The CD-i (short for Compact Disc Interactive) was an attempt by Philips to create a multimedia CD player standard, released in 1991. Development was originally started in 1986 by Philips in cooperation with Sony. Since the system was barely aimed at traditional gamers, its library mostly consisted of educational titles, reference works, and board games like Cluedo or Axis And Allies. Philips tried to capitalize on its gaming capabilities when the edutainment titles failed to sell, but the arrival of more powerful systems made the change of direction too little, too late. The format did find some success as a kiosk application and remained in production up until 1998: where game-focused multimedia systems such as the 3DO were eventually made obsolete by more powerful dedicated game consoles, the CD-i was the only one to cover the electronic self-help niche. Like the aforementioned 3DO, the CD-i was conceived as a standard and thus several manufacturers produced their own versions, like Magnavox and Sony. The system is best known today for its four Nintendo-licensed games, the result of a deal between Philips and Nintendo for a cancelled SNES CD-ROM add-on. Their Deranged Animation cutscenes are a popular source of YouTube Poop, lending them Watch It for the Meme status (and overshadowing aspects of these games that were legitimately good).