"Besides, everyone knows that red robots are always the good guys."'Red shows up a lot when it comes to the heroes of a story, usually the color of their clothing. As their main color motif, it could also be their hair color, gear, Battle Aura, or body parts for robots and non-human characters. This could be limited to the main protagonist, or be as wide as an entire Badass Army. Some Chromatic Arrangement trios have the leader wear red. The reason is that red is the color of fire and blood, hence the color of action. Thus it conveys that the heroes are people of action as well (regardless of exactly how the heroism is presented in the show). In Japan this was traditional in old Kabuki plays and the like. It's made to represent the hero bathed in the blood of his enemies. It is much less common in America due to the association with red as the color of the country's enemies (redcoat British in the Revolutionary War, Red Scares and the Cold War in the 20th century), but gets a pass if it's paired with white and/or blue. Keep in mind that since not all heroes wear red (for example, Blue is also very common), and other characters don't avoid that color, there isn't much point in listing aversions to this. A Super Trope to Primary-Color Champion and Pink Heroine. A Sub-Trope of Good Colors, Evil Colors. A Sister Trope to Fire Is Red and Blue Is Heroic. Compare Heroes Want Redheads, Bring My Red Jacket, Heroes Prefer Swords, Color-Coded Characters, Purple Is Powerful, Law of Chromatic Superiority, Satan Is Good. Contrast Red and Black and Evil All Over, Red Eyes, Take Warning, Big Red Devil, a literal Red Shirt (and Red Shirt Army), Char Clone, Evil Wears Black, Green and Mean.
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Anime and Manga
- Asuna from Sword Art Online starts out with a red vest and some of her later outfits have some red but as an Undine she ditches the red for blue.
- Heathcliff is mostly dressed in Red Armor while his Knights of Blood has only minor amount of red in their clothing. However its subverted with Heathcliff who turns out to be Akihiko Kayaba the Big Bad and Kuradeel who turns out to be a member of Laughing Coffin.
- Kaneda from AKIRA is an example with his iconic all red biker outfit and souped up red power bike.
- Bleach protagonist Ichigo Kurosaki both plays this trope straight and subverts it, his coat in Bankai form is red on the inside and gives his spirit energy a red tint to it and his Hollow Mask has red markings on it and his hollow uses a red Cero.
- Red of Pokémon Special.
- In Detective Conan it is discussed when they act the "Peach boy" legend. Conan is told he can't be the hero because he wants to wear blue, his color code, but the kids say the hero wears red.
- In Fullmetal Alchemist, Edward Elric is often seen wearing a red coat. It's even commented that Edward must be a hero because he wears red. He responds that he's no hero - he just thinks that the color looks badass.
- It is discussed in Love Hina about Journey to the West.
- In the Mazinger series, all heroes of the trilogy -Kouji Kabuto, Tetsuya Tsurugi and Duke Fleed- wear red outfits. Also, Mazinger and Great Mazinger's iconic chesplates are red.
- Keith/Akira of Voltron/GoLion wears red and is the leader of the team. Oddly, his mecha (which forms the head and torso) is black, while the red mecha is ridden by Lance/Isamu, who wears blue.
- Panzer World Galient: The titular mecha is nearly completely red. The Hero Jordy also wears black and red armor and bodysuit.
- In the Robot Romance Trilogy, Hyoma Aoi and Ippei Mine from Combattler V and Voltes V also wear red. Likewise, Daimos titular robot is red and white.
- Saint Seiya: The Hero Seiya wears a red shirt. Also, when he wears his armor, the clothes under it are red.
- In Red Photon Zillion, J.J.'s uniform includes a red shirt that he always wears. Reinforced trope, because the word is in the freaking title.
- Most Digimon protagonist Mons are red (or orange, which is close enough to establish a pattern): Agumon (both Adventure and Savers versions), Guilmon, Agnimon, and Shoutmon; plus their evolutions. Gatchmon is mostly grey, but he has a big red helmet and evolves into mostly-red forms. The exceptions are Veemon (blue) and Gumdramon (purple), both justified since they each share a continuity and screentime with one of the above red/orange characters and have to set themselves apart.
- When Takato is designing Guilmon in the dub of Digimon Tamers, he comments that red is "definitely a power color."
- Gurren Lagann, it's even in the title ("Gurren" comes from guren, an intense shade of red, which The Other Wiki - in Japanese - likens to "infernal flames").
- In the parody anime Shinesman, where the heroes are all businessmen by day, the protagonist is asked what color he'd be as a hero and, remembering his brother's words that heroes wear red, he answers "red" and gets hired and promoted to team leader. Based on that.
- In both the Yu-Gi-Oh! GX anime and manga, Judai likes the color red, even though Osiris Red is the lowest ranking dormitory. In the manga, it's also the color his idol Koyo Hibiki favors. He ultimately shows up for his duel with Koyo in the Distant Finale wearing his school uniform.
- Getter Robo series spots Getter 1/Dragon/Shin Getter-1 (leader's unit) with red as the main color.
- Oddly, the Getter Robo Go/Neo Getter-1 is blue with red markings. Its Getter Robo Shou/Neo Getter-2 that's red. Still heroic, though.
- Vash the Stampede (or Stampeed, depending on your source) from Trigun wears a large red coat and is the most heroic of all the characters.
- The title hero of Anpanman wears a red superhero uniform. One of his allies, Shokupanman, has red as his accent color for his uniform. This is taken to the extreme in the movie Ruby's Wish, where Ruby, the red Aurora Girl automatically believes Anpanman is the best superhero ever just because he wears red, even before seeing his heroic deeds.
- It's still in the red spectrum, but the Pretty Cure leaders all wear pink (or in the case of Cure Black and Cure Bloom, have pink highlights). Yes! Pretty Cure 5 (Cure Rouge), Fresh Pretty Cure! (Cure Passion), Smile Pretty Cure! (Cure Sunny), DokiDoki! Precure (Cure Ace), and Go! Princess Pretty Cure (Cure Scarlet) do have a member who sports red (though, in the case of Smile, it's arguable as Cure Sunny is orange and red), and in Maho Girls Precure, the continuity's two Cures, Miracle and Magical (the former being the continuity's pink Cure), have an alternate form called "Ruby Style" that dresses the two in red.
- Maka, the heroine of Soul Eater, wears a red skirt as a part of her primary outfit and also wields a red scythe.
- Kagerou Project: Invoked and discussed by Ayano, to convince her adoptive siblings Kido, Seto and Kano that their red eyes aren't monstrous, but marks of heroism. It's also the reason why she wears her iconic red scarf. It's no coincidence that Shintaro also wears red at least, in the timelines where he manages to move on with his life.
- Shintaro wears the the red jacket because Ayano thinks it suits him.
- Alucard from Hellsing sports a red ensemble, though despite being the main character there's very few people that'd call him a hero.
- Gundam has a strange love/hate relationship with this trope as characters wearing red or Mobile Suits sporting mostly red are designated The Rival. However, many Gundams tend to carry red shields, especially in the Universal Century. One suit that plays this trope straight is the Build Burning/Try Burning/Kamiki Burning Gundam of Gundam Build Fighters Try
- Daitarn3: Banjo's combat suit is dark-red. He also wears a red jacket.
- In Neon Genesis Evangelion, Asuka wears a red plugsuit and pilots a red Humongous Mecha. She's not the main character, and an Anti-Hero as opposed to a regular one, but she's one of the heroes nonetheless.
- Superman is a Primary-Color Champion, including his iconic red cape.
- Superman's cousin Supergirl is another Primary-Color Champion. Kara's Supergirl costume includes a red cape, pants and boots. When she joined the Red Lanterns in Red Daughter Of Krypton, her Red Lantern uniform was red and black.
- Doctor Strange wears black with red accents since his 2011 redesign. His former look (and the costume most closely associated with him) included a distinctive and showy red cloak.
- On that note, Thor's red cape is an iconic part of his costume, and a good indicator of his heroic status.
- Though their costumes change constantly, the Robins are often drawn with predominantly red costumes (Tim Drake being the most notable one, especially after Identity Crisis when his father died). And of course, there's Tim Drake as Red Robin.
- Nightwing's most recent costume◊ replaces his traditional blue trim with red trim. Uncomfortably, this makes him resemble his Batman & Robin look quite strongly.
- Fiery Redhead Barbara Gordon -the first and most popular Batgirl- is one of the crimefighters who protect Gotham.
- In Elseworld's Finest: Supergirl & Batgirl the two main characters count: Supergirl wears read cape and boots, and Batgirl is a redhead.
- Batwoman is a redhead and a tough crimefighter.
- Captain Marvel (aka "Shazam")
- For that matter, the other Captain Marvel (aka Mar-Vell).
- And both their Distaff Counterparts, Mary Marvel and Ms. Marvel (Carol Danvers) respectively, have worn red Gendered Outfit versions of the males' costumes at times. (At other times, Mary Marvel wears a white version instead, while Ms. Marvel is better known for a black costume and since taking the "Captain" title herself has switched to a mainly-blue one.)
- The Flash
- Iron Man
- Red Tornado
- Ant-Man's standard costume.
- Captain America's ally The Falcon, (and his faithful bird, "Redwing").
- Captain America himself can qualify, though it's worth pointing out that he's associated with red as much as he is with white and blue for obvious reasons.
- However, Cap's arch-enemy is the Red Skull.
- Scarlet Witch (as an Avenger, anyway) wears a flowing red mantle, a red headdress, and a red Leotard of Power, which she often pairs with a pink bodysuit for femininity.
- Although she already wore that costume when she still was one of the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants led by Magneto, who by preference dresses in red and purple.
- And her teammate/lover The Vision, who has artificial red skin.
- Wonder Woman
- Wonder Man
- Crimson Avenger
- Plastic Man
- Let's save a lot of time and say that most Neon Genesis Evangelion fanfics carry Asuka's association with the color red over from the anime.
- In Wonderful:
- Super-hero and main character Taylor “Wonder Red” wears a red suit, jacket and scarf.
- Her friend and partner Emma "Wonder Star" also wears a red-and-white super-hero outfit.
- Star Wars' Rebel Alliance, with their famous "red bird" emblem. On that note, their elite team of Ace Pilots is code-named "Red Squadron" (although later renamed "Rogue Squadron").
- The striping on Han Solo's pants, known as Corellian Blood Stripes, comes in two colors, one of which is red. They are an award given by the Corellian military for conspicuous gallantry.
- In Kagemusha Shingen Takeda's fiery lieutenant Yamagata Masakage aka "Fire" and the contingent under his command are dressed in bright vermillion red.
- In The Hobbit, Bilbo wears a red jacket throughout the film. Also Balin, one of the most outwardly virtuous and heroic of the dwarves, wears red robes.
- The eponymous Sophie Scholl.
- In Warm Bodies, R wears a distinctive red hoodie that makes him visually stand out from the greyish zombies around him.
- The Book of Life:
- Maria’s dress is red and she's the one who rallies the townspeople to stand against Chakal.
- La Muerte wears a red dress and is the Big Good.
- The Adelita Twins both wear predominately red clothes and are heroic characters based on La Adelita, the Mexican cultural icon of a strong and patriotic Mexican woman.
- Harry Potter:
- Red is one of the colors of Gryffindor house.
- The red-feathered Phoenix is also commonly used in the books as a symbol of nobility and heroism (hence Fawkes the Phoenix with his healing tears, and the Order of the Phoenix).
- The disarming charm Expelliarmus is one of the few unambiguously defensive spells, and lets out a red light when used. It's also considered Harry's signature attack.
- In the Deryni works, the kings of the House of Haldane wear red (as do their liveried servants, pages, and squires), and the coat of arms features a golden lion on a red field.
- Laeshana in The Quest of the Unaligned wears a red robe through most of the book, and she is one of the three primary heroes.
- Shallan Davar of The Stormlight Archive has bright red hair and is a Lightweaver, the Radiant order associated with garnets. In addition, when she summons Pattern in his Blade form in Words of Radiance, it glows with red Tron Lines.
- Scarlet Benoit of the The Lunar Chronicles not only has her first name, but has red hair and wears a favorite red hoodie throughout the series.
Live Action TV
- The Super Sentai series, and thus Power Rangers, have long put The Hero in the Red Ranger suits, to the point of being a potential Trope Codifier. At the end of Super Sentai's 25th anniversary movie, the previous Reds showed up out of nowhere to donate their power to the current team's mecha. The 10th Power Rangers anniversary was celebrated with all nine Red Rangers to datenote teaming up, plus a red-colored Sixth Ranger to round things out (pictured above).
- Kamen Rider has swung this way in recent years, especially the modern Heisei era. Not every leading Rider is red in their default form, but most are; Riders that are primarily red include Stronger, Kuuga, Ryuki, Kabuto, Den-O, Kiva, Wizard, and Drive. A few more come in red-like colors and fill the role that red would in a Chromatic Arrangement color scheme: Decade (magenta), Ghost (orange, and he gets an upgraded version of that form that is red), and Ex-Aid (hot pink).
- When the production staff of Kamen Rider Double wanted their hero to be something other than red, they had to fight for it; doing so by making his primary form green and black, then arguing to Toei's bigwigs that those were the colors of the original Kamen Rider.
- Kamen Rider Ghost takes it a step further in the Legend Rider mini-episodes, where he gets a form which draws upon the power of all the Heisei Riders; naturally, it's red with white accents.
- Most Ultra Warriors, starting with the original, tends to use a red and silver color scheme.
- There are silver (Ultraman, Ultraman Jack, Ultraman Ace, Ultraman Eighty, Yullian (a woman), etc.) and red Ultras (Ultra Seven, Ultraman Tarou, Ultraman Leo, Astra, Ultraman Max, Ultraman Mebius, etc.), classified according to how much red is in the costume. These red Ultras tend to be more powerful than their silver counterparts.
- In Merlin, the knights of Camelot look quite dashing their red capes. Ironically, in the earlier seasons before the Round Table was established, this also marked them out as Red Shirts.
- King Arthur is always seen wearing the color red, whether it's a shirt or his Pendragon cape.
- Merlin often wears red combined with blue.
- The eponymous hero in BIMA Satria Garuda has a color scheme dominated by red.
- Roy Harper in Arrow, both before◊ and after◊ becoming Arsenal.
- Once Upon a Time: Main character Emma Swan is iconic for her red leather jacket. It appears in most every episode of Season 1 and the show's initial advertisements. Additionally, she dons an all red gown and bright red lipstick for her first official ball in Season 3.
- The Red Shadow from The Desert Song.
- The song "Red and Black" from Les Misérables. Red symbolizes the blood of martyrs, the dawning of a new age, and passionate love, while black is the darkness and night of the status quo, and the despair of loneliness. Similarly, the red vest of student leader Enjolras symbolizes his heroic character.
- In Warhammer 40,000, the Blood Angels are one of the noblest (for this setting) of the Space Marine Chapters, a group of optimists who genuinely fight for the people of the Imperium. Unfortunately, thanks to a flaw in their gene-seed, they might devolve into Ax-Crazy berserkers during combat and end up killing the people they're trying to protect. When this happens, their armor is ritually painted black and they join the Death Company. This is inverted, however, with the World Eaters and Word Bearers Chaos Marine Legions.
- Red and other similar warm colors adorn several of the 'good' factions in BattleTech, most notably the heroic mercenary units Wolf's Dragoons and the Kell Hounds. The Warden Wolves are known for their prominent red and brown colors, and they are among the most restrained and protectively-minded of the Clans, especially after accepting an invitation to protect part of the Inner Sphere. On a much smaller level, the famous Centurion Yen-Lo-Wang◊ is pearl-white with a brilliant red sunburst covering its body (and a blood red helmet) and is most known for being piloted by two of the most heroic and talented warriors in the setting, Justin Xiang Allard and his son Kai.
- In many games with a multiplayer feature, especially arcade games, player 1 will be colored red. In games featuring this where the player, in a single-player game, cannot switch to the other player slots, the player character becomes this trope.
- Apollo Justice of Ace Attorney, with "a passionate heart burning RED!" Oh, and it's also his favorite color.
- Dante from Devil May Cry wears a long, red trench coat.
- During development Dante was becoming too much antiheroic for Japan's taste. To make him more heroic they gave him a red coat.
- Any Nippon Ichi main character will have some sort of red on them whether it's the color of their hair or an article of clothing.
- Mario of the Super Mario Bros. series has worn red in some form since Donkey Kong, usually a red shirt and cap.
- The main character's army in most Nintendo Wars games.
- Lloyd Irving of Tales of Symphonia wears a distinctive double-breasted red jacket (distinctive enough that it's used to identify him when he becomes wanted by the Desians.)
- Luke in Tales of the Abyss is a redhead, but he gets into this when the party wears their Super Sentai parodying Abyssman costumes and he gets the red ranger costume.
— Luke:"Agent of Justice-Abyss Red!"
- Commander Shepard's iconic N7 armor has a red stripe running down the right arm.
- Wrex, the most heroic Krogan we meet, wears red armor, has red flairs on his headcrest, and possesses blood-red eyes. It all helps to build a fearsome and distinctive appearance that stands out from the general browns of your standard Krogan.
- The protagonist of Pokémon Red and Blue is canonically named "Red" (the player has the option of other names or entering their own) and dresses accordingly. Similarly his rival is (again, canonically, since the player could choose their name as well) called "Blue" or "Green".
- In fact, almost all of the player characters from the core games have red somewhere on their person.
- Red Okonogi, the superhero Player Character from the first Sa Ga Frontier RPG.
- The same game also has a PC sorcerer named Blue whose twin brother is named Rouge (French for Red)- and he's actually nicer than Blue!
- Castlevania: Harmony of Dissonance has Juste Belmont, who wears a red coat.
- The fighter class, which was probably intended for a main character role. He's even redheaded in the NES incarnation.
- Luso Clemens from Final Fantasy Tactics A2 was specifically designed with this in mind, according to Word of God.
- Mega Man X's Zero might have been designed with this in mind, as he was intended to be the protagonist. They decided to go with an expy of the original Mega Man however, and Zero ended up being the Heel–Face Revolving Door, Deuteragonist instead. He fits this trope in the Mega Man Zero series, however.
- Viewtiful Joe, as a reference to the trope's prevalence in Tokusatsu.
- Diddy Kong from the Donkey Kong games, wears a red shirt and a red Nintendo hat and he's associated with the color red in Donkey Kong 64. Although the Sidekick, this may be an Invoked Trope since he dreams of becoming a hero like his uncle. He fits this trope fully in Donkey Kong Country 2 and Diddy Kong Racing though.
- Donkey Kong himself might qualify as he wears a red tie.
- Final Fight:
- Dart in The Legend of Dragoon. This overlaps with his element.
- Sonic the Hedgehog: While Sonic is primarily blue, his red shoes are one of his most iconic items. Knuckles subverts this though, as like Protoman, he's a foil and rival to Sonic.
- Mortal Kombat: Starting with the second game, Liu Kang has always worn a red headband, and his pants have red trim.
- Best example in line with the trope is in Mortal Kombat 4, where Liu Kang also wears a red tanktop.
- Similar to the previous example, Ryu from Street Fighter wears a red headband as one of his iconic items. Also when he was younger, he wore red gloves and had reddish hair (not to mention the red kung fu shoes he wore in the first game). Even though Ken wears a red gi, it's Ryu who is The Hero, while Ken is The Lancer.
- Stocke of Radiant Historia.
- Eddie of Nostalgia wears a long red coat.
- In Assassin's Creed, the protagonist generally wears white with red trim. In Assassin's Creed III however, the red is swapped out with blue, probably due to the British Redcoats being one of the primary enemies in the game.
- On the covers of Cthulhu Saves the World, Cthulhu wears a red kilt.
- Although "heroic" isn't that accurate a description, this trope is likely why for Team Fortress 2 the "Meet the Team" video, cover art (both standalone and as part of the Orange Box), and numerous promotional art all feature the RED team much more heavily than the BLU team.
- RefleX has the player ship, the Phoenix, which is red. Subverted when it becomes the ZODIAC Ophiuchus and its collateral destruction of the planet turns it into a Nominal Hero.
- Touhou has Reimu Hakurei, the central protagonist of the series, who wears a red uniform and head accessories. This is downplayed in the PC-98 games, where only her skirt and bow are prominently red; her top is white instead.
- Ironically, TRON in the Intellivision version of TRON Deadly Discs, since it was in development before the movie was released.
- In the Golden Axe series, Tyris wears red in II and Sarah in III
- In Quest for Glory I: So You Want To Be A Hero the main character and latest graduate of the Famous Adventurer's Correspondence School who answers a newspaper ad from the valley of Spielburg, which is in dire need for a hero, wears a red cape.
- The main character and assigned team leader in The Wonderful 101 is Wonder-Red, in homage to tokusatsu and sentai shows.
- Red, the leader of the flock and first playable character in the mobile game Angry Birds
- In Luxaren Allure, Karuna wears red.
- Kat in Gravity Rush has bright red eyes (which make her look rather cute) and glows red when she uses her powers (which makes her look like some sort of terrifying, radioactive zombie).
- In Halo 5: Guardians, the Swords of Sanghelios, who are the Good Counterparts to the Covenant, paint their armor and vehicles crimson. Their equipment also tends to be tougher and more survivable than standard Covenant technology.
- Umineko: When They Cry protagonist Battler Ushiromiya boasts bright red hair.
- Fate/stay night protagonist Shirou Emiya also has visibly-red hair, and has made it his life's vision to become a "hero of justice." The Servant Archer, despite falling more into Anti-Hero / Well-Intentioned Extremist territory, is also primarily decked in red robes, which makes sense considering he's Shirou's alternate-universe self.
- Redd is about a girl named Vicky Redd, who fights super villains with bionic floating hands that are custom-colored red. She’s rotten to the core.
- Commander Badass of Manly Guys Doing Manly Things
- Jigsaw and Daisy of Last Res0rt, as members of Team Andromeda, are the only team that includes red in their color scheme. Matching ascots were added later after Daisy started getting self-conscious about her neck, adding a further splash of red.
- The unaffiliated Players Mob wears red as well, but theirs is more in the Red Shirt sense.
- Dasien originally wore a red costume.
- In Homestuck, Karkat and Dave are both red-themed heroes, as is Karkat's ancestor, who's a Crystal Dragon Jesus.
- In DuckTales and Darkwing Duck, Launchpad wears a red pilot's jacket. He also has carroty orange hair.
- Blossom of The Powerpuff Girls wears pink, but is this trope more than Pink Means Feminine. More in line with the trope is the large red bow she wears on her head.
- In early promo images for Avengers Assemble, the only character without any red on their person◊ was the Hulk. Possibly in order to mix up the color palette a little, the artists changed Hawkeye's chest emblem to purple in post-production.
- Zahara of Spider Stories was designed with this trope in mind, foregoing being a full Primary-Color Champion
- In Transformers, Optimus Prime is red and blue. Rodimus Prime is red and yellow. And Autobots in general tend to have more red than the Decepticons do.
- In an episode of Transformers Armada, a boy comments that the red robots are always heroes.
- The Autobot logo in all continuities is almost always red and the Decepticon logo is almost always purple. Notably, in Transformers: Shattered Glass where the Autobots are evil and the Decepticons are good, they keep the logos but switch colors so the good guys are still red and the bad guys are still purple.
- In The Fairly OddParents, Timmy Turner's favorite superhero is "The Crimson Chin".
- The protagonists of Xiaolin Showdown sport red robes.
- T.J., the leader of the main six on Recess, is almost never seen without his red baseball hat. Also, Spinelli always wears a red oversized shirt/dress, red bands to keep her pigtails up, and part of her tights have red stripes.
- Wilt from Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends is a tall, red imaginary friend who is kind and helpful to everyone he meets.
- Marinette from Miraculous Ladybug wears a red costume with black dots as Ladybug.
- Gravity Falls: Every member of the Pines family wears a shade of red as their "main" color. For Dipper and Mabel it is orange/salmon and pink respectively, while Stan and Ford wear dark red/maroon.
- The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
- The French Resistance, with their red Cross of Lorraine emblem.
- The Knights Templar also used a flared red cross as their official symbol. Though their portrayal in fiction varies depending on interpretations, the group's stated purpose was at any rate heroic from their own perspective.
- A common visual cue in military traditions (not limited to the obvious Worker and Peasant's Red Army, the original name of the Soviet military) where solid colors aren't always used. The German and Japanese Imperial armies, the post-Civil War Chinese, Vietnamese and North Korean armed forces, and a number of armies in Latin America, if they used a color-coding system in military dress, used the color red both politically and/or as a 'heroic' color. At a certain point, it's probably the norm rather than the exception in color-coded military forces.
- The British Army also wore redcoats for a time (and in the case of the Royal Guards, still do).
- It's been said that using red helped to make the Communists more popular during the Russian Civil War, since red was traditionally considered a "good" color in Russian culture (a common saying even went with "The redder, the better"). Plain Red was also the traditional color of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, as opposed to the blue-white-red and yellow-black-white flags used by the imperial family.
- Samurai warriors in the army of warlord Ii Naomasa were required to wear a uniform of all-red armor and under-kimonos. This introduced the concept of uniform to Japanese warfare. Naomasa's men were known as "the Red Devils" for their appearance and fighting skill.