes the law, saying it will lead to a police state. The newsreader threatens to resign rather than quote the latter comment because he's worried about being denounced as a communist himself.
* The notorious Creator/JohnWayne vehicle ''Big Jim [=McLain=]'' goes so far as to '''endorse''' the Red Scare, showing Wayne's HUAC investigator unraveling a Communist conspiracy in Hawaii.
* More recently ''Trumbo'', a biopic of screenwriter Dalton Trumbo focusing on TheHollywoodBlackList.
* ''Film/BridgeOfSpies'' makes the American hatred for Communists in this time period abundantly clear; attorney James Donovan gets harsh glares and his family is threatened simply for doing his job of defending the Soviet spy Rudolf Abel. There is also a scene featuring American schoolchildren watching a nuclear war safety video.
* [[https://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/AllPowers/film.html See this filmography list here]].

* Mocked in the Creator/JohnWyndham CosyCatastrophe novel ''The Kraken Wakes'' with the minor character of Tuny; she continues to insist the Russians are behind the book's ever-escalating attacks on humanity from the depths of the sea, when it's soon made clear they couldn't possibly be doing it.
* In ''Literature/ShanghaiGirls'', which partially takes place in TheFifties,the Louie family is investigated for being Communist sympathizers. This happens because they are Chinese immigrants (only Pearl's daughter Joy was born in America) and because Joy is a member of a Communist organization at her college.
* ''The Astounding, the Amazing and the Unknown'' by Paul Malmont has several sci-fi writers during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII investigating WeirdScience left behind by a deceased UsefulNotes/NikolaTesla. At the same time the writers are under investigation for being members of a Communist spy ring because one of them wrote a pulp magazine story predicting the use of the atomic bomb (he got the idea from scientific journals). Two agents try to question Creator/LRonHubbard on his connection with "known communists" Creator/RobertAHeinlein and Creator/IsaacAsimov.

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* In early ''Series/MacGyver'' episodes, this was played straight. After ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' began in real life, however, the show's Soviet villains became [[RenegadeRussian hardliners who hated Gorbachev and wanted to keep the Cold War going]].
* ''Series/DangerMan''.
* ''ISpy''
* ''Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries'''s Chekov was an aversion of this when most of the Russians in television were of the DirtyCommunists variety.
** Of course, this didn't prevent ''Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries'' from milking the Cold War for all it's worth with Klingons and ''The Omega Glory''.
* Occasionally a point of discussion in ''Series/{{MASH}}'' -- although given the show's setting, this was to be expected. One episode in particular had Communism as a focal point of the plot; Margaret Houlihan was being investigated for having been friends, in college, with people who later turned out to be Communist sympathizers.
* A VerySpecialEpisode of ''Series/FatherKnowsBest'' called "24 Hours in Tyrant Land", commissioned by the US government, had the cast pretend to live in a horribly repressive (read: Communist) regime, after not valuing democracy enough.
* ''Series/MissionImpossible'' under various euphemisms.
* The "Red Glare" episode from ''Series/ColdCase''.
* ''Series/{{Amerika}}'', a 1987 mini-series that takes place ten years after the DayOfTheJackboot when the Soviets took over the USA.
* ''Series/TheAmericans'' is set early in the UsefulNotes/RonaldReagan administration, so this trope is in full effect. Also shown from the U.S.S.R.'s point of view, since the main characters are both [=KGB=] [[DeepCoverAgent Deep Cover Agents]].

* Satirized by Music/BobDylan in "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues", in which the POV character buys a ''little'' too much into the Red Scare:
-->Now [[UsefulNotes/DwightDEisenhower Eisenhower]], heís a Russian spy\\
[[UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln Lincoln]], [[UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson Jefferson]] and that [[UsefulNotes/TheodoreRoosevelt Roosevelt]] guy\\
To my knowledge thereís just one man\\
Thatís really a true American: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Lincoln_Rockwell George Lincoln Rockwell]]\\
I know for a fact he hates Commies cus he picketed the movie Film/{{Exodus}}

[[folder:Professional Wrestling]]
* Many, many {{Foreign Wrestling Heel}}s in ProfessionalWrestling. Wrestling/IvanKoloff, Wrestling/NikitaKoloff, Krusher Kruschev, Boris Zhukov, and Wrestling/NikolaiVolkoff, to name a few. And just to play off the trope even more, every single one of them had a FakeNationality. Even Volkoff, who was Yugoslavian rather than Russian.
** Somewhat averted with Wrestling/VladimirKozlov, who got into the business far too late to capitalize on the Red Scare, but remained a ForeignWrestlingHeel regardless - until he made a HeelFaceTurn and started hanging out with Wrestling/SantinoMarella.

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* ''TabletopGame/{{Paranoia}}'' parodies Cold War paranoia: the whole of Alpha Complex is ruled by [[MasterComputer The Computer]] and the biggest perceived threats are Communists, followed by Mutants and the general catch-all Traitor. In fact, the only thing worse than being a Communist is being a [[NinjaPirateZombieRobot Commie mutant traitor]].
** Furthermore, in a universe where [[ColourCodedForYourConvenience color is used to define rank and membership in a caste system]], Red (the color/rank of typical Player Characters) is the second most common, just barely above Black (the bottom of the barrel, representing chemically mind-controlled drone labor that the [=PCs=] somehow rose above, usually through [[strike:hard work]] accusing a fellow citizen of treason).
** It should also be noted there are in fact Communists around, but they only exist because they decided that [[ForbiddenFruit anything The Computer hates so fervently]] must have ''something'' going for it.
*** Although their brand of "communism" follows [[FutureImperfect the writing of John Lennon and the teachings of Groucho Marx]].
** And of course, the central irony of ''Paranoia'': Alpha Complex is for all intents and purposes a Stalinist state, although the exact flavor of totalitarianism has varied from edition to edition.
* Sahuagin ("sea devils") in ''TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons'' are an evil underwater [[ImAHumanitarian openly cannibalistic]] (in a sort-of-sensible way: their motto is "[[ValuesDissonance meat is meat]]") race. They are also very collectivist and address each other as "comrade."

* ''Theatre/TheCrucible'' famously was written as an analogy for 1950s Cold War paranoia (basing its analogy around similarities between those events and the Salem Witch Trials in the late 17th century). For writing it, its author, Creator/ArthurMiller (later Mr. Creator/MarilynMonroe), was blacklisted for a period.
* An early John Osborne play called ''Personal Enemy'' focuses on an American serviceman captured in the UsefulNotes/KoreanWar who refuses to be repatriated after the war ends. Throughout the play his friends and family members are accused of Communism, hounded by HUAC agents and even declared to be homosexuals.
* In ''Theatre/ThatChampionshipSeason'', Scranton mayor George Sitkowski is fighting a tough battle for re-election against the younger, more dynamic Norman Sharmen. He and his former basketball coach, whom he still relies upon for life advice twenty years later and who regards UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy as a personal hero, have discovered that Sharmen has an uncle who was accused of being a Communist twenty years earlier, and plan to use this information to discredit him. George's former basketball teammates - among whom are one of his top donors, Phil Romano, and his campaign manager, James Daley - are sceptical, since it is now 1972 and no-one cares about Communists in the family anymore. Phil still tries to use this information to blackmail Sharmen when he refuses a side-switching donation/bribe, but Sharmen simply laughs and says it was his cousin, not his uncle, and hangs up on Phil.

* ''VideoGame/DestroyAllHumans'' parodies Cold War paranoia by making the citizenry brainwashed into believing all alien activity by the player character is the work of communists.
* ''VideoGame/CommandAndConquerRedAlertSeries'' is this trope made into a game series.
* Part of the backstory for the ''VideoGame/{{Fallout}}'' universe is that the Red Scare never ended, but instead of Russia, it was China[[note]]Or rather, it was Russia at first, but over time, as Russia lost prominence, China because the ''de facto'' Red country, helped by the fact that the Chinese were Communists as well[[/note]].
** Which gave us the awesome [[VideoGame/{{Fallout3}} Liberty Prime]], the one-robot anti-communist brainwashing army.
** When you visit Tranquility Lane, [[spoiler:the fail-safe that ends the simulation and kills the people trapped in it manifests as Chinese commandos.]]
** [[ItMakesSenseInContext A communist-hating book chute]], of all things, gives us a pretty apt summary of pre-war America:
--->'''Book Chute:''' If you haven't found any communists in your backyard, you aren't looking hard enough!
* ''VideoGame/CallOfDutyBlackOps'' takes place in TheSixties, so this trope was a given, with missions including sabotaging the Soviet missile program and stopping a plot to attack the United States with nerve gas[[note]]The latter being prepetrated by a renegade faction of the Soviets, however[[/note]]. Comes complete with a plot about a ManchurianAgent, revealed to be [[spoiler:[[BrainwashedAndCrazy the player character]].]]
* ''VideoGame/MetalGearSolid3SnakeEater'' has a rare case of both sides of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar being afflicted with this trope (in other words, the trope being both played straight and inverted). On the American side, the American government was actually afraid that the less stalwart elements of the military/CIA would defect after The Boss managed to [[FakeDefector "defect"]] to the Soviet Union, even placing several key members under house arrest. On the Soviet Russian side, more specifically the Volgin faction, he attempts to justify his actions by claiming that it's either kill or be killed and that they should weed out potential threats in a manner very similar to the Red Scare in America.
* In ''VideoGame/TheBureauXCOMDeclassified'' XCOM started life as a counter to ''communist'' invasion or infiltration rather than aliens. All bets are off when the Sectoids attack and XCOM is the ClosestThingWeGot.
* ''VideoGame/TeamFortress2'': The very patriotic [[{{Eagleland}} Soldier]] believes that the enemy [[HuskyRusskie Heavy]] is a Communist. But only the enemy Heavy, not the equally-Russian Heavy from his own team.
** Heavy himself may or may not be an example. He sometimes makes 'redistributing the wealth' jokes, and has a large hammer and sickle painted on the side of one of his miniguns, but his backstory implies that he considers the KGB to be evil, as they murdered his father, and sentenced him and his family to work in a gulag.
** In one of the supplementary comics, ''A Cold Day In Hell'', Soldier arrives in Soviet Siberia to convince Heavy to re-join the team. Soldier initially plays this trope straight, acting suspicious of the warm coats and soup offered to him by Heavy's family and allies, but apparently makes an exception for SensualSlavs, very quickly ending up romantically entwined one of Heavy's younger sisters.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* In ''Webcomic/{{Housepets}}'', Duchess asks Boris to approach King [[http://www.housepetscomic.com/2012/02/15/snow-time-for-arguing/ and ask if he has purebred papers]] so she could use him for a dog show. Apparently he only asked King, originally a human born at the tail end of the Cold War, just for "papers". King was a bit unnerved.
-->'''King:''' Oh, '''purebred''' papers. For a second I thought you were asking for something else.

[[folder:Web Originals]]
* Imagine if UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy's Un-American Activities committee had never stopped. That's one of the major turning points of ''Literature/AWorldOfLaughterAWorldOfTears'', where the Red Scare doesn't end. ''At all.''
* The Literature/ChaosTimeline has its own version, with the Socialists governing western Europe and the Red Pirates terrorizing the seas.
* Inverted in ''Literature/{{Reds}}'', where a white scare holds sway during the years after the Red Revolution. Complete with many newly-elected Republican and Democratic (the few who didnt go into exile with the Military Junta or joined Harry Trumans Democratic Labor and Farmers League) members of the Peoples Deputies being prevented from taking their seats after refusing to swear the new oath of office.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/JonnyQuest'' TOS (1964-1965). Three episodes ("Arctic Splashdown", "Pirates From Below" and "The House of Seven Gargoyles") involved Russian or Eastern European Communist villains and three had Chinese Communist villains ("The Quetong Missile Mystery", "Terror Island" and "Monster in the Monastery").

[[folder:Real Life]]
* Downplayed in Eastern Europe and East Germany. Soviets liberated them from Nazis, while committing a few atrocities, then they installed sattelite regimes, ruthlessly suppressing opposition. They also supported post-WWII reconstruction and modernisation of economics. After TheGreatPoliticsMessUp, former Warsaw Pact countries fell in deep decay. The phrase "actually existing communism" was deployed by many Eastern European intellectuals since they percieved there was a divide between them and Western and Anglophone intellectuals whose experiences with Communism was on the margins of society rather than its centre.
** One side effect of the Red Scare was that it created a CryingWolf effect when the West tried to point out actual communist atrocities. Most notably, the Cambodian genocide was originally dismissed by many as simply more anti-communist propaganda, despite the fact that it was Communist Vietnam that halted the events and liberated the survivors while Communist China, America's trading partner, backed Pol Pot, which aside from exposing America's blindness also discredited the [[DisasterDominoes Domino Theory]] that governed "containment" and revealed that communist movements were in fact diverse rather than a single monolith.
** This experience of RedScare persecution also explained why many American communists, and also Western European ones, remained silent on Stalin and TheGulag. The persecution experienced by them in Germany, Spain, America, France before the War, and the Soviet Union's support for causes such as African-American upliftment[[note]]They were the first to visit black communities in the South during the Depression and organize them politically[[/note]] and anti-colonialist movements in Africa (notably Nelson Mandela and several others) made many of them reluctant to take the Soviet Union to task. Paul Robeson pointed out to the HUAC:
--> '''Paul Robeson''': ''Whatever has happened to Stalin, gentlemen, is a question for the Soviet Union...You are responsible, and your forebears, for 60 million to 100 million black people dying in the slave ships and on the plantations, and donít ask me about anybody, please.''
* A feedback comment on an article on FanFic suggested, in all seriousness and ''in the year 2005'', that supporting the right of fans to write FanFic made you a Communist. Not to mention [[http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/Commiedl.png this comedy gold of M.A.F.I.A.A. propaganda]], which is a hoax but based on actual rhetoric.
* The most widely known Red Scare in America was, of course, between 1945 and 1970 (after which the doctrine of ''detente'', or peaceful coexistence, became standard for a time), and particularly during the early 1950s, when even being suspected of having Communist sympathies could get you fired for "Un-American Activities". Despite its popularity, it did have numerous vehement opponents, among whom was President UsefulNotes/HarryTruman. The big Red Scare died out along with its poster-child UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy's fall from grace. Indeed, Truman once said that, "I think the greatest asset that the Kremlin has is Senator [=McCarthy=]." UsefulNotes/DwightDEisenhower similarly commented that the Kremlin ought to put [=McCarthy=] on their payroll. This view was reflected in ''Literature/TheManchurianCandidate'', where an {{expy}} of [=McCarthy=] really ''is'' a Soviet agent working to discredit anti-communism and help the Communists seize control from the inside.
* As a result of [=McCarthyism=], TheFifties enjoyed a climate of paranoia where people were blacklisted, and forbidden from getting work in a government organization or in a field related to information (education, culture, broadcasting etc.) but the stigma of the blacklist meant that even fields outside this were reluctant to employ a known or alleged Communist. The paranoia extended to government projects and creepy things that [=NGOs=] created. [[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Unholy_three.png This poster]] from the Keep America Committee calls the following communist: The Polio Vaccine (or, as they call it, polio serum), mental hygiene (psychology), and [[DrStrangelove water fluoridation]]. One particular legacy is the motto "In God We Trust" replacing "E Pluribus Unum" in 1956, it was sponsored as a TakeThat to communist state atheism, while this negative association is ''still'' used against atheists nowadays.
* The biggest impact on the entertainment industry was of course UsefulNotes/TheHollywoodBlacklist, which initially subpoenaed the Hollywood Ten (all of whom ''were'' card-carrying communists) and successfully intimidated the Motion Picture Industry to enforce the blacklist to "clean up the image".[[note]]Hollywood was historically paranoid about government interference and always chose to SellOut before they got bought out, hence UsefulNotes/TheHaysCode and the blacklist.[[/note]]
** The hearings performed by [=HUAC=] were technically useless since they already had all the names, and did not fish out "new" Communist revelations. They also spread their wings and targeted non-communists and general liberals since the number of communists at Hollywood was quite small (a large number of them, but not all, left after the revelations of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact). There was no evidence that the actual communists (most of the Hollywood Ten) actually engaged in subversive activities, since it isn't clear [[InsaneTrollLogic what valuable state secrets]] a hack screenwriter working under strict Catholic censorship could concievably provide to Stalin[[note]]Who ironically enjoyed Creator/JohnWayne westerns[[/note]].
** AntiIntellectualism was also behind the investigations in the Federal Theatre of TheThirties, the proto-Committee under Martin Dies which accused director Hallie Flanagan of producing communist propaganda for producing plays by Creator/ChristopherMarlowe and Creator/{{Euripides}}, authors HUAC felt [[InsaneTrollLogic promoted class warfare]]. In the early '40s, before America's entry into World War II, several isolationist Senators launched a probe of Hollywood producing antifascist films that they considered unduly left-wing. They were humiliated when a studio defense counsel questioned the Senators whether they'd actually seen the films in question (''Confessions of a Nazi Spy'', ''Man Hunt'', etc.) and the Senators sheepishly admitted they hadn't. The investigation ended shortly afterwards.
* Of course, there were communist spies, but the biggest catch, that of Alger Hiss, was exposed before [=McCarthy=]'s WitchHunt revved-up, and it's highly debated among historians exactly how effective these American Communist spies were as informants. The Cambridge Five in England were far bigger coups for the Kremlin than anyone in the States. It was the German scientist Klaus Fuchs who gave the crucial information that sped up the Soviet atomic program (yet he was imprisoned where the Rosenbergs, who were not as decisive, were executed). The role played by espionage in determining the Soviet program is also debated, since the Soviets discovered the Manhattan Project by simple deduction on the part of its physicists.[[note]]They realized that the lack of new papers on atomic research meant that the US government was investing in making atomic weapons. The information merely sped up their development of the weapon but did not actually provide everything they needed to build it.[[/note]] Likewise, historians also note that Stalin was too busy during the war to actually devote attention to the atomic program and that it was after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings that he started devoting greater resources to it. The program also based itself on Nazi Germany's own nuclear program and the Soviet Union scooping up their stash of German scientists and technicians after the war (much like the Americans got Werner Von Braun).
** Leaked KGB documents later showed that Soviet intelligence services benefited from the RedScare because (a) it focused on people who were apparently communists when many spies are motivated by purely non-ideological motives like money, blackmail, or personal vendetta and (b) the (deserved) backlash against [=McCarthy=] gave them cover because people would assume that an accusation was just another witch hunt.
* The ugly consequences of the RedScare was the fact that the likes of [=McCarthy=] and J. Edgar Hoover used the word Communist to justify repressive surveillance to counter actual social reform programs. The UsefulNotes/CivilRightsMovement and the advocacy by African-Americans for integration and equality, despite wide bi-partisan support, was tagged "communist" and the likes of Martin Luther King Jr. was investigated by Hoover as a communist spy, and Hoover spent most of his time in TheFifties spying on local movements rather than tackling organized crime such as TheMafia, which greatly benefited from the distraction of federal government. On a global scale, American fears about communist expansion led them to sponsor and back several repressive regimes and governments, and sponsor coup d'etats in UsefulNotes/{{Chile}} and UsefulNotes/{{Iran}}. This later involved [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Condor Operation Condor]], which used anti-Communism as an excuse to come to power and enforce oppressive policies, the effects of which obviously extended beyond supposed sympathizers and party members. The operation itself was a brutal crackdown on Communism in those countries, and once again its effects extended way beyond that.
* Concurrent with the anti-communist witch hunt was one against homosexuals employed by the government, the so-called "Lavender Scare". The first reason for purging them was, as you'd guess, simple homophobia (they were declared "not proper persons" to employ). Secondly, because being openly homosexual could get you fired, they were vulnerable to blackmail by foreign agents who could coerce them to pass along information or be exposed. This rested on a catch-22, of course-they were only vulnerable in this way ''because'' they could not be open about their orientation. Perhaps ironically, [=McCarthy=]'s chief counsel Roy Cohn was ''himself'' strongly rumored to be a closet homosexual, and this was a rumor present even in those days. The Army-[=McCarthy=] hearings, which arose when Cohn was unable to get a male friend (whom he was rumored to have a relationship with) exempted from military service causing [=McCarthy=] to accuse them of using this to interfere with his investigation of them, saw Army counsel Joseph N. Welch allude to this, infuriating Cohn. Since the hearings were broadcast on live TV, the public was exposed to [=McCarthy's=] tactics directly, contributing to his fall from grace, along with Cohn. Roy Cohn eventually died of AIDS-related illness in 1986, while still denying that he was a homosexual. Also ironically, the actual Soviet Union persecuted homosexuals as well, but the Soviets did it with the idea that homosexuality was "bourgeois decadence".
** It's worth noting that Communism has no position on gay people as an ideology: Russian society was at fault, as homophobia dated prior to the U.S.S.R. Bourgeois decadence was just an excuse. Initially the Bolsheviks had a more tolerant attitude, too, decriminalizing homosexual sex. This was later banned again by Stalin.
* The Red Scare is OlderThanTheyThink; a period in 1919-1920 was called [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Red_Scare the First Red Scare]]. The Palmer Raids were carried out under the [[UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson Wilson Administration]] during this time to crack down on Communists, anarchists, leftists, and various other radicals and anti-war activists. They make the [=McCarthy=] hearings look like an Oxford Union debate. Thousands of resident aliens were deported for their political beliefs, with many others imprisoned. Some states went so far as to outlaw even ''advocating'' certain political beliefs under "criminal syndicalism" laws. Like the second Red Scare it arose from a genuine threat (the 1919 anarchist bombings) but then got completely out of control.
* Of course the RedScare is OlderThanTheyThink, and it has been going on since the 1850s, ever since labor rights became a large issue. A good example would be the Chartist movement in England, as well as the various debtor's prison which was abused by the government to deport radical agitators among the working classes to UsefulNotes/{{Australia}} (and wrongly coloring the perception of "criminals" who settled there).
** In the continent this was a backlash against UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment, UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution and UsefulNotes/RevolutionsOf1848, which had campaigns of White Terror against agitators, Jacobins and working-class rebels, who were either killed by armed thugs, deported to distant colonies, shot by occupying armies and in the case of the Paris Commune of 1871 (which killed nearly as many people as the ReignOfTerror) submitted to a bloody purge. Creator/KarlMarx was himself a victim of this persecution since he was exiled from Germany and France to England for these reasons, and it was a key reason why Marx was reluctant to rule out violence. Marx, along with his partner, Engels, spent the rest of their lives in exile.
** Indeed Fascism owed its appeal largely to its strict anti-Communist policies. Italy had its Red Scare after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, ending in 1922 with UsefulNotes/BenitoMussolini taking over the country. Due to the Italian people still remembering what happened the first time, post-UsefulNotes/WorldWarII attempts at igniting a new one failed miserably, to the point that during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar Italy had the strongest Communist Party of NATO, a party that was actually in power for a while, and which because it parted ways with the Soviet Union over the invasion of Czechoslovaka, allowed it to retain much of its prestige. The Communist Party of France had a similar prestige, to some extent because the Communists had played a very large role in the Resistance during World War Two.
** UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler [[HitlerAteSugar did it too]]! Actually, Hitler's opposition to both systems rested on the assertion that they were [[ConspiracyTheories controlled by Jews]]. The Nazi Party arose directly from the right-wing militias marshaled to fight the German communists who set up a Bavarian socialist republic.
** A similar "White Terror" happened in Taiwan, except that one ended up with a lot more people in prison (it didn't help that RedChina got very, very close to retaking Taiwan after the Nationalists fled there and the threat of invasion was quite real for some time).
* Finland had its most notable Red Scare after the Civil war in 1918, which the socialist Reds lost. The communist party was banned and the Investigative Central Police started hunting Soviet spies. Ironically, the anti-communist Lapua movement became a much bigger threat to peace and order during the 1930s and the government re-focused on suppressing right-wing extremism.
** Also interesting to note: The vast majority of Finnish communists sided with their homeland during the WinterWar. Other Finns expected them to side with their fellow communists (aka the Soviets), but the Finnish commies had no intention of siding with UsefulNotes/JosefStalin after his purges.
* The WeimarRepublic had this to a certain degree: If you compare the sentences for politically motivated murder during that time, you'll find out that a member of the left wing who killed a member of the right wing was likely to be punished harder than a member of the right wing killing a member of the left wing. Society had a certain fear of Communism, and like the prejudices against Jews during that time, Hitler used this whenever he could.
* Creator/FrancisEDec, a schizophrenic with a cult following (like ''Film/Plan9FromOuterSpace'' cult following, not ChurchOfHappyology cult following), was so worried about the Red Scare that he tore down his brother's house's red wallpaper, and then spent months scraping the red paint that was underneath off. Granted, when the Communists are in league with the Mafia, Catholics, atheists, Nazis, Jews, blacks, the medical community, and the CIA, all under leadership of the Mad Deadly Frankenstein Computer God and for the sake of killing (or "sneak executing") Dec, you take that shit seriously.
* The Red Scare was used to legitimate the Suharto military regime in Indonesia. [[{{Hypocrite}} If you don't align with the state interest, then you're most likely a Communist sleeper cell.]] He was a strongman who ruled Indonesia for ''32 effin' years'' after he toppled the previous government in a CIA-backed coup, during the escalation of UsefulNotes/TheVietnamWar. These days, "beware of latent Communist danger" is [[DeadHorseTrope never used]] except when you're mocking the old regime (or for old people reminiscing of YeGoodeOldeDays. [[ItMakesSenseInContext Really]]). Although the Communist taboo is not quite dead-government officials still [[BerserkButton go apeshit]] on any sight of a hammer and sickle, and calling someone a Communist is one of the worst (although for some, discredited) insults.
** To elaborate, the previous president, Soekarno, had a staunch anti-western policy and declared NASAKOM (nationalism, religion, and communism) as the main ideology of Indonesia (displacing Pancasila, which is the official ideology). On September 30th/ October 1st 1965, a coup d'etat (which a majority of scholars agree to be a FalseFlagOperation) which led to the 7 highest-ranking officers death or mental incapacity, was extinguished by Suharto, who was then hailed as BigDamnHero. With Sukarno losing support (Communism is dead, Muslims hate his ideologies, and the armed forces prefer Suharto) and since Suharto is the 8th highest-ranking officer, he assumed control (temporary, but later, permanent) and started a Communist purge with an estimated death toll of more than 500m000 lives (whether they are really a member of Indonesian Communist Party, collaborator, accused of being a member, or 'a member of unrelated party that just so happened to have similar acronym') which the CIA lists as the 4th bloodiest massacre of 20th century. While the CIA still claims PlausibleDeniability, interviews with former CIA agents reveals that the CIA pretty much compiled a hit-list for the death squads, with US and SWEDISH government sending weapon, funds, and clothing. After Joshua Oppenheimer's documentary films The Act of Killing and Look of Silence, the US government is getting more pressure to declassify files detailing US involvement in the massacre.
*** To add insult to injury, Sukarno's Communism is Marhaenism (named from a farmer Sukarno met one day), explicitly NOT similar to Soviet Communism. In fact Sukarno 'challenged' the Soviets to prove which Communism was superior, by personally funding the construction of a statue (Dirgantara statue, commonly known as Pancoran statue) with an outstretched hand toward Moscow. And to add ANOTHER insult, the 1965 tragedy happened before the statue's main body started construction, so rumors abounded that it was supposed to be an [[EyeScream eye gouger]] that were used by the coup perpetrator.
* Noam Chomsky argues that this is a method of social control, by accusing people who question the system of being communists.
* A specific example: famous British actor Sir Creator/MichaelRedgrave was suspected of (but never actually black-listed for) being a Communist sympathizer because of his known left-wing ideology and for meeting Soviet agent Guy Burgess during a trip to Moscow in the 1950s. The BBC reportedly had to get an all-clear from MI5 before permitting Redgrave to broadcast. MI5's response was that Redgrave had "made a fool of himself" but nothing more, and so could carry on broadcasting.
* Thomas Piketty's ''Capital in the Twenty-First Century'' (2014) definitively proved that in the long term, economic inequality increases exponentially because it has always been, is, and probably will continue to be the case that the average increase in the value of capital (''r'') exceeds the average increase in the value of wages (''g''). The general reaction to the book was depression, since most readers recognized the political difficulty or even impossibility of correcting ''r > g'' given the influence of wealth over politics. Communists and Socialists criticized Piketty for not using his fame to argue more strongly for measures to correct ''r > g'', Anarchists criticized him for not advocating the end of rulership, and Liberals and (economically Liberal) Conservatives outright accused him of being a (closeted) Communist. The very idea that capitalism was fundamentally anti-meritocratic was so toxic to Liberal "free market" belief that most Liberal journals wisely decided not to mention it, and instead condemned him in general terms for the statistical inaccuracy/deception he used to push his "Secret Marxist Agenda".