In one corner, you have the Squishy Wizard, supernaturally adept, but physically an utter weakling. In the other stands the Kung-Fu Wizard, who not only has supernatural powers, but is also a skilled martial artist. In fact, their martial arts practice facilitates the use of their powers, and may actually be the source of them. This character can use both Ki Attacks and Functional Magic, or blends them together until they're indistinguishable. The Kung-Fu Wizard is most often found in Chinese folklore, wuxia books and films, manga, and anime.
Sometimes they may overlap with Combat Medic. Because in real life, Monks were often religious figures and in fact, some of the Eastern monks did gain a reputation for knowing or developing Martial Arts. Thus, someone who practices Martial Arts may also know a few things about exorcism, healing, or dealing holy damage. Or Buffs.
See also Magic Knight, where the wizard is trained in weapon-based combat rather than martial arts, Supernatural Martial Arts, where the kung fu is itself magic, and Full-Contact Magic, where the wizard doesn't actually know kung fu, but still needs to move around a lot to use magic. May be augmented via Meditation Powerup. If the setting states that Religion is Magic, then this may also be a case of All Monks Know Kung-Fu.
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Anime and Manga
Tower of God: Some of the best fighters in the series, such as Viole, Teddy and Ran.
The Elric brothers of Fullmetal Alchemist are skilled martial artists as well as alchemists and this is also true of most State Alchemists. Edward is also able to transmute his arm to aid himself in combat.
And the brothers' trainer Izumi. Ed and Al are still scared of her.
Funnily enough, both this and her Training from Hell were explained in an omake to have originated with her seeking an alchemist teacher who turned out to be the brother of the (deceased) man she was looking for, and he actually gave her a hand-to-hand combat training course.
A non-Amestrian example would be Xingese princess May Chang, a tiny girl who is nevertheless adept at both martial arts and alkahestry (Xing's version of alchemy).
Justified with Hei in Darker than Black — the reason he's both a powerful Contractor and amazing martial artist (besides the fact he's Chinese) is that he started out as a Badass Normal and had to be strong enough to take on Contractors. Additionally, while he has the ability to discharge electricity, he has to either be able to touch his target or have some sort of connection that will conduct electricity. (In other words, no lightning bolts) And "something that conducts electricity" includes the knives and choke wires he used anyway.
The very nature of combat in the Nasuverse demands that you have to be this trope if you want any of your hard-learned spells to hit anything. Tohsaka Rin of Fate/stay night and Kokuto Azaka of Kara no Kyoukai are equal parts deadly as magicians and warriors in their respective universes.
Of note though is that while they are fairly skilled in martial arts, they stand no chance in close combat with the more straightforward fighter-type characters. For example, Rin's athleticism helps her move around but her physical fighting abilities are completely worthless against anyone but Caster, who is very much the Squishy Wizard.
Actually, most mages in the setting tend towards Squishy Wizard, because they tend to be researchers rather than fighters, but Enforcers like Bazett and freelancers like Aoko are generally quite skilled in combat.
Louie of Rune Soldier Louie. Despite being the hero, he's terrible at both magic and swordsmanship, even though he was raised by the head of the mages guild, attended the mage academy for most of his life, and has trained in swordsmanship considerably with Genie. His only saving grace is that he is a very skilled brawler.
The titular character of Mahou Sensei Negima! starts using just magic, but later on is told to make a choice between training for sheer magical power while lacking in straight-up fighting (thus needing a partner to protect while casting), or to balance magic and physical strength. He picks the latter, but instead of using weapons and magic like that person suggested, he instead learns martial arts from Ku Fei.
Really, at this point, this trope is practically the series' calling card.
In the festival arc Negi even shows up to fight in a tournament in a Wizard Robe with a martial arts gi underneath.
In one early episode, a pair of professed Badass Normal mercenaries assume that all wizards are Squishy Wizards, recounting a story of a wizard who spent years mastering a curse that could break bones; they just broke his bones with a punch. As such, they were completely unprepared for Natsu's strength.
It's even more awesome when Gray does it to his senior pupil Lyon. After deciding he has had enough, he manages to utterly overpower him using hand-to-hand combat even though Lyon is the more experienced mage.
Many ninja in Naruto use a combination of taijutsu and less physical ninjutsu (some of which is more a case of Full-Contact Magic), with some exceptions that focus on use of weapons or physical ability. One good examples is Chiyo who has both puppets and good hand-to-hand combat abilities.
Princess Amelia from The Slayers, proficient in martial arts, healing, and astral magic. Her father as well.
Luffy from One Piece has monstrous strength known around the world in addition to being made of rubber which his style of fighting quite heavily relies on. Admittedly he'd still be able to kick pretty much everybody's asses, except for a choice few, without his rubber powers.
Fai D Flourite of CLAMP's Massive Multi Player CrossoverTsubasa Reservoir Chronicle is not only a very powerful mage - when he chooses to use his magic, anyways - but also as flexible as a cat and pretty damn capable of holding his own in a fight. Shura Arc showed that he and his partner, resident BadassKurogane, are at least on par in their fighting abilities as they hold top ranks in Yasha-ou's army. (The anime also hinted that he could, indeed, beat Kurogane with ease. If this is canon is debatable.)
The various Immortal Weapons from Iron Fist are good Western examples of this.
Doctor Strange, master of the mystic — and martial — arts. On more than one occasion he has surprised enemies who expected him to be physically helpless without his magic.
One What If? Story took this Up to Eleven, with Doctor Strange learning his skills from Daredevil and Elektra's main universe ninjutsu mentors, The Chaste.
"Most wizards," Professor Quirrell said, "do not bother much with what a Muggle would term martial arts. Is not a wand stronger than a fist? This attitude is stupid. Wands are held in fists.
A Shadow Of The Titans: Jade's new villain outfit is designed to reflect this, showing that she's skilled at both marital arts and magic. She also mentally comments at one point that if she has to choose between either or those or the powers of the Talismans now fused to her body, she'd pick all three.
Bryce Lawson from Mass Effect Human Revolution is both a powerful biotic and skilled enough in Krav Maga to hold his own against Adam friggin' Jensen.
Discworld's Mustrum Ridcully and Granny Weatherwax prefer crossbows or no physical fighting at all, respectively, but can still pummel the average villain or stop a sword blow with one bare hand. (Granny's also demonstrated the ability to make a wooden spoon as sharp as a sword.) Lu-Tze is a more conventional user of this trope; between martial arts and the ability to slice time finely enough to nearly outrun lightning, there's a reason for Rule One: "Never act incautiously when confronted by a little bald wrinkly smiling man!"
Briar Moss, in Tamora Pierce's Circle of Magic series, wasn't exactly trained in martial arts, but he knows how to fight anyway from his life as a street rat.
Similarly, his foster sister Daja has metal magic. While this is good for long distance spell casting, it turns out muscles from working in forges all day, and staff training, means you do not want to take her on at close quarters.
In The Dresden Files, Harry (while not a full-blown Kung Fu Wizard) does take occasional lessons from Murphy. This combined with his great height (and thus reach), sprinter's build, long staff and willingness to fight dirty makes him pretty badass with what little martial art he knows. Not to mention the .38 Special under that duster of his.
Though the eponymous magic-users of Mistborn don't draw their magic from their fighting skills, said magic allows sufficient strengthening and controlling of body and mind to invoke the spirit of this trope, and per Word Of God creating elaborate, martial arts-inspired fights was one of the author's goals in creating and using this power.
It can't get any more literal than Kirei Kotomine's fighting style in FateZero, which Word Of God claims is Bai Ji Quan, combined with Kotomine's Magecraft and generally self-destructive personality. With his fists alone, he can split trees, instinctively track people manipulatingtime, and pulverize Kiritsugu's chest with one punch before he could even react. This is before he starts using his Black Keys.
Allanon from Terry Brooks' Shannara series is a seven-foot tall giant, and a capable brawler, as well as the most powerful Druid featured in the series, and can both take a beating, and deliver one. His successor, Walker Boh, while a less talented fighter, is every bit as tough.
Phoebe from Charmed is a Kung-Fu witch. Initially she's the only one with no active powers (her sisters can move objects and freeze things while she can see visions of the past and future) and took to learning martial arts. She eventually develops an active power, levitation, that is of great use in combination with her martial arts skills.
In Chinese Ghost Story, Yin and at least one other character. They show both martial arts and magic usually cast by throwing spells written on paper. This gets quite mixed, coming to a climax of fight choreography, flying around from tree to tree, and spellcasting.
The Korean film Wooshi (also known as Woochi the Demon Slayer) features several of these, most notably the titular character.
In Dungeons & Dragons, it's possible to create a multiclassed monk/wizard character. Horribly unoptimized like most builds involving multiclassing spell casters and taking levels in monk, but possible.
In gestalt settings, Monk//Cleric and Monk//Psychic Warrior can be excellent choices, the first benefiting from the sheer number of offensive cleric spells that are in "touch" range.
The Tome of Battle supplement adds a few options which support this trope. The infamously poorly-worded Arcane Swordsage blurs the lines between this trope and Supernatural Martial Arts.
There are also feats that that make certain class combinations more viable. Ascetic Mage lets a Sorcerer/Monk (or Monk/Ex-Bard or Bard/Ex-Monk) add his spellcasting ability score to his armor class, Carmendine Monk lets a monk use his Intelligence instead of Wisdom for a lot of Monk abilities, including armor class (good for Wizards or Psions), and Tashalatora lets a character determine the power of certain Monk class features with the sum of his Monk levels and one psionic class (particularly good for Psychic Warriors and Ardents).
Prestige classes supporting this include Psionic Fist (monk/psionics), Enlightened Fist (monk/wizard users of Elemental Punch), Sacred Fist (monk/cleric) and Jade Phoenix Mage (swordsage/wizard specialising in fire). Anything which could be used to create a Magic Knight can also be applied to unarmed strikes.
Even if multiclassed or gestalt spellcasters aren't your thing, you can still make a single-classed spellcaster with the Improved Unarmed Strike feat, such as a grapplemancer-build wizard (Octopus familiar, enlarge spells), a Cleric (with magic weapon/greater magic weapon piled on a pair of gauntlets, and optionally the War domain), or a Druid (and magic fang/greater magic fang, although your Tiger's Claw technique may be quickly replaced with turning into an actual Tiger).
4e specifically has the classes "Swordmage", "Spellsinger" (effectively a melee class with wizard-based abilities) and "Hexblade" (as Spellsinger, only with warlocks). There's also making a hybrid Sorcerer/monk, and designing sorcerer powers around using daggers as the implements; though not optimized, sorcerer builds can use Charisma as a main stat and Dex as the off stat, while newer Monk builds have the opposite, still allowing you to be fairly combat effective.
Pathfinder has the same basic options in this area as Dungeons & Dragons above, with different feats and prestige classes. In particular, a series of feats exists which allow a character to cast a specific spell/magical ability after hitting with an unarmed strike.
It also has the Qinggong Monk class archetype, who swaps some of the standard monk abilities for ki-powered spell-like abilities.
In Exalted, virtually any sorcerer character will be either this or a Magic Knight. It's technically possible to make a Squishy Wizard, but since the game world assumes a certain amount of combat ability for all characters, you're just making life difficult for yourself if you do, and the core rules themselves warn against this. And that's not even going into the various Supernatural MartialArts And Crafts...
Anyone who can use magic in Hong Kong Action Theatre is probably going to be this, thanks to every character being proficient in both Gun Fu and some form of Kung Fu as well.
Dark Heresy mostly keeps its Psykers fairly squishy, making it harder for them to improve physical stats or learn combat skills. But then there's the Templar Calix career option, which lets you turn your wimpy freak into a mind-raping ninja assassin, dual-wielding psionically charged swords and specialising in hand-to-hand combat.
Eldar Farseers and Warlocks are also very tough in physical combat.
And you wouldn't want to have to fight a Tyranid psyker hand-to-claw either.
War Hammer has them in the form of Skaven's Clan Eshin sorcerers who are ninjas as well. While their sorcerers aren't up to the magical prowess of Grey Seers or Skryre Warlock-Engineers, they make up for the weaker powers with some pretty vicious hitting power and knife work. Dark Elves count as well with their Doomfire Warlocks who are melee cavalry with some spellcasting ability
The Adamantine Arrow in Mage: The Awakening assumes this sort of person, being the security experts of the Awakened. The Perfected Adept takes it a step further.
The Akashic Brothers in Mage: The Ascension are this trope all over. They represent the tradition of bringing about enlightenment through the harmonizing of the body and mind. A side effect of this is that pretty much every single Akashic knows how to perform amazing stunts and kick serious ass, before they even whip out their reality warping powers.
Enlightened martial artists from Deadlands have the ability to tap into the energies of the Hunting Grounds, enabling them to leap tall buildings in a single bound and pluck bullets from the air, among other things.
Physical Magicians (as distinct from Physical Adepts) in Shadowrun
In the Dynasty Warriors series, many characters such as Sima Yi, Pang Tong, Zhang Jiao, etc. are literally squishy wizards who back up their magical attacks with martial arts prowess.
Final Fantasy V gives a monk magic commands for a very underbalanced version. You could also give the "Barehanded" ability to mages, allowing them to deal heavy damage with both attacks and magic.
Snow can fulfill this trope as well when set as a Ravager, do to being able to attack both physically and magically with bare fists and ice-covered punches.
Every Final Fantasy that allows one to customize the characters with magic can do this with the martial artist. Sabin, Tifa, and Zell can all punch and cast spells as need be. Sabin is particularly notable because with the exception of his two weakest attacks, every one on his blitzes is based on his magic stat.
An example of a Combat Medic meets the Kung Fu Magic are the monks and master monks in the Shining franchise. Shining Force gives us Gong, a monk who knows how to cast healing spells and can stand his own in combat. Then in Shining Force 2, monks can be made even more powerful to near Game Breaker levels. Sarah and Karna gain the Blast spell, so they can not only sends someone packing with their fists but can also inflict a little magic damage. The Remake of Shining Force also allows Gong to attack with a wave of energy.
Most of Ganon's magic isn't related to combat: he uses fireballs/energy blasts, he occasionally flies, but that's about it. He is very well-versed in large-scale barrier magic, summoning Phantoms, and cursing entire societies (freezing Zora's Domain seems to be a favorite).
Dhaos from Tales of Phantasia is primarily a spellcaster, but will readily dish out a bare-handed beatdown to anyone who gets too close to him with his Tetra Assault arte. He gets an extremely powerful upgraded version of it called Million Assault in Tales Of VS.
Sync the Tempest from Tales of the Abyss is capable of casting several high level spells and Daathic fonic artes but spends most of the time pummeling you with his fists.
Given the series' martial arts roots, Mortal Kombat's most powerful sorcerers, Shang Tsung and Quan Chi, are more than capable of kicking your ass with or without their magic.
In Dungeon Crawl, transmuters start with skill in unarmed combat and better physical stats than most other spell casting classes. This becomes especially useful when you get access to their shape shifting spells.
Xavier Pendragon from Eternal Champions might count as one, since he uses a combination of Hapkido Cane and alchemy in his fighting style.
When she doesn't have a gun on hand, Jack's preferred mode of combat in Mass Effect 2 is to deliver biotic charges by punching people.
Thane, while lacking Jack's raw power, also combines hand-to-hand and biotics to lethal effect. His Shadow Broker dossier details examples of this technique, such as his standard method for neutralizing Asari targets.
Vanguard Shepard definitely qualifies in the third game with their heavy melee attack, which is a very Thane-esque biotic punch. With the right armors and talent build, it can even One-Hit Kill unprotected Mooks.
Many Kingdom Hearts characters are Magic Knights, but the best example the series has of this particular trope No Heart, an optional boss fight with Master Xehanort's armor in Birth by Sleep: Final Mix. He could just hit you with his Keyblade, but why settle for that when he can morph into a piece of armour and punch / kick you with it?
Having been trained as a martial artist before becoming an Adept, it's reasonable to assume Feizhi grew up into one of these after Golden Sun.
Ivan's sister Hama trains the people of Xian in kung-fu, and Ivan and the aforementioned Feizhi in Psynergy, so this can be assumed of her, too.
For a villainous (maybe) example, Agatio in The Lost Age prefers bare fists to a weapon, but has the largest variety of Psynergy attacks among the Fire Clan antagonists.
Himika the red spirit in Eien no Aselia is unique for her class time because rather than being a Squishy Wizard, she's a straight up brawler who does best in melee. While she can work as a caster, her effectiveness declines quickly due to dropping Mind values.
Byakuren Hijiri from Touhou is said to be an example - while she is a proficient wielder of both holy and arcane magic, her specialty is said to be powerful body-manipulation she casts on herself to augment her physical prowess. Even in the games, where she is limited by the strict rulesof spellcard duels and the realities of the genre, she shows a bit of this with her spellcard "Superhuman: Byakuren Hijiri", which allows her to zip around the screen about as fast as Aya. Helps that she's a monk of the Kung Fu variety.
Hermana Larmo from Tales of Innocence can utilize magic of every element, but is more adept at punching out her enemies. The Vita remake narrows her magic down to a few buffing spells, further emphasizing her fists.
Bioware's wuxia Action/RPG game Jade Empire includes lots of examples. Many NPCs employ chi-based magical attacks, and so may the player-character. Two characters, Scholar Ling and Monk Zeng, are predefined to specialise in magic, but you can customise any character with this emphasis, and by the end of the game you too will be a Kung-Fu Wizard.
Several of the classes in World of Warcraft could qualify for this. While some are purer Squishy Wizards, there are others: Shamans that enchant their mace with fire and then punch you in the face with it, Paladins who blast things with holy power while chopping them up with swords, et cetera.
The latest expansion pack introduced Monks, an example of a quite literal Kung-Fu Wizard.
All three of the above examples are also healing classes, making this overlap with Combat Medic. For monks and paladins, the combat part is emphasized; they literally have to land a blow on enemies to gather charges for their healing spells.
Thonolan, the protagonist of the NES game Kick Master, is a martial artist who learns spells he discovers along the way, such as healing, flight, and lightning.
Four of the main cast members in El Goonish Shive practice "anime style martial arts", which looks like a Fighting Game with special effects even before it fades into generalized magic and serves as introductory magical training.
Practically all Benders from Avatar The Last Airbender. They're each restricted to their own element (except for the Avatar, who can use them all), but they can either punch/kick you, hit you with their element, or both.
This is pretty much a required trope for all Benders as all bending is done through martial arts. Each element corresponds to a real martial art form and pro-bending in The Legend Of Korra is essentially long-distance boxing.
In Batman The Brave And The Bold, Dr. Fate learned martial arts in the event his magic is taken. Even so, he's not shy about telling Batman that he would rather use magic.