Basically, this is when the main outfit of a redhead or auburn-haired character is green. This trope can sometimes be used to hint that somebody is of Irish descent, but sometimes, illustrators use it as a traditional pair of complementary colors or because they just feel like it. Bonus points if the character in question has nature-themedabilities.
The trope comes from a long-standing tradition among fashionistas that red hair contrasts best against green or blue attire, which is one reason redheads are encouraged to wear green to make a striking visual appearance.
See Significant Green-Eyed Redhead for a similar theme.
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The current spokeswomen for Wendy's, the real Wendy the hamburger chain was named after and a representative of the girl on the logo, are both vibrant redheads who frequently wear green.
Anime and Manga
Kyou Ryu. The trope fits so well, it's almost surprising Elle didn't throw a net over her to steal her Pot o' Gold◊.
The one "fancy" civilian outfit Asuka from Neon Genesis Evangelion wears (on her offscreen "Date") is entirely green in about 3 shades.
Kurama from YuYu Hakusho loves this trope. He has long, bright red hair, and large green eyes. In some instances, he is seen wearing an olive green Chinese outfit. Those bonus points may also be rewarded—he is a master at controlling plants.
Misaki from K wore a long-sleeved green shirt in his younger days.
Popular interpretation of the Batman villain Poison Ivy.
Sometimes, The Riddler. The hair varies, but it frequently comes back to red to complement that green Riddler suit.
Once the X-Men started putting on individual costumes instead of blue and yellow uniforms, Jean Grey put on green (usually complemented by yellow/gold) most of the time. Banshee and Siryn wear costumes that combine green with yellow and black. Auburn-haired Rogue is also usually dressed at least partially in green. Hope and Rachel Summers, both redheads (And one is an alternate future daughter of Jean) wear green.
Maxima, Superman's adversary and would-be mate, had bright red hair and a predominantly green outfit.
Spider-Man character Jackpot wore a green and white costume with red hair (actually a wig). She later changed the costume to one with a red-black color scheme, though.
Ariel from The Little Mermaid has a green mermaid tail in contrast with her bright red hair. This was actually one of the reasons the directors of the film decided to make her into a redhead in the first place.
More than a few examples in The Witcher, including bothpotentiallove interests: Shani only ever wears her small green dress, while Triss appears in a mind-blowing long backless dress throughout chapter three. Both ladies are obviously aware of this trope.
The stunning Happily Ever After image of Sarine that adorns the cover of the Epilogue of Errant Story. (Green wasn't her main color for most of the story, but it probably will be for the next hundred years or so.)
Daria Morgendorffer, in her eponymous series, has reddish hair and wears a green jacket. However, in her originating series, Beavis and Butt-Head, she had clearly brown hair and wore different jackets, none of which were green.
Kyle from South Park has a red Jewfro typically completely covered by his Ushanka. The hat is green, his mittens are green, his pants are a dark green, and his orange jacket has some green on it.
As noted in the description, green and red are complementary colors, and many redheads are fond of green clothes and accessories as a result. The inverse also probably has something to do with it; redheads also frequently have pale or pinkish skin. Cool colors, such as blue, green, and purple are complimentary whereas warmer colors like red, pink, orange, or yellow can look harsh and unflattering (of course, nobody looks good in yellow.)
The Irish, who are stereotypically seen as very likely to have natural red hair in some countries, also have a strong association with the color green. Sadly this viewpoint continues to create Unfortunate Implications when it comes to portraying Irish characters.