Five Foundations of Morality
This is a theory by the psychologist Johnathan Haidt that despite local variations, there are five basic markers that different groups of humans have in their accepted behavior:
- Harm/Care: Be nice.
- Fairness/Reciprocity: This is not the same as being nice, as it is possible to be unjust to one person in your desire to be nice to another.
- Ingroup/Loyalty: Stand by your tribe.
- Authority/Respect: Respect the customs and the hierarchy. Every culture above the size of the hunter-gatherer band (and even many hunter-gatherers; respect your elders) has these. Even cultures that think themselves egalitarian.
- Purity: Don't do things that are squicky. This corresponds to both physical purity (don't eat poop) and moral purity (don't burn the bible).
- Harm/Care : In the Firefly episode "Ariel," Simon risks his life to save a stranger
- Fairness/Reciprocity: In Babylon 5, Commander Sinclair refuses to use force to end a strike according to "the Rush Act," and instead pays them the wages owed.
- Ingroup/Loyalty: In Firefly, Mal says to Jayne, "If you turn on any of my crew, you turn on me."
- Authority/Respect: In The Chosen, Danny Saunders stands by his overbearing father despite the father's demands.
- Purity: In Ivanhoe Rebecca threatens to kill herself rather than allow herself to be raped by the evil Bois-Guilbert.