"All revolutions are impossible, until they become inevitable."
The second Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Civil War - between the communist 'Reds', anti-communist 'Whites', and village-communitariannote
/nationalist 'Greens', and don't forget the anarchist Blacks, the intervents, the separatists, etc
- that resulted in c.2 million military and c.8 million civilian dead (contrast the Russian Empire's WWI death-count of 2 million military dead and 3 million captured as POW). Resulted in Bolshevik-Soviet victory. Not to be confused with a fictional submarine, or a hunt for said submarine, which is named after it.
OK, who runs this place?
When Nicholas II abdicated the thronenote
in March 1917 (the 'February Revolution'; by the Julian Calender the Empire still used it was late February), the post of 'Emperor' remained empty, the government being taken over by an unconstitutional government formed of representatives from the Parliament or 'Duma' (which had been an advisory body without any real power). This was the Provisional Government, which was only supposed to stick around until a Constituent Assembly could be elected. Meanwhile, at the same time, all of Russia's unions and left-wing parties had teamed up to revolt en-masse and form democratic 'communes' or 'Soviets' in Russia's towns and cities. One of the minor, more radical parties that took part in this was the 'Bolshevik' faction of the Russian Communist Party, which had about 10 000 members. For comparison, the population of the Russian Empire (minus Poland, which was under German/Austro-Hungarian occupation) was some 150+ million people, of whom about 15% lived in urban centres of more than 10 000 people.
There were actually several complete turnovers and an attempt at finishing the war by the Provisional Government, but they eventually bowed to pressure from the Social Revolutionary Party and agreed to elect the Assembly. As expected, the Socialist Revolutionaries won a majority (some 60% of the vote) to the (Bolshevik-led) Communist Party's 24%, with most of the SR Party's support coming from the countryside and the Communists' from the towns. However, when the Constituent Assembly actually met for the first time in Petrograd the Bolsheviks of the Petrograd-city Soviet-commune used groups of armed soldiers, sailors, and workers loyal to them to arrest all the delegates and imprison the Provisional Government. That done, the Petrograd Soviet then sent word to all the Soviets in Russia that they
, the Soviets, were now Russia's new form of government. At the same time, they sent word to the Army that it could stop fighting now, thanks, and in fact it was disbanded so everyone should just go home now because the war was over.
Just a little matter of the First World War
It was a big mistake for Emperor Nicholas II to enter WWI. The administration of the Empire was corrupt, the army badly equipped, the people angry and several revolutionary parties (not only the Dirty Communists
) spouting anti-Tsarist rhetoric while organizing against the government. Instead of trying to heal the Empire, the Emperor aggravated the problems by throwing his country into the Great War. The corrupt intendants were making money by stealing from army shipments, the soldiers were freezing in trenches, Dying Like Animals
and becoming even angrier at the Emperor and his government while the dissipated nobles and the unscrupulous merchants were still living luxurious lives - this all angered people further. Finally, they had enough and began to actually listen to the revolutionaries.
And the shit hit the fan. Strikes, mutinies, mass fraggings of officers
and peasant revolts broke out. Several high-ranking generals and public officials forced the Tsar to abdicate. That is how the Provisional Government came into power. They were going to elect the Constituent Assembly that was intended to decide the fate of post-Imperial Russia. But there were guys that had some other ideas. You guessed right, the Bolsheviks...
A Sealed Train
Meanwhile the First World War
was still going on and the provisional government couldn't decide how to end it. On the one hand it was extremely unpopular, on the other Germany was demanding extremely onerous terms since the Russians had no bargaining power.
When Germany saw that the provisional government wasn't pulling Russia out of the war, they made a deal with Lenin, currently in exile in Switzerland. The Germans would let him pass through their territory in a sealed train (so he wouldn't try to foment revolution in Germany), in exchange he would get Russia out of the war. The Germans probably didn't expect him to actually succeed in consolidating power and were just hoping he would cause enough trouble that they could transfer troops to the Western Front.
Not a Korny Love story
Actually, there were several revolutionary parties: the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (a hardline communist Bolshevik one and a social-democratic Menshevik one, RSDLP (b) and RSDLP (m) respectively, thanks to a split in 1905), the Socialist Revolutionaries, and many other smaller parties. The left Socialist Revolutionaries (Left SRs) were allies of the Bolsheviks, but the other revolutionary parties were satisfied with the February revolution (except for the anarchists, but they were not really a party of course) and well represented in the Provisional Government. They, and the right-wing parties, formed a loose alliance that later became the White movement.
The first White general was Kornilov, who tried to call dibs on power shortly before the Bolsheviks did it. Fearing a military coup, Kerensky, the moderate socialist Prime Minister and head of the Provisional Government, allowed Lenin to arm the Bolshevik Red Guards to help prevent this (previously anyone carrying arms without permission in Petrograd was a capital offense-the brief abolition of the death penalty didn't last long). He should have known better, since the Bolsheviks, and Lenin in the lead, had risen up in earlier that same year (1917) with the July Days, which troops of the Provisional Government put down. This, naturally, made the Bolsheviks and other revolutionary parties more popular while the Provisional Government became much less, particularly with the war still going on, people starving, the promised elections nowhere in sight, etc.
The Bolsheviks, in alliance with the anarchists and Left Socialist Revolutionaries, launched another revolution in October (November according to the West, since Russia still went by the Julian Calendar, before the Bolsheviks changed it). The Provisional Government fell almost without firing a shot, and Kerensky fled. Incidentally, the Bolsheviks took, on Lenin's insistence, popular slogans used by anarchists like "All power to the Soviets (elected workers councils)", which led to Lenin himself being denounced by fellow Bolsheviks as an anarchist. The Bolsheviks had actually opposed the February Revolution, as they did the Revolution and Soviets of 1905, seeking to control both. Lenin had learned after these experiences. He and the Bolsheviks quickly set about seizing total power in Russia and the other parts of the former empire.
They set up the Sovnarkom (Council of People's Commissars) elected by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which they delegated to a secondary role, meeting once a year while they made most decisions, with full legislative powers, their acts simply ratified by the Congress (this was a model for later legislatures such as the Supreme Soviet with no real power, acting merely as rubber-stamp parliaments, also typical of socialist states in general.) The Revolution grew into the Russian Civil War. After Kornilov's rebellion was suppressed, other White generals appeared: Admiral Kolchak, generals Denikin, Yudenich and Wrangel, who were gathering armies to stop Bolshevism.
Among the Sovnarkom's first acts was to create a secret police with the acronym CHEKA and start imprisoning everyone opposing them. Old Imperial prisons were soon filled up with political prisoners once again. The factory committee movement, which began when the striking workers seized their workplaces or forced owners into allowing them a say in management, was sidelined and destroyed slowly by the Bolshevik leadership, who appointed managers with dictatorial powers, often the same ones from before
. An All-Russian Congress of Factory Committees, which aimed to federate the entire network into a democratic control of the national economy, was closed down when it tried to meet. The Sovnarkom nationalized all land and industry, along with other sweeping decrees giving the Bolshevik government control over the whole of life.
Elections for The Constituent Assembly occurred that December, with the Socialist Revolutionaries winning most seats, the Bolsheviks only a much smaller second. When it attempted to meet in January 1918, the Red Guards closed down the Constituent Assembly with force. The Bolsheviks rationalized this as the Soviets were more democratic, representative bodies (as the SRs were popular in the peasantry, still the majority of population, and so won the election, while the Bolsheviks as Marxists believed the industrial proletariat in the cities would spearhead revolution, which of course they would lead). Coincidentally, they had a majority with most Soviets. Even this grew into a problem, so Bolshevik force increasingly overthrew results of elections that went against them, shut down presses, closed opposition meeting places, jailed opponents, etc.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers was signed in March 1918, giving up the Baltic States (Lithuania, Lativa, Estonia) along with Ukraine (none of these not-yet-
countries were consulted). This outraged not only nationalists there but also other socialists and former Tsarist officers who had sacrificed much in the war fighting Germany. The German ambassador was assassinated by Left SRs in hopes of preventing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk from coming to fruition, but it went ahead despite this. In April CHEKA gunmen raided numerous anarchist centers in Moscow and Petrograd, with dozens killed, hundreds arrested. Increasingly the Bolsheviks squelched all opposition by force. Even dissidents within the Bolsheviks, such as Nikolai Bukharin, denounced such acts. The other factions banded together in the White movement, issuing a manifesto which denounced the Bolsheviks, calling them German agents, in July of 1918 and starting a revolt against them. It is a popular misconception that the White movement was about monarchism: actual monarchists were a minority among the Whites, the majority were of democratic and or socialist persuasion, but on the practical side, they were creating naught more than military dictatorship in the territories they held, because they did not have time to run elections or even to decide on their political course, which would have been difficult given the diverse viewpoints anyway. That's why the Whites never created a common political ideology or a single confederacy of states, and it was their undoing. They DID acknowledge a single provisional head-of-state and a single commander-in-chief (Kolchak, later Denikin, after that, Wrangel), but in practice, every major White leader was his own man.
Finland had already broken away, as had Poland. While the Bolsheviks supported national autonomy in theory, they had set up puppet Bolshevik governments in the countries controlled by the former Russian Empire, regardless of what people desired. In August Lenin was nearly assassinated by a young Left SR woman, Fanny Kaplan, while touring Moscow factories. His health never completely recovered. She was later shot by the CHEKA in the autumn of that year. The Bolsheviks became even more despotic, openly saying a party dictatorship was good and increasing dictatorial measures they already began before
the war, that now had this as a greater excuse (Leon Trotsky, for instance, while People's Commissar for Army and Navy Affairs in early 1918 had abolished election of officers in the Army, something that occurred after soldiers mutinied (often shooting their commanders), reinstituting old privileges of rank, such as separate quarters, special forms of address, saluting, along with the death penalty for desertion under fire). The Bolsheviks banned all other parties, the free press, freedom of speech, assembly, etc. sometimes "temporarily" for the war. Freedom of speech, press, assembly and street processions were reinstated eventually (Article 125 of the 1936 Union constitution), but they were dead letters, with dissent prohibited in practice. (In 1921 the last free assembly was allowed-a march at the funeral of the anarchist thinker Pyotr Kropotkin. The next one would come in 1987, with Glasnost).
Enter the Entente! At the same time, between 1917 and 1922, the Entente nation-states—France
, Italy, Japan
, Serbia, the United Kingdom, the United States
and new nations like Finland
, which had both just gained independence from Russia— scrounged up a few thousand troops to 'intervene' in the civil war, resulting in a fairly unpopular technically-an-invasion of what came to be known as the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), kind of
but not officially on behalf of the White Army. This was ostensibly done to secure lost matériel at Russian ports, the Russian ports themselves, rescue separated Entente forces and citizens, and hopefully sort out the whole mess in such a way that the Eastern Front could be re-opened against Germany (Germany, incidentally, even after the treaty of Brest-Litovsk still kept a couple of hundred thousand troops camped right across their shiny new border from Soviet Russia). Their actual effect upon the war was nil, but it ended messily for everyone and much more importantly raised suspicions of the Western and Eastern capitalist states (such as Japan) among the Reds and the uncomfortably-frequently-invaded-feeling Russian peasantry as a whole, the latter actually cutting back slightly on their bad habit of shooting Reds on sight. This only made the Bolsheviks popular as they fought the foreigners. However it has been obscured to an extent by the next
'western' invasion, Operation Barbarossa
The army the Bolsheviks had raised to defend themselves against Germany - the Bolsheviks' disorganised citizen-militias having proven themselves totally useless against the German Army - earned them victory in the protracted conflict that followed, a victory assured by the Bolsheviks' control of the most economically important areas of inner Russia. The unified, fanatical Reds eventually smashed the loose White military states, at first with the help of the Left SRs and the Revolutionary Insurrection Army from Ukraine (or the Maknovist movement, after its leader Nestor Makhno). It was also known as the Black Army since they were anarchist, in contrast to the Red and White Armies. Local groups attempted to fight off all sides, dubbed the "Green" Army, although they were never unified. Additionally was the Blue Army, peasants who fought the Reds in the Tambov Rebellion. Some historians have determined that the Black Army saved the entire war from the Whites at several points, such as stopping Deniken from taking Petrograd. However, they were betrayed three separate times by the Bolsheviks and defeated finally when they could turn their full force onto them. Makhno fled to exile in France.
After the Whites were defeated in fall of 1921, one last revolt occurred at Kronstadt, with mutinous sailors (the same ones who rose up in February 1917, not, as the Bolsheviks claimed, reactionary replacements) calling for free soviets, civil liberties and worker self-management again, as with the factory committees the Bolsheviks smashed. They were massacred by the Red Army under Trotsky. At the same time strikes were occurring in Moscow and Petrograd, also brutally put down. By 1924, all Russia along with most shards of the Empire (with the exception of Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, who managed to stay independent) were under Bolshevik control. Not everything went quiet; Greens, Separatists and White stragglers continued to fight guerrilla wars in remote areas of the country and along borders. Turkestan (modern post-Soviet Central Asia) was one particular hotbed of guerrilla warfare that resisted pacification well into the Stalinist years; the borders with China and the Baltic States were another, used by the White Emigre remnant unions to sneak terrorists into Soviet Russia.
The Civil War-era Russia was a popular setting for later Soviet action movies - just as the Chinese Civil War
has become the most popular setting for Chinese action movies. These movies were very similar to American Westerns: just take a Western, replace the Injuns or Mexicans with Basmaches (Muslim anti-Bolshevik fighters in Central Asia), the Blue with the Red and the Gray with the White, the prairies with the deserts of Turkestan or steppes of Ukraine, the Peacemakers with Nagant Gas-Seals and Mauser Broomhandles, the Winchesters with Mosin-Nagant rifles, the Gatlings with Maxims, the horses... well, let the horses be horses, and you'll get an Ostern (or "Eastern", as they are known in Russia proper).
The most popular Osterns were White Sun of the Desert
, about a former Red Army Soldier turned gunslinger
who travelled homewards through Basmach-infested Turkestan deserts, At Home Amongst The Strangers, A Stranger Amongst Friends
in which a framed CHEKA agent must infiltrate a band of marauders and retrieve several millions in gold, and The Elusive Avengers
, about four young guns opposing the anarchist bandit ataman Burnash and his gang. The concept itself became popular enough to be recognized in a parody where Winchester and Colt as they are coexists with a kolkhoz note
Tropes of the Great October Socialist Revolution (its official name in the USSR) and Russian Civil War
- Apocalypse How: a Regional Societal Collapse
- Aristocrats Are Evil: You better believe it. Very common in Soviet films about the subject.
- Angry Mob Song: The "Worker's Marseillaise".
- Ax-Crazy: Ungern-Sternberg
- Badass Bookworm / Badass Jew: For a guy with no previous military training, Lev Bronstein, AKA Leon Trotsky, proved to be a remarkably skilled military commander, leading the ragtag Red Army to victory at a time when everybody wanted the Bolsheviks dead.
- The reason the seat of government was moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow was because the Bolshevik leadership feared it would fall into Tsarist hands. In fact, when an approaching White army besieged it, they considered the city as good as lost and planned a general evacuation. Trotsky, however, personally took charge of organizing the defence - and managed to break the siege (a feat later replicated by his archenemy in Moscow against the Nazis. Not So Different?)
- Badass Longcoat: that was pretty much the dress code for the era, with all those greatcoats.
- Ballistic Discount: the Red "military communism" was essentially an entire economy using Ballistic Discount instead of money. Redistribution of wealth at gunpoint.
- Better The Devil You Know: Because the Whites relied on foreign assistance many people in Russia saw them as foreign stooges. This was one of the factors which led to their defeat.
- Crazy Awesome: Nestor Makhno and his anarchist Black Army.
- Though if you read a bit more about them, it's entirely possible to have doubts about their awesomeness. They were still Crazy Awesome, but with very heavy emphasis upon the crazy.
- Day of the Jackboot: The October Revolution against the Provisional Government might well be the modern Trope Codifier.
- Despair Event Horizon: The Imperial army and Russia as a whole went through this in February 1917, leading to the revolution.
- Dying Like Animals:
- Bats: the Imperial government during the years preceding the revolution.
- Butterflies: the nobility during the years preceding the revolution.
- Boars: early Kornilovtsy and Kerensky during the march to Petrograd.
- Wolves: many Green gangs during the Civil War.
- Weasels: Greek smugglers on the Black Sea during the Civil War.
- Snakes: the Latvian Riflemen.
- Five-Man Band / Five-Bad Band: The Bolshevik leaders and eventual heads of the Soviet Government.
- Former Regime Personnel: Some former regime officers joined the Red side (reason could be My Country, Right or Wrong, political conviction or simple luck). Most were forced into service, often with their families taken hostage as incentive. They often had to prove their devotion to the Revolution, their unity with their underlings and generally whatever the unit council (soviet) wanted them to prove. A commissar who could override the commander's orders and had to execute his commander in case of (suspected) treason didn't make things easier. This trope is more specific to stories concerning the Red Navy than to stories concerning Red Army. A Determinator old-school Captain who endures this treatment by his crew and later leads them to the victory is almost a must in such stories.
- Gentleman and a Scholar: most of the intelligentsiya during the era. Also, Gentleman and a Scholar turned Officer and a Gentleman was the "hat" of the Alexeiev's elite regiment of the White army.
- Glorious Mother Russia: In non-Soviet media
- Grey and Gray Morality
- Guile Hero/Magnificent Bastard: Whether you think he was a hero or not, you must admit that Lenin was one hell of a smartass.
- Hell-Bent for Leather: the Bolsheviks. They LOVED the leather jackets originally made for WWI pilots and drivers.
- Trotsky's bodyguards even had red leather longcoats.
- Historical Hero Upgrade: Usually depends on the political orientation of the author: Lenin or Nicholas II.
- Also, Stalin later re-wrote history and gave himself this treatment.
- Also, Trotsky. Just Trotsky.
- And Nestor Makhno. And just about any of the white generals. And...
- Despite his dubious record as "Supreme Ruler of Russia," Admiral Alexander Kolchak (head of White forces in Siberia) has become something of a hero in post-Soviet Russia, receiving statuary tributes in St. Petersburg and Irkutsk and a laudatory biopic. Admittedly he had a more impressive pre-Revolutionary career, including time as a polar explorer and decorated military service.
- Historical Villain Upgrade:
- Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, et cetera from 1894 to 1917. His portrayal in media may be as a tyrant with blood stained hands, or as an ineffective ruler out of touch with the situation of his empire. To be fair, his regime wasn't blameless in many ways, but like often happens, the reality was more complex than simplified extremes.
- Officers who joined with the Whites. Some were heroes of World War I and the Russo-Japanese War, but became vilified because of the side they took in the Civil War.
- Leon Davidovich Trotsky. One of the leaders of the Great October Revolution, President of the Petrograd Soviet in October-November 1917, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs from November 1917 to March 1918. He was a major figure in the Civil War being People's Commissar for Army and Navy Affairs. But he became part of an opposition faction against Joseph Stalin in the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), which was renamed the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in 1925. He was expelled from the party in October 1927, and then exiled in February 1929. Many crimes and conspiracies against the Soviet government were linked to him in the 1930s, true or not, and in histories of the 1917 Revolution/Civil War, his role became downplayed or erased.
- Historical Hero Upgrade: As a result of his opposition to Stalin (combined with the fact that he, Trotsky, was a brilliant journalist and a one-man propaganda machine) Trotsky became the poster-boy for the anti-Stalinist Left who condemed the dictators atrocities and totalitarian regime. Even many non-Socialists thought that Trotsky represented the "democratic", "non-violent" Communist movement. But his behaviour in the Civil War was pretty appaling (even given how bad the other sides could be) and he actually agreed with a lot more of what Stalin did than many seemed to realize, opposing him less out of any moral differences and more due to the belief that he was a front-man for an oligarchy of Bolshevik "Rightists" (and the whole "trying to kill me and my family" thing). He always favoured violent revolution and downplayed the atrocities he committed during the war, and remained unrepetant about his behaviour until the day he died. He was also not as competent a politician as he is remembered and he made a lot of foolish mistakes and tended to make enemies easily.
- Ironically, a lot of this was caused by the Historical Villain Upgrade he received from Stalin, which involved writing him out of a lot of the atrocities the Soviet government and Stalin viewed as laudable and thus worth stealing credit for.
- The same might go for Tsar Nicholas II (and his family). Hardly known for religiosity during their lives, but their violent deaths at the hands of Godless communists made them the object of much veneration in the Russian Orthodox Church. The entire family was canonized by the Orthodox Church in exile in 1981 and by the whole Orthodox Church in 2000.
- Iconic Outfit: Lenin's newsboy cap and suit, Feliks Dzerzhinsky's cavalry greatcoat.
- I Have Your Wife: the Bolsheviks made most former Imperial officers (that's the ones who weren't in the White army) work for them by taking their families hostage.
- Insistent Terminology: The Red Army had "commanders", not officers. "Officer" was a loaded word implying nobility and conviction to the Tsarist cause. Until 1930s Red Army technically had no military ranks (such as sergeant, lieutenant, colonel...), and commanders were addressed by their positions: "platoon commander", "regiment commander", etc.note Often leading to Acronym and Abbreviation Overload.
- Loads And Loads Of Factions: Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, other revolutionary leftists, anarchists, democrats, monarchists, ethnic nationalists, foreign inteventionists from the Allied and Central Powers, those just trying to fight their way out... Did we forget anyone.?
- The Greens, local militias attempting to protect their villages from the marauding forces of both sides, along with bandits.
- Maybe the Czech Legion? Usually lumped in with the foreign interventionists, but the Czechs were stranded in Russia after having been taken prisoner while serving with the Austro-Hungarian Army and recruited into the scheme to organize them as a military unit to support Allied causes. They never got to fight the Germans and Austrians because of the Revolution, but they had to fight their way out of Russia, by marching EAST! Eventually, they would be picked up by the Allies at Vladivostok and had to sail halfway around the world to get back home.
- Memetic Mutation: one predating the Internet! Vasili Chapayev, a Red division commander who ended up as a popular Russian folk joke character.
- Montages: Soviet filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein was a pioneer of the development and use of the montage editing and montage was used prominently in some Soviet films of the 1920s.
- Moral Event Horizon: For foreign observers, the execution of Tsar Nicholas and his family. The Kronstadt Mutiny (and Trotsky's brutal suppression of it) also shook the Bolshevik leadership significantly; why did sailors and soldiers, previously in the Revolution's vanguard, suddenly turn against it?
- The Mutiny: It happens in revolutions.
- Officer and a Gentleman: a stereotypical White Guard. Except in earlier Soviet fiction, where they were portrayed as either evil or ineffectual, alcoholic and decadent.
- The Political Officer: Trope Codifier.
- The Remnant: Baron Wrangel's Crimean White remnant. Merkulov's Far Eastern White remnant. General Pepelyaev's last campaign is this IN SPADES. Nestor Makhno's Anarchists, "the Greens".
- The Revolution Will Not Be Civilised
- State Sec: the CHEKA.
- Type Casting: 1920s Soviet films on the subject have characters whose appearance often identifies an archetype. Only capitalists wear top hats.
- The Starscream: Stalin
- Villain with Good Publicity: The Bolsheviks went out of their way to convince both ordinary Russians and the rest of the world that they were the good guys, taking advantages of new media like cinema and others to revolutionize propaganda and managing to maintain a pretty good image, despite most other leftist groups who were not their allies in Russia both hating them and being on their hit list, to say nothing of all the numerous atrocities they wilfuly commited. This was deliberate deception, while in the Politburo demanding the most brutal and callous tactics.
- Subverted with the Whites; most of their foreign backers didn't have a particularly high moral opinion of them, partly due to generations-old stereotypes about Russians as brutal savages, partly due to how the Whites actually behaved. They just thought that the Reds were much worse, though that was partly because of their anti-capitalist policies.
- We Are Struggling Together: The various revolutionary factions who formed the White Movement; the only thing that they agreed on was that they weren't Reds. The Reds were capable of allying with the most effective non-Red factions (such as the Black Army) to annihilate the Whites, then turned on the Blacks when the Whites were gone.
- There were numerous cases where the Whites and their nominal Allies actually came to blows. This was particularly prevalent in Siberia, where General Semenov's Cossacks frequently attacked Allied troops guarding the Trans-Siberian Railway. The region's American commander, William S. Graves, stopped supplying arms to Semenov when he realized they were being used to kill his own troops.
- There was a case when Reds and Whites acted together against Ukrainian nationalist leader Petlyura.
Depictions in Fiction