open/close all folders
Anime and Manga
- In the Pokémon anime, especially the Kanto episodes, the original Japanese version had the the characters made several casual references to Heaven, Hell, and God. 4kids either censored them in the English dub or used euphemisms instead. For example in the third episode they changed Satoshi saying "My Pokemon's Heaven is also my Heaven!" with Kasumi, who hates bug-types, replying with "You guys' Heaven is my Hell." into Ash saying "I love my new little Pokemon!" and Misty replying "It takes a worm to know a worm". Despite deleting most religious references, Brock mentioned the story of Noah in "Pokemon Shipwreck".
- In The DCU, it's established that (most) pantheons are pretty much one and the same. Sentient entities play similar roles throughout in some cases. So the creators are free to go with some made up Religion or right into Catholicism. Both happen a lot. Similarly, Hell is full of classic mythology and made up characters. Power struggles happen constantly, with various demonic horrors fighting/displacing/killing mythological beings or made up characters. To cap it off, DC comics even had Hell overrunning Heaven. Heaven got better.
- And then there's Vertigo. Among other things, God is replaced by a teenage girl. It's probably best to just not talk about that though.
- The Sandman establishes that there does exist an all-powerful, omnipotent creator in the DC (or at least Vertigo) verse. He never appears or intervenes with the plot, but Lucifer brings him up a few times.
- In The Marvel Universe, direct mentions of Judeo-Christian entities such as Satan were not uncommon (The "Son of Satan" even had his own series) but in the 80's it was stated (in the Handbook of the Marvel Universe) that NO such character had ever appeared in a Marvel comic; even Son Of Satan's father was retconned into being another demon. This has loosened in recent years. The way it's generally handled is that several high-level demons collectively operate as "Satan" while also competing with each other for dominance in Hell. Recent stories have indicated that the "real" Satan is out there somewhere, but hasn't been seen in a very long time. But even after such a long absence, not even the strongest of the lesser demons dares to claim his empty throne. See the entry on Satanic Archetype for more specific information.
- The Avengers managed to have multiple members with faith-based powers, including one Catholic among pagan demigods, and still kept religion out of the comic's theme. Lampshaded once, when they all took religious sabbaticals at once leaving the team short-handed, Hawkeye complained "This is the Avengers, not the God Squad!"
- In His Dark Materials, one of the most famed examples: God is 'The Authority', the church is 'Magisterium', Inquisition-for-children is 'Gobblers', and so on.
- Played With in Lord of the Rings. Archangels are "Valar", demons are "Balrogs", and God is also called "Ilúvatar" (approximately similar to "all-father" in Sanskrit, which is also the word for Jupiter in Latin.) But Tolkien avoided showing anyone practicing religion save for the Númenóreans, who were extremely ecumenical in their beliefs. According to Tolkien's Catholic theology, all of the characters were "virtuous pagans" and as such anyone they worshiped could potentially count as "actually being" angels or demons according to the tenets of Catholic syncretism.
- This is clarified in The Book of Lost Tales, in which a pagan Englishman's own Germanic gods are identified with the Valar, and the Elves also call them 'the Gods' - but when the Englishman then asks if this Ilúvatar is of the Gods, an Elf replies 'Nay, for he made them'.
- In the Old Kingdom trilogy, Garth Nix uses 'Charter Magic' and 'The Charter' to refer to the orderly, set and harmonious schemata of magic that keeps the universe running, while 'Free Magic' refers to the corroding and chaotic magic that The Charter was created from and which is inimical to the natural order of the universe. Worship of the Charter, and the "Seven Bright Shiners" who created it, seems to be the religion in the Old Kingdom, though the most we see of this is in baptisms upon a child's birth.
- Meljean Brook's The Guardians series - the Guardians are pretty much all angels that were born human, they just don't use the a-word.
- In Isaac Asimov's The Last Trump, God is referred as "The Chief" while Satan is called "The Adversary", and in Asimov's other short story called "Gimmicks Three", the demons refer to divine orders as "orders from above".
- Parodied in the Thursday Next books with the invention of the GSD Church - Global Standard Deity. Essentially a mishmash of all world religions, in which pretty much anybody can believe anything they want about it. Even further parodied as the books go on; Joffy's stories about his work make it clear that the Church of the GSD splits into thousands of bickering factions soon after it is created, essentially reverting religion back to the way it was before. In The Woman Who Died a Lot, Joffy decides to put his foot down with God; unless He starts answering some questions, they will transfer their belief to another god, creating a Crystal Dragon Jesus. God answers with some smiting.
- In the Young Wizards series, God is called the One, His angels are called the Powers That Be, and the devil is called the Lone Power (because it is separate from its fellow angels).
- The Powers correspond to the gods of every religion (although some are closer to the mark than others). For example, in The Book of Night with Moon series, the main Egyptian gods are stated to be close cognates of the feline aspects of the Powers. (In the same book, a wizardly cat is bemused and disturbed at how badly an unnamed human religion - which is clearly some branch of Christianity - misinterprets the nature of the Powers, in particular the idea that the One requires affirmation of Its existence or the sort of extreme and self-effusive praise that would make a person who thinks anything like a sane mortal incredibly uncomfortable, and that insufficiently good people will be sent to Hell after their deaths.) They're not just Christian angels and the Christian God with the serial numbers rubbed off, although they would fit pretty well into some liberal, non-traditional interpretations of Christianity.
- A special introduction in the new edition of So You Want to be a Wizard states that, at the very least, the idea of the Book of Night with Moon itself, the definitive text of everything in existence, came from the author chancing upon a bit of Midrash. Everything else apparently flowed from that Book and from the title So You Want to be a Wizard as the author built a world to support her story idea.
- Goblin Moon and The Gnome's Engine have a very Protestant-like church for their Verse's Fantasy Counterpart Culture, except that God's role is filled by the Nine Seasons embodying their forty-day months. Archangels' duties are carried out by the "planetary intelligences", whose portfolios match the Greek gods whom their respective planets were named for in Real Life (e.g. Mars is the warrior-angel). A devil-figure is also mentioned, served by upper-class cults and rural witch-covens, and scholars cite ancient "pagan" faiths that regarded the planetary intelligences as full-blown deities.
- Deep Secret by Diana Wynne Jones has the Upper Room, which has seventy-two members called Archons who seem to be immortal and who pass down instructions to Magids (wizards) of what is "Intended". They can also be petitioned by Magids for favours. However, they're not omniscient, their existence is supposed to be kept secret to mundane humans, and there's a suggestion that there are further levels of beings "Up There" above the Upper Room.
- The Dresden Files started out like this stating that "every believe is true somwhere in the Nevernever" and what fuels the power of religious beings is the amount of worship and the legends build around them, further down the series it transforms in to "every religion is true but Christianity is truer" stating that the White God which had a son that died on a tree is the most powerful being and his angels (or more accurately archangel) are the most powerful beings we have seen to date.
- Though some beings with reason to know speak bitterly of The White God, like some young cosmic upstart.
Live Action TV
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer:
- The show only mentions that Willow is Jewish in passing, and pretty much glosses over religion entirely after that. The bad guys are evil, many are in fact demons (or gods, in the case of Glory), but none of them cite references from the Bible or Qur'an on their resumes. (A few early examples do come from existing Christian tradition, though.) At one point, Buffy dies and goes to heaven; there are various points of view as to what the theological implications of this are for her and the series.
- Wicca is treated as a source of power rather than a religion. In fact, only one group treated Wicca like the real, modern day religion, and that was Willow's college coven, derisively referred to as "a bunch of wanna-blessed-bes" and portrayed as naive fools. It had already been (rather arbitrarily) established that in the Buffyverse, humans developed witchcraft from copying the older demonic races. There the real Wiccan religion would be somewhat out of place and out of touch with its origins.
- Lampshaded in the episode "Conversations with Dead People", when Buffy meets the vampire version of a high-school classmate:
" Oh, my God!... Oh, well, you know, not my God, because I defy Him and all of His works. Does He exist? Is there word on that, by the way?"
- Angel was very into the Powers That Be terminology. It also used similar terminology for evil, with the ultimate Big Bad of the whole show simply being "the Senior Partners".
- Charmed also creates a fictionalized mythology from whole cloth, with Witches being born to the power, Warlocks wanting to usurp the power, Demons led by the Source, Whitelighters following the orders of the Elders, etc. They do address Christianity early on, with Piper worrying that she is "evil" because she's a witch. Her worries are relieved when she enters a church without bursting into flame.
- The Fallen mini-series features angels, Nephilim, Hell, and The Devil, but God is always referred to as "the Creator".
- As late as the mid-1970s, prime-time situation comedies didn't have characters mention God, apparently because the nature of comedy is to be less than reverent. In the Happy Days episode where Fonzie seeks out baptism, the priest never utters the word "God", instead pointing skyward and speaking piously of "Him".
- Dilbert was originally to feature Satan, but due to Executive Meddling it wound up with "Phil, the Prince of Insufficient Light," who sometimes darns people to Heck. (The writer has admitted this is funnier than what he originally planned.) On the other hand, God and angels have occasionally been referred to in more proper terms.
- It isn't entirely clear if Phil is even supernatural. It was eventually revealed that he is the boss's brother.
Role Playing Games
- Dungeons & Dragons
- The first edition of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons used various polytheistic religions (some from the real world, some made up for the setting) so as not to stomp on any modern religious toes. This ended up backfiring on them, as various groups of Moral Guardians claimed that lack of the Christian God was "proof" of the game's "satanic" nature. (Notably, the game still does use polytheistic religions, since they've become so incorporated into the flavor of the various settings. In particular, the Nordic god Tyr and the Egyptian god Horus appear in the pantheon of the Forgotten Realms setting.)
- Devils and Demons (different competing factions of fiends, one tyrannical, one...let us say "free-spirited") were turned into "Baatezu" and "Tanar'ri" for the 2nd edition to appease concerns that Dungeons & Dragons was satanic (even though these were presented as opponents you killed). When 3E came around, the taboo lessened and the Tanar'ri and Baatezu were made into types of demon and devil (albeit the most prominent ones). Lore went on to state that non-Tanar'ri and Baatezu were mostly exterminated by the Tanar'ri and Baatezu.
- Interestingly it's completely possible to run a D&D game where the one true faith is Christianity. There are already rules for getting Divine spells from infernal masters, so it's just a matter of taste whether you want to have a pantheon or one true God (possibly including Jesus) and many demonic pretenders or even many good deities serving an Overdeity that is the true god. The latter option is the one taken in The Silmarillion, explicitly written to be compatible with Catholic dogma. It's worth noting that all of Jesus's miracles can be performed, and in fact outclassed, at high levels by a perfectly mortal cleric. Well, except the dying to cleanse the world of sin one. But you can totally die and come back, if you do the prep work.
- Early editions of the game included some very Biblical spells on the roster of divine magics, such as Sticks To Snakes or Part Water. Most were dropped in later editions, partly because they were incongruous things for a cleric of Thor, Aphrodite, or Gruumsh to be packing, but mainly because they weren't used all that often.
- Vampire: The Requiem has, in its Mythologies sourcebook, Mithraism. While quite obscure, and obviously "restyled" for compatibility with vampires and/or to serve as a Religion of Evil, this is an actual religion from the Roman Empire that was just starting to become popular around the same time as Christianity.
- In MOTHER 3, God is referred to as "Guy in the Sky" when Lucky leaves club Titiboo, although, this being a Mother game, it could very well be referring to the player instead. Either way, euphemism is used.
- Played with in the Diablo franchise: There is Heaven, where the Angels and Archangels reside, and Hell, where the demon lords rule. However, the Angels were created from the remains of Anu, the first good being, and now they rule in heaven alone. The demon lords, called the Prime Evils here, were created from the remains of Tathamet, the first evil being. Thus, the origin myth is dualistic, while the status quo at the time of the games resembles Abrahamic mythology, with part of the nomenclature retained.
- The main Prime Evils are named Diablo, Mephisto, and Baal, and are considered brothers. "Diablo" is Spanish for [capital-D] "Devil", "Mephisto" is a Germanic folklore demon (popularized by Goethe in Faust), and Baal is a deity in several pre-Abrahamic Middle Eastern and Mediterranean polytheistic religions (and is also the source of the word "Beelzebub" when the name was mockingly rendered by early Jews so as to mean "Lord of Flies"; in Abrahamic tradition this version would be a demon, hence the modern negative connotation). Thus, the Big Bads' names have demonic associations while not explicitly using the Abrahamic Devil or demons.
- In the newest addition to the franchise, the Diablo III expansion set "Reaper of Souls", the former head of the Angiris Council (the ruling body of Heaven, made up of the Archangels), Malthael, returns after having suffered a fall to evil some time prior. While the name is by all indications made up, the parallel with Lucifer, once the foremost Archangel and later the original Evil, is clear. (Although the game's Malthael does not usurp the position of the "ultimate evil", and instead remains only a fallen angel.)
- World of Warcraft has the Light whose religion, at least among humans, strongly resembles Christianity. It is a benevolent force that remains largely detached from mortal events. The Naaru act as angels, spiritually guiding mortals, fending off evil, and offering salvation. The Titans can also be considered angels but given more to directly battling evil and carrying out the work of the Light. Sargeras is the obvious Lucifer parallel, a fallen Titan who rebelled against his divine mandate and now leads the Burning Legion in a crusade to destroy all of the Light's works.
- In Pokémon Diamond and Pearl there is a mysterious church-looking building in Hearthome but it is never referred to as such.
- Sluggy Freelance did this with the Dimension of Pain, where hordes of demons are led by the "Demon King" instead of the Devil, and were opposed by the "Goddess of Goodness" (who the Demon King kept locked in his freezer). Interestingly enough, Satan does exist in the Sluggy Freelance universe, as the father of 18 super-evil kittens. He is in charge of a different dimension, that does not feature as prominently as the Dimensions of Pain and Lame, so more of a case of 'the Devil is offscrene, but a analogue is'. God also made a brief Faceless appearance, just long enough to give Kiki a dire warning and pee on her head. Sluggy Freelance is that sort of series.
- Disney studios used to be so cautious about religion that they couldn't even use the word "Bible". In the Johnny Appleseed segment from Melody Time, Johnny's cherished Bible was only referred to with the generic term "a holy book".
- Rugrats had a few episodes based on Bible stories, including a Passover special. However, God is never mentioned; a burning bush talks to Moses/Tommy for no explained reason, and the parting of the sea at the end is a Deus-less Ex Machina. An episode about Noah's ark gives a vague comment about Noah being warned "from the Heavens."
- Interestingly subverted in their Christmas Episode, where the babies come across a life-sized Nativity scene and admire what they think is a real baby. "Jesus" is still never named, though.
- In Adventure Time, characters make numerous references to 'Glob' (as in, "Oh my Glob"). There's a terrible hell-like realm referred to as 'The Nightosphere', and its leader is called King of the Demons, not as the Devil or anything. There's also a great powerful being called the Cosmic Owl whose appearance in dreams indicates high significance. Its possible these differences could be justified due to the series being set After the End.
- Glob, Gob, Grob, and Grod all actually appear in "Life on Mars". They're a Martian with four different faces and one body.
- Despite its reputation for being much more mature than other Nicktoons, the characters in As Told by Ginger were still not allowed to say "God" in any form.
Lois: Carl, I thought you were an atheist.Carl: I needed to have a talk with the Big Guy.
- In several episodes, Carl and/or Hoodsey mention the "Big Guy" or "Big Guy Upstairs". A notable example is in "A Lesson Tightropes", where Lois sees Carl leaving a hospital prayer room.
- In "An 'Even Steven' Holiday Special", Ginger proclaims "Happy Birthday Baby J", which is probably the closest any Nickelodeon has been to saying Jesus' name.