"I am Kronar, Son of Man. For a hundred generations, my fathers have kept the bloodline pure. Free from Woman's taint."
, Son of Kronar, Oglaf
It's not unusual to see a same-sex couple with a child. This arrangement can happen in many ways: children informally looked after by two same-sex platonic friends
, adopted children looked after by their parent's same-sex roommate, adopted kids of an actual same-sex couple, natural children of one (usually divorced) partner who view the other same-sex partner as a parent, etc...
But what about the child who is born
to two genetic parents of the same sex?
For simplicity's sake, this trope turns a blind eye to the exact method of birth (People Jars
, etc.) and sticks to naming any kid who draws their genetic heritage from two individuals of the same sex, regardless of how they were incubated/born, and whether this was the result of magic
, genderbending shapeshifting
, DNA splicing
, or bizarre alien
In Real Life
, theoretically it should be possible for two women to have a biological daughter by a process called haploidization
, or through creating sperm cells from one of the two mother's bone marrow
. (But women alone couldn't produce a son, due to the lack of a Y chromosome.) For males, there is research being conducted on the creation of male eggs
, which consists of removing the nucleus of an ovum and replacing it with the nucleus of a sperm. This new egg would then be fertilized by sperm from the other father. The process has been documented in mice and its viability in human reproduction is still being developed. It is also theoretically possible to achieve male pregnancy
by implanting an embryo in the abdominal cavity, but risk factors make it unlikely that this will be tested.
Closely related to Has Two Mommies
, although one does not require the other. Compare and contrast Truly Single Parent
. Contrast Face Full of Alien Wing-Wong
. Can result in Mr. Seahorse
. Often a necessity in a One-Gender Race
. Not to be confused with Your Tomcat Is Pregnant
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Anime and Manga
- Fletch and Arata have a daughter with a little help from "ground breaking science" near the end of Iono the Fanatics.
- Vandread is full of this. Ezra, one of the female side characters, was pregnant with the child of Rebecca, another female crew member, via technological gene-mixing. In fact, this is how all women from Megele reproduce. The men on the other hand, use a less personal but otherwise similar factory setup.
- Blame! - Cibo and Sana-Kan have a "child" at the end of the series.
- The Arume reproduce this way in Blue Drop. For an extra kick, they can also mate with human women. To be fair, they do use cloning/genetic engineering technology to accomplish this.
- Maybe occurred in Neon Genesis Evangelion with Rei, who was made up of a combination of Yui Ikari and Lilith's DNA. It's debatable whether Angels have a physical sex, though.
- Lyrical Nanoha:
- Reinforce Zwei was born in this manner due to the unusual circumstances behind her creation. As revealed in the third Sound Stage of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha Striker S, she was made from the Linker Core of Hayate. However, Hayate's Linker Core had permanently melded with Reinforce Eins' Linker Core by then, leading to a child with traits of them both, including a few leftover memories and emotions of the two. This, among others, allowed Reinforce Eins to leave a Video Will for Reinforce Zwei to view in her dreams, even though she has been dead for ten years.
- Events of StrikerS, namely the first four Numbers having Jail's DNA, with Uno being a feminized clone, suggest that Midchildian society has the tech to do this for ordinary people, though it may not be commercialized.
- The civilizations in Crest of the Stars definitely has the tech to do this, though we haven't seen any characters with odd parentage... that we know of. As the Abh society runs on a setup of only one parent raising the kid and being directly counted as a mother or father, and the other more a source of genes (though being asked to give your genes is considered a great honor), much of the Abh cast could have same-sex parents and we wouldn't know.
- This trope makes up a large part of the plot of the Sex Pistols manga.
- A patient in Franken Fran was infected with a protozoan with her (female) best friend's DNA. Fran managed to use that DNA as the 'sperm' to the patient's egg to create a child.
- Kano from Texhnolyze is stated to have three mothers, though the exact mechanics are left unexplained. He did also have a father or several, who were also sons of these mothers. The Class is obsessed with selective inbreeding and genetic engineering to defeat the perceived defects that caused them to be imprisoned underground in the first place, but they get all the physical and mental deformities associated with incest along the way.
- A rather disturbing example with Tier Harribel's Fracciónes from Bleach. Apacci, Mila Rose and Sung-Sun have the ability to create a chimera Hollow by ripping of one of their respective arms and fusion them into the said Hollow. Its name is Ayon◊ and the said technique to create it is called Quimera Parca. Ayon has no feminine traits, has a very musculous and masculine body, though it's also not male, and is a very ugly giant. Its mask doesn't cover its face, but its nose. Behind its lion mane are his big googly eyes which can fire Ceros, and what looks like its neck is actually its big mouth. Makes you wonder how three pretty woman can produce that◊ ugly thing from their bodies.
- Patalliro: Maraich gets pregnant twice over the course of the manga; the first pregnancy ends in a miscarriage, but the second results in a successful birth. Neither pregnancy is ever explained, although given the series you'd be wrong to expect an explanation.
- According to Chris Claremont, this was the original plan for Nightcrawler of the X-Men. Mystique and Destiny were supposed to be his birth parents, with Mystique morphing into a man for it to happen. However, it received an Executive Veto since it was deemed too controversial. Instead, his father is revealed to be one of Marvel's equivalents of Satan, which is so much less controversial. More than one subsequent writer and a decent number of fans have since considered Retconning this into his actual backstory.
- Superboy (Conner Kent, or Kon-El) is the result of mixing Superman's DNA with Lex Luthor's. His only daddy was originally Cadmus director Paul Westfield but that didn't have nearly enough sexual tension.
- In Alan Moore's Tomorrow Stories, it's revealed that the heroine Cobweb and her sidekick/lover Clarice are the daughters of a previous Cobweb and Clarice, having been born as a result of a ritual where their ancestors made love in a certain place which had certain special qualities. This was because their ancestors were, due to an accident, from a One-Gender Race.
- Judge Dredd has had more than a few one-shot characters demonstrating that it's possible for men to get pregnant in Mega-City One, usually by another man.
- In Phil Foglio's Buck Godot: Zap Gun for Hire's "The Gallimaufry" storyline, a male alien Pog member named Qvakk mentions that he "really loved Oort...was gonna take him home, make lots of eggs".
- In Transmetropolitan this trope seems to be a major part of the in-universe soap opera "Republican Party Reservation". Would be tame compared to all the other stuff that goes on daily in the City.
- In general, this is a common trope to go hand in hand with Mpreg fanfics.
- The Steven Universe fic New Feelings has Jonah Eudialyte, son of Pearl and Garnet. Seeing how both of his mommies are Humanoid Aliens who practice magic and have No Biological Sex, this seems quite plausible.
- Becky Ariel Doofenshmirtz, the daughter of Phineas and Ferb characters Dr Heinz Doofenshmirtz and Perry The Platypus. Not only does she have two daddies, they are barely in the same class. Well, the Foe Yay is there in the original, and one of her daddies is a Mad Scientist...
- Very common all over the Invader Zim fandom, usually a bi-product of Zim and Dib shipping. Some justify it with at least one participant being an alien, though most don't even bother with a Hand Wave. In Short Supply meanwhile managed to obtain popularity even among people who usually don't like MPreg by exploring in extensive detail the mechanisms and consequences of the trope (for example, Zim wasn't prepared for the physical strain, and his first birth was not a pleasant experience).
- Hazura Sinner from Deviant ART has built quite a reputation for her work giving "fan babies" to her OTPs (all of them slash), including Kim/Shego, Allelujah/Neil and Fang/Vanille.
- A Naruto fanfic called Sasuke, I think I'm Pregnant. The author is Sarah1281. The explanation is that the Kyuubi allowed Naruto to get pregnant anally, which takes just under fifteen minutes to break through Sasuke's wall of cynicism. The fic was released on, and takes place on, April Fool's Day. Shikamaru made a bet with Naruto that it would take less than fifteen minutes to fool him with this one, which leaves Naruto grumbling that he has to pay up.
- Sherlock fandom gives Sherlock and John broods of (biological) kids by fanartists. It runs on Rule of Adorable.
- In part 4 of the My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic fic Out in the Cold, Trixie ends up bearing Twilight's foal after the two get carried away with a book of sex magic (a Gender Bender spell is heavily implied). In general, this trope is so common in the fandom that the term "magical lesbian spawn" is usually used to sort them on fan-sites.
- Touhou fandom provides the page image (Sakuya and Meiling are the couple in question), and the number of other examples is massive. Far more plausible than most settings, given a) the Improbably Female Cast, b) the abundance of casual magic, and c) it being very rare for any two random characters to be the same species, so this trope would be the least surprising thing about them having children.
- Happens a lot in Kim Possible fanfic, because the big Fan-Preferred Couple is Kim and her Evil Counterpart Shego, and their world is so riddled with Mad Science that this hardly needs justifying. Two daughters (named Kasy and Sheki) created by one author are popular enough that they're often borrowed by other writers, but they're hardly the only ones.
- Many, many Harry Potter fics concern ways for two men or, less often, two women to have kids without a surrogate or a previous relationship, from potions and/or spells to magical creature heritage to simply having powerful enough magic/being in "true love"/wanting it badly enough. In other words: A wizard did him resp. a witch did her.
- The usual result of "McShep" slash involving accidents with Ancient technology in Stargate Atlantis slash fic. Especially because Sheppard's Ancient gene and McKay's genius intellect are considered extremely valuable by the entire Pegasus Galaxy, and fanon often considers the city Atlantis to be sentient and very fond of the two.
- Some Fire Emblem Awakening fanfics try to sidestep canon's lack of same-sex marriages while keeping the children's existence intact, mainly among yuri shippers. Sumia/Cordelia and Lissa/Maribelle are the most noteworthy examples.
- Pretty much any ABO (Alpha/Beta/Omega) Alternate Universe Fic (long story short: some characters have a working penis and can impregnate anyone regardless of gender while other characters can get pregnant by anyone regardless of gender) involves this, and is often the impetus for writing one in the first place.
- All of the Little Things, a Bleach fanfic where Yoruichi and Sui-Feng end up getting married and conceiving a child together. The fic takes a chapter out to go into all the metaphysical detail of how that is possible (especially as Yoruichi was adamant that she did not want Sui-Feng growing any extra appendages to get the job done).
- The Puella Magi Madoka Magica Science Baby AU. Technically, they're magic babies.
- Many Lost Girl fics have Bo impregnating Lauren. Typically explained by her taking and giving back chi is an exchange life force, and can be used to impregnate women. The fics that have baby be a son however show the authors have a questionable grasp of biology, which is is discussed in Believing in the Impossible, where Lauren mentions she's positive their baby is a girl. When Bo asks how she can be sure, Lauren points out neither of them have a y chromosome.
- RWBY fandom classes fics where this happens as RWBabies for maximum punny potential.
- Marvel Cinematic Universe:
- In Being John Malkovich, Cameron Diaz gets Catherine Keener pregnant. (Which is to say, this happens between their characters, but you get the picture.) Well, technically John Malkovitch gets Catherine Keener pregnant while Cameron Diaz is metaphysically inside his body, but they seem to count it as Cameron Diaz's kid.
- The closest thing to a realistic example happens in The Broken Hearts Club. Patrick's lesbian sister Annie asks him to be her partner Leslie's sperm donor; this way the baby would be related to both moms.
- The setting of the Polish science fiction film Sex Mission necessitates this. The film ends with the main protagonists successfully changing that for good, much to the cloning lab's nurses horror.
- In William Gibson's Count Zero one of Turner's team is a lesbian who had a kid with her partner via "DNA splice". The procedure was apparently very expensive though, the reason she went on the run was to make payments on it.
- In The Culture novels of Iain M. Banks, easily reversible sex-change technology exists. In Excession, one major plot point revolves around the common lovers' practice of simultaneous pregnancies: after one half of the couple gets pregnant, they both change genders (which stalls but doesn't abort the pregnancy), the other person gets pregnant, and then the now-male one becomes female again.
- There's a character in The Dark Tower, Mordred Deschain, with two mothers and two fathers.
- Hand of Thrawn leans a little more towards Genetic Engineering Is the New Nuke, but it turns out that Major Grodin Tierce is a clone of a Red Guard with a bit of Thrawn's mind added in. For that matter, Joruus C'baoth could be considered to be the child of the original C'baoth and Palpatine - we don't know much about his origins, sure, but while he looks like and thinks he's C'baoth, there's certainly an Emperor-ish cast to his thoughts and use of Force Lightning. That would make Luuke, who is a clone of Luke but is an extension of C'baoth, another one of these.
- In Walter Jon Williams's novel Aristoi, the (male) protagonist's boyfriend voluntarily becomes pregnant with the protagonist's sperm, using the commonplace technology of the far future. (It's so far in the future that people have godlike powers and can do just about anything.)
- Nicolae Carpathia of the Left Behind novels is revealed in the prequel The Rising to be the son of two gay men, incubated in one of their wives. You know, because homosexuals are evil. Subtle as a sledgehammer.
- One of the corporate mercenaries working with Turner at the beginning of Count Zero (the sequel to Neuromancer) mentions that she has a child with her female partner using a "gene splice". Nothing else is mentioned of the process aside from its expense.
- The bizarre lesbian sci-fi book Daughters of a Coral Dawn has its protagonists accomplish this via a drug called Estrova (although it is implied that they also had kids by more natural means). How this is done is never quite clarified, although it seems to involve fertilizing one motile ovum with one sessile one. It's necessary, because they've all left Earth and need to breed to make sure their colony survives. Two books later, it turns out that their granddaughters have mutated into a new humanoid being that produces Estrova naturally.
- In Lois McMaster Bujold's Ethan of Athos (part of the Vorkosigan Saga) we get Athos, an all male colony. The plot kicks off because there are problems with the (repeatedly cloned) ova they have to import to allow the males to reproduce.
- In Joanna Russ's novel The Female Man, the narrator comes from an all-female planet in which couples reproduce by merging ova. She considers this obviously superior to mere parthenogenesis.
- A very early example of this is found in The Crime and the Glory of Commander Suzdal by Cordwainer Smith. When the planet Arachosia was originally settled, a bizarre happenstance, in the author's words, "rendered femininity carcinogenic". The end result is a society of beings neither truly male nor truly female, incapable of conventional reproduction and with an abiding hatred of normal humans.
- In Wen Spencer's Ukiah Oregon series Jo and Lara's second child, Callie, is biologically related to both of them with the aid of a fertility clinic.
Live Action TV
- In the space episode of NewsRadio, Space Matthew accidentally unplugs the life support for the whole station, so he and Space Bill McNeil decide they'll need some petri dishes to further the human race.
- In the 2009 Kennedy Center Honors, Jon Stewart provided this semi-joking theory regarding honoree Bruce Springsteen:
- The Broken Hearts Club scenario is duplicated in Girlfriends, in which William is the biological father of his sister's girlfriend's baby. He refers to the child as his "nephew-son''.
- Norse Mythology:
- Sleipnir has two fathers — Svađilfari (described as "the best of all horses") and the Giant/God Loki, though technically speaking Loki was female throughout the entire relationship.
- This is not even the only time Loki has children with another male, although at least one of the other incidents also involved Loki taking female form beforehand. According to the Aesir in Lokkasenna, Loki spent eight years on another realm as a milkmaid, having babies with an unnamed husband. Interestingly enough, this may be one of the reasons Loki became a common "bad guy" in Norse Myth; the concept of men giving birth (thereby violating Norse gender roles) was considered the most grievous of taboos.
- Heimdall has nine mothers — even odder, they were sisters and each one is said to have given birth. No, we don't get any explanation how this is possible. Presumably they took turns.
- In the Welsh Mabinogion, the demi-god brothers Gilfaethwy and Gwydion anger their sorcerer uncle Math, who transforms them into matched sets of animals: a stag and a doe, a boar and a sow, and a wolf and a she-wolf. The brothers mate in their animal forms and produce offspring: Hyddwn (fawn), Hychddwn (piglet), and Bleiddwn (wolf pup). After three years Math transforms his nephews and their children into humans. Must've been an interesting family.
- Vampire: The Requiem has a supplement known as Wicked Dead that talks about dampyr, creatures born from the unnatural desire of vampires to have children. One method of creating dampyr is the use of a dark ritual, some versions of which allow a male vampire to impregnate a male human or a female vampire to impregnate a female human.
- The small-press RPG Fates Worse Than Death takes place in a rundown cyberpunk future where, among other things, homosexuality is perfectly normal. One of the sourcebooks makes mention of artificial wombs that allow male couples to reproduce and a finger tool that converts epithelials into sperm cells for lesbian couples.
- One of the advanced Craft Abilities is Craft (Genesis), the setting's equivalent of genetic engineering. This trope is really the least of what advanced Genesis-tech can do. Also, ghosts can produce Ghost-Blooded with human women. The gender of the ghost is irrelevant.
- Lunars play with this; they reproduce through taking whatever gender they need to make the baby. That said, they can still turn into men while pregnant, and it's within Lunar abilities to make a knack to get around the need for a male and a female to make a child. Their patron Luna is known to appear as a pregnant adult male when it feels like doing so.
- In the King's Blood card game, playing the titular card allows a character to produce heirs with anyone, regardless of suit or gender. For some reason, pairing males seems to be especially popular.
- A god with sufficient Knacks in Scion can be whichever gender he or she pleases in the World, allowing a goddess to impregnate a woman or a god to become pregnant. One sample character, Annie X, is the result of Kali taking on male form.
- In GURPS Transhuman Space genetic recombination and exowombs are expensive but viable methods for two people of the same sex (or different parahuman types) to have kids. In the case of two women, exowombs aren't necessarily required; Denise in Personnel Files 5: School Days was carried by one of her mothers, but she doesn't know which one.
- Pokémon probably doesn't count because it can only be done with the help of cheating devices, but it's possible to send two female Pokemon to the Daycare and get an egg. Two males doesn't work though, presumably because the child inherits the species of the mother.
- Mass Effect:
- The asari resemble human women but are actually a One-Gender Race, and they can conceive a child by a partner of any gender from any other species. Liara is a child of two asari, as is Morinth in the second game. That last one, however, has her own problems...
- This is possible for all species, or at very least humans through genetic engineering. Designer babies are common amongst the rich; in Mass Effect 2 you meet a character that was created using only a single person's DNA (albeit with a lot of genes borrowed from elsewhere). If you can do it with one person, you can do it with two.
- In Hitman: Codename 47, Agent 47 is the result of a cloning experiment that combined the DNA of five of the world's deadliest criminals - all men - in an effort to create a "perfect human".
- Wizardry 8 offers the chance to sleep with a demon goddess (actually necessary unless the player knew about a certain plot event ahead of time and set things up to work around it), and the character who did it will find their pissed-off demonic daughter near the end of the game. Go into that scene with an all-female party, and a woman will sleep with the demoness. The daughter shows up regardless.
- In Harvest Moon DS Cute, it's possible to choose one of the four special not-exactly-human girls as a "best friend" in place of a husband. Should you go their route, the Harvest Lord will show up at some point and magic up a kid for you and your "friend". Only in the Japanese version, though, since Natsume had to appease Moral Guardians who wouldn't acknowledge this game exists if it broke into their house at night and ate their children alive.
- The Sims 2 has a cheat that allows you to impregnate your sims with anyone you want, so same-sex genetic parents are possible. Numerous mods have been created for 2 and 3 that allow same sex couples to get pregnant through standard WooHoo.
- Enforced in Minecraft - as Notch pointed out, there is only one gender in Minecraft, which means that any creature in Minecraft is homosexual, because there is only one gender to choose from. Obviously, this also means that any baby animal or villager is the result of Homosexual Reproduction.
- In Fate/stay night Saber, aka King Arthur, has a child with Guinevere. Merlin did some very strange magic for the occasion. During that same period her sister used some of the sperm taken from her to make a homunculus, Mordred, and raise her to be Arthur's rival. This turned out terribly for everyone involved.
- In Girly, the main character's love interest has two moms, and we're told outright that she's their biological child (the explanation is given a humorous Hand Wave). In the end it turns out that the two main characters have a daughter themselves!
- The Touhou fancomic Touhou Nekokayou features Original Character Carroll Kirisame, born after magically combining the DNA of Marisa Kirisame and Alice Margatroid. She refers to Marisa as her father (though she uses feminine terms and pronouns to refer to her in every other respect). The exact process Marisa and Alice used remains a Noodle Incident.
- The Japanese fan-art site Pixiv had an art challenge along these lines: "Let's Make Touhou Kids!". The results are available for review here (might be NSFW), including a few artists' comic series starring their new creations. Notably, the artist Kyouno has a series, Touhou Boys and Girls, with (at last count) six children of female-female couples — and, as the title suggests, two of the kids are male.
- An Oglaf comic Son of Kronar (NSFW) says his family has kept their bloodline pure of woman's taint for a hundred generations. And depicts one of the aforementioned, er, ass-babies.
- In Umlaut House 2 Rhonda is the daughter of two men, she even jokes that she "is of no woman born". Towards the end of the first series it was stated that there are biotech companies that help homosexual couples reproduce (though one of Rhonda's dads is a Mad Scientist).
- In Drowtales, it turns out that the Jaal'darya use their "manatech" to do this. They also sell this technology to Snadhya'rune, which allows her to have a daughter, Kalki, with Mel'arnach without alerting her mother. Or Mel'arnach, at that.
- The trolls have genders, but the way their reproduction works (it involves buckets and a "mother grub" who takes genetic material and combines it into an "incestuous slurry") means that it's possible for a child to have multiple parents, including same-gender ones.
- The ectobiology equipment in SBURB means same-sex genetic parents are a possibility for human players—although all the recombination seen so far has been in male-female pairs.
- Leprechauns as in the Felt are stated by an Exposition Fairy to have homosexual reproduction exclusively. She's interrupted before she manages to say so but the author puts up her speech anyway, and though the part about how they reproduce is damaged by the glitches it seems quite similar to Dave's Brother's Smuppets.
- As revealed in the final story arc of And Shine Heaven Now: the boy that will grow up to be Vampire Hunter D is somehow Integra Hellsing and Seras Victoria's son. Only they know how that happened, and they aren't telling.
- Discussed in El Goonish Shive. Lesbian couple Ellen and Nanase talk about maybe having kids someday and how to go about it, then Ellen points out that they can... this being El Goonish Shive take a wild guess. Heck, neither of them even needs to change genders or get pregnant considering Grace or a pair of Uryuoms can provide them with a Uryuom egg (with the result that their child would look like a combination of both of them and be able to shape shift to resemble either of them).
- In Shortpacked!, Joe offers to use his crazy tech skills to help Robin and Leslie have a baby together. The plan is to convert some guy's sperm [they settle on Ethan] to match the DNA of one of them, so it can then combine with the egg of the other. (He admits he totally stole this idea from Justice League Unlimited.)
- In the comic Wizard & Giant the Giant, AKA Prince Varka, a massive pink guy from a sunless frozen wasteland gets married to, and impregnates Wizard. Both characters are male. How is this possible? A wizard did it.
- In the Elcenia 'verse, homosexual reproduction has been directly stated to be possible via magic, though a male-male pair requires a surrogate to carry their child.
- In the Pinky and the Brain episode "Brinky", Roman Numeral One, or "Romy", was meant to be a clone of Brain, but some of Pinky's DNA ended up in the mix, producing what Pinky (and eventually Brain) treats as the duo's son. One of the more Ho Yay-filled episodes of the series, with a decent amount of Parental Bonus.
- Transformers, being a One-Gender Race with a few rare exceptions, can do this. Two examples would be Sumdac and Megatron making Soundwave in Transformers Animated and Ratchet and Wheeljack making the Dinobots in Transformers Generation 1. It is worth noting, however, than no "reproduction" in the biological sense is involved- they simply make a chassis and either program in a "soul" or give it a soul via MacGuffin application. As long as the parties involved have the requisite know-how, transformer reproduction can be performed by two male super-intelligent iguanas if the need arises.
- Played for Laughs in The Ren & Stimpy Show Adult Party Cartoon. The aptly titled episode "Stimpy's Pregnant" starts with Stimpy having typical pregnancy symptoms, which he has to explain himself of to Ren. Despite them having a child is biologically impossible, neither complain or question it; Ren even says "You said you'd use protection!". It is later revealed that it was not, in fact, a child, but a living lump of Stimpy's excrements (even though he went through lactation and had his waters flow out). They never find out, because the delivering doctor didn't want to "break their hearts".
- In Gargoyles, Delilah was produced from the DNA of Demona and Elisa.
- Following the comics, Superboy in Young Justice is revealed to be a combination of the DNA of Superman and Lex Luthor in the episode "Agendas." Given that this was in the comics this also counts as an I Knew It for many fans of both.
- In Real Life scientists have managed to extract male sperm from female stem cells, and hope to extract eggs from male cells in the near future. While legislation will undoubtedly take its time to catch on, there is now theoretically (very expensive) means for lesbian couples to have children without a man. Such children would always be female. And that's not all - it has been demonstrated in animal experiments that it's possible to make a child inherit the genes of three parents - the implications for unorthodox family structures are pretty interesting.
- Although the result doesn't usually thrive, it is possible for one of the 'waste' cells formed during female meiosis, the polar body, to fuse with an egg producing a zygote. If the problems are ever overcome, any two females could produce a child without the need to engineer sperm cells.
- As far as working on making children from two fathers, it's significantly harder, as eggs become the core of an embryo while sperm is little more than genetic information. There are a few ideas, but in practice it's quite a ways away still. Also, YY combinations must be avoided because they don't work, so effectively the children will be male 2/3 of the time and female 1/3 of the time. That doesn't even get into the fact that there'd need to be a surrogate mother to actually carry the baby, or an artificial womb outside of a body (while there could in theory be male pregnancies, they would be extremely dangerous, and the technology required to make them would be more difficult than a completely artificial womb altogether).
- You could say that Dolly the sheep had three mothers: one that the nuclear DNA was taken from, one that the egg cell was taken from, and one that it was implanted in.
- The Desert Grassland Whiptail Lizard, an all-female species, reproduces strictly through cellular meiosis (no fertilization of eggs required), while ovulation is enhanced by what basically amounts to lizard-lesbianism.
- An experiment was done to see if bi-maternal mice have longer lives by changing some eggs to behave like sperm (answer: yes, but they were also drastically smaller).
- Mice from two genetic fathers.