It's two, two, two weapons in one!
Sometimes, when you combine two weapons, you get something with a completely new set of properties - like combining a gun and a sword into a gun that shoots swords. Or you might get a more traditional Swiss-Army Weapon - for instance, a gun that can turn into a sword. But the rest of the time, you get a Mix-and-Match Weapon - two weapons combined that retain the uses and elements of both. The classic example is a bayonet, which is nothing more than a knife strapped to a rifle, creating a weapon that can shoot or stab at will. Contrast Morph Weapon.
See also Whip Sword. Instant Chucks is a Subtrope. Often overlaps with Impossibly Cool Weapon.
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Anime and Manga
In Kämpfer, Shizuka wields two chain-linked daggers. The chain extends so she uses this primarily as a ranged weapon. Not only can she block bullets and cut fireballs in half, she can even maneuver her daggers around corners.
In Rurouni Kenshin, Kamatari has a giant Sinister Scythe, already an Awesome, but Impractical weapon, which has a very heavy iron ball at the end of a very long chain. It's intended to act as a counterbalance to allow use of the absurdly large scythe, but of course it ends up being a weapon in its own right.
Probably the earliest instance is the Gundam Mk.II's Super Gundam configuration from , whose beam cannon could generate a beam blade. Later on, the titular Gundam could do this with its Hyper Mega Launcher. This feature is even carried over to its modified successors in the photo novel, Gundam Sentinel.
Gundam SEED's Providence and Blitz both feature a specially designed shield housing both a beam weapon and a beam saber on the same arm.
Gundam SEED Destiny has the Akatsuki, which could attach its beam saber to its beam rifle for a more traditional bayonet weapon.
All of Setsuna's Gundams from Gundam 00 features a gunblade in some form.
Exia's GN Sword has a Rifle mode when the blade retracts.
00 dual-wields mid-length swords that can double as rifles. When it gets its 0 Raiser upgrade, it can bring both swords together and fire either a massive energy beam or sustain the blast and bring it down like a massive sword. Later on it gets a GN Sword like Exia but has a greater energy output.
00 Quanta is much more straightforward with the blade being able to fire beam shots but can fire a wave motion blast when its GN Sword Bits combine with it.
Additionally, Lockon's Cherudim's GN Beam Pistols feature parrying blades on the underside to counteract against GN melee weapons.
In Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter, Abe's axe starts out as a completely vanilla weapon, but in a later fight scene, it's revealed that a hidden gun was installed into the handle when he surprises his opponent with it. We later even see a bayonet on it.
The Ork Tankhammer. It can be adequately summarized as a rocket on a stick.
Certain armies — chiefly the Orks and Space Marines — can field "combi-weapons", which consist of a standard gun (a bolter or shoota, as appropriate) with some kind of heavy weapon attached to it, like a rocket launcher or flamethrower. The heavy weapon portion can be fired once per battle, instead of the regular gun. Orks create these weapons by literally bolting bits of one gun onto the other, and the Space Marines' honestly aren't that much more sophisticated.
Tau Pathfinders thought bolting two guns together just wasn't enough gun, so they wield pulse carbines with an under-barrel grenade launcher and over-barrel markerlight.
Dragonlance Kender weapons tend to provide several attack forms, tool or other utility function and a musical instrument (at least chime or bullroar). Hoopak: rod with a sling and spike at its ends acting as a shortspear, alpenstock, staff, sling staff and slingshot. Chapak: axe with prongs on the back side used as beaked prying bar or, again, slingshot arms, with haft hollowed to use as a blowgun or flute. Hachak: a poleaxe with a spike and hammer/beak on the other end, with shaft midsection detachable and hollowed to store a few darts. Battak: studded club with a spearhead at the end, useable as a sort-of-sling when the spike is removed from its slot. Bollik: bola/flail belt. Polpak: staff with a detachable short sword on the end, saw-toothed on one side. Sithak: shoulder-yoke that's weaponized by attaching blades at both ends and can be strung as a recurved bow shaft. Whippik: whip with a loop at the end making it ready to use as a dart launcher, noose or fishing pole.
Forgotten Realms Tritons has tapal as their weapon of choice. It's a crystalline piece with bent between boomerang's and fisher hook's, handle on the inside, edge on the outside and sharpened ends. Which allows the short arm to be wielded as a dagger and long arm as a short spear (when inverted), scythe or long saber (as a streamlined balanced "wing" it's the optimized for swim-by cut).
Exalted has quite a few of these in canon, though many of them have only one attack mode anyway. The Daikalbar is a polearm with an ungodly mess of slashy and stabby bits on both sides, though it essentially has only one combat mode with them. The Chain Daiklave, meanwhile, is actually not a chainsaw (that's a chainklave); it's a short daiklave attached to a dire chain that can be used as a sword, a dire chain, or a sword on a chain.
Soldiers of Esthar have a weapon that's half Pickaxe, half Shotgun.
Gunblades reappear in Final Fantasy XIII, this time transforming between a sword mode and a gun mode which does fire actual bullets.
They also show up in Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children and some of the Compilation games as weapons for the bad guys, and look totally ridiculous (shotgun katana, anyone?)
They are also the main weapon of the Garlean Empire's forces in Final Fantasy XIV as well, here mainly being rifles with blades built along the barrel.
The Monster Hunter series has the gunlance, which is exactly what it sounds like. The weapon can be used to stab like a traditional lance, but can also fire explosive shells during an attack.
Every weapon in Painkiller has a drastically different second firing mode, which makes the seemingly modest five-weapon arsenal much more versatile (it's even possible to combine the primary and secondary firing modes with some weapons). To wit, in Painkiller you have a weedwhacker that fires laser beams, a machine gun that shoots rockets, a grenade launcher that shoots foot-long wooden poles, and of course, a gun that shoots shurikens and lightning.
Motonari Mori of Samurai Warriors 3 has a similar crossbow/claws/gauntlet combo.
No More Heroes 2: Desperate Struggle: Margaret Moonlight has a pair of weapons called "Le Croissant du Ange" [sic], or The Crescent of Angels. One is pictured above. These are sniper rifles with stocks that are scythes.
Matt Helms has a fire axe/flamethrower. As a transforming weapon, Nathan Copeland has mechanical arms / boombox rocket launcher. Suda51 was so disappointed that he had to take Nathan out of the first No More Heroes that he was the first boss worked into the second.
Ninja Gaiden has Ryu's Kusari-gama, which in form is virtually identical to its real life counterpart. It consists of a small sickle, with a long chain connecting to a weight or spike attached at the hilt. Also, in a more literal interpretation of this trope, we have the Vigoorian Flail, a massive pair of sickles attached at each end by a chain, and wielded much like a set of nunchaku. When used to their fullest in combat, expect Ludicrous Gibs galore.
In Assassin's Creed II the hidden blade is upgraded to work not only as a hidden retractable blade for assassinations and general knifing people in a cool way, but also as a gun.
There is also a syringe blade that injects poison on contact.
At one point it's also upgraded with a poison dart launcher. Then Assassin's Creed: Revelations takes it one step further by adding the "hookblade", although it's a tool for faster climbing rather than killing people. Correct use of the hookblade in the right areas can significantly increase the speed at which you can climb.
RuneScape has the Ivandis Flail, a silver sickle on a chain attached to a long rod. It IS unwieldy and is meant to be - it was devised as a weapon against mind-reading vampyres, and, unlike all other silver weapons, works PRECISELY BECAUSE neither side knows where exactly the sickle will end up, thus not letting the vampyre perfectly dodge the strike every single time.
It also is a Mix-and-Match Weapon in a different, more straight sense. Silver sickles by themselves are used as a focus for casting a certain spell, one that causes select scenery objects to produce items. The rods themselves are used for a different spell, used to hold juvenile vampyres in place. The Ivandis Flail can do both.
As each weapon in Perfect Dark has a secondary fire mode, a few of them fit this trope, but probably the coolest is the Dragon, an assault rifle that just happens to have a proximity mine built in.
One of the weapons in the online RPG AdventureQuest is a Sawed-Off Gunblade, which looks like a flintlock pistol with two two-pronged blades attached on the bottom. The normal attack is slashing, while the rare special attack is a double-barrel shot. Both do fire damage.
The Brutes of Halo have a penchant for sticking all manner of sharp objects on their weapons, since their phenomenal strength lets them deal as much damage in melee—if not more—as a shot from one of their guns. From smallest to largest: the mauler has a small crescent-shaped knife along the hand guard, the spiker SMG has a pair of hatchet blades, and the eponymous Brute shot is a grenade launcher whose underside is a fusion axe/scythe nearly the length of the gun.
Baten Kaitos Origins presents an interesting one. A spear-tipped long-handled battleaxe, with a scythe on the opposite side. It probably wouldn't be very good, but Rule of Cool allows him to beat the unexpecting hell out of you if you aren't prepared.
The Rangers in Opoona use fairly conventional gunblades as their standard issue. However the title character's Energy Bon-Bon is stronger and so he never uses one.
In Iji, there are six possible weapon combinations, one corresponding to each main weapon.
Dead Space 3: Plasma gun not enough? Add a sub-machine gun to it at any bench. In fact just about any two basic power supply elements can be added to one of two major frame types to create hundreds of different possible weapon combinations. Careful planning can result in some really deadly weapons.
Nazi Zombies: The map, Mob of the Dead contains the Blundergat, combining the compactness, appearance, and spread of a blunderbuss, with multiple barrels, and the sheer power of a gatling gun. There are also only two of these available, and one must be gain via the Easter Egg, but only if one had a Blundergat in the first place.
Lucca from Chrono Trigger apparently has one of these: a small mallet that also functions as a gun and a flamethrower (the last two seem to be located in the mallet's head). "Apparently" means it's not explicitly referred to in-game, but you can totally tell from the battle animations.
The flash shooter Enigmata has a variant: There are three "basic" weapons, and seven "rare" weapons. After picking up a rare weapon, you have to pick up a specific common weapon to get a much stronger fusion weapon.
Monty does it again with RWBY, Ruby's "Scythe Gun" named "Crescent Rose" is both a gun and a scythe, described in the page quote. It also has some kind of kinetic burst feature; shots can be used to propel the blade for both speed and penetration.
He does it yet again in RWBY with Blake's "Gambol Shroud". It's a katana that folds into a machine gun scythe that's also attached to a ribbon for ranged attacks.
And again with Junior's "Batzooka". It's a bazooka that can fire five rockets at once, and transforms into a large bat.
And again with NoraValkyrie: she has a grenade launcher that can morph into a humongous warhammer. Like Crescent Rose, the grenade launcher function still works in hammer mode, but instead of increasing the velocity at which the weapon impacts, it adds an explosive effect to the impact.
Honestly, it'd be easier to list the weapons that AREN'T this trope. So far the list goes: Jaune's Crocea Mors (a sword and collapsible shield), Roman's firework launcher-in-a-cane (which falls under a different trope), Melanie's bladed shoes, and Miltia's claws (the latter two only appeared in the "Yellow" trailer with Junior).
958. No matter how practical, I can't have shotgunchucks.
1012. Note to self: Lightsaberchucks...BAD IDEA
Chaos Fighters has quite a lot of them: sword lances (sometimes double ended), blade guns (which the blades attached onto the barrels, axe halberd, pole shield and blade wands.
Atop the Fourth Wall - Linkara is a big fan of swords (or axes) that can also be guns. Since quite a few Sixth Rangers wield them he gets to gush a lot. He does note, however, that what he likes are weapons that transform into other weapons; weapons that are two things at the same time note he cites gunblades as an example are silly.
The superhero Chevalier from Worm has his signature cannonblade.
There were a lot of swords etc. with built-in pistols at one point. They almost all turned out to be horrifically inefficient — use it as a sword, and it's badly unbalanced, use it as a pistol and you've got this long, heavy weight throwing off your aim. Eventually they were made more or less obsolete by the introduction of the bayonet. There were also full-sized pistols with hatchet blades attached to the barrel, or in at least one case, the butt.
An odd inversion of this turned up in recent years, in the form of combat knives with a derringer concealed in the handle. Hopelessly inaccurate beyond a couple of yards but probably quite effective for catching your opponent unawares.
The knightly poleaxe. Favoured by knights on foot combat. Combines axe blade with spear point, spice for piercing armour, hook for tripping the opponent and butt-spike to special techniques.
Halberds are spear-axes.
The guisarme - a 6-foot wooden pole with a hook for dismounting cavalry, a 3-foot blade, and a smaller blade poking out to the side so you could swing it.
Early handguns were so difficult to reload that many came with ornate and heavy butts so that they could be reversed and used as a club after being fired.
Brass-knuckles with blades really exist and are called trench spikes. They were invented for the vicious, hand-to-hand close combat of World War I.
A morningstar combines the crushing power of the mace with the reach of the flail. They were also horrifically difficult to use and required the wearer to wear armored gauntlets to avoid breaking their arms when the ball bounced off the target.
Whip Swords, like the chain whip and Indian Urumi, though they usually lack the cutting power of a sword or the reach of a whip.
Many modern militaries issue assault rifles that can be modified by the addition of an underbarrel grenade launcher, shotgun, etc.
The TP-82, a triple-barrel gun used by Soviet and Russian cosmonauts from 1986 to 2006 with them on space missions. It featured 2 smoothbore barrels for 12.5x70mm rounds (about 40-gauge) and a rifle barrel for 5.45x39mm ammo. The buttstock could also detach and be used as a machete. Unfortunately, this cool gun has now been discontinued due to Russia's stockpile of its ammunition becoming unusable, and has now been replaced with a regular semi-automatic pistol.
In case you're wondering, you don't need the gun in space, you need the gun when your capsule lands in the middle of Siberia and you have to fight off wolves for a day or two.
The US Marine Corps developed a powerful portable machine gun called the T33, nicknamed "the Stinger." The first T33 was initially made by salvaging a Browning M1919 A/N from downed aircraft, adding the buttstock and trigger from a M1 Garand, and the bipod and rear sight from a Browning Automatic Rifle. This was a field modification made by Marine Corporal Tony Stein (recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor) during the invasion of Iwo Jima. They were later semi-mass-produced using the buttstock of a M 1919 A 6, producing the T33. It had a rate of fire in excess of 1,200 rpm, but tended to overheat, was not very accurate and chewed through ammunition at a prodigious rate.
The LeMat grapeshot revolver, from the US Civil War. Designed by a doctor from New Orleans, it's a 9-shot, .40 caliber revolver (which is More Dakka by revolver standards), with its cylinder rotating around a single 16-gauge shotgun barrel. The "business end" of the firing-hammer has a hinge, allowing it to be swung into the appropriate position for its two barrels. It was very popular with Confederate cavalrymen, and also proved moderately successful after the war, in France. The French version was redesigned for cartridge ammo rather than ball-and-shot.
Behold the Splitting maul otherwise known as a Sledgeaxe, it's a sledgehammer with a modified axehead on one side, meaning it's both a sledgehammer and an axe at the same time. Not actually a weapon though sadly enough.