Forbidden Planet: Despite what the poster would have you believe, this is also averted: Robbie is pretty tame to start with and has a Restraining Bolt that makes it impossible for him to harm any other "rational being".
Isaac Asimov created the "Three Laws of Robotics" specifically to avert this trope. And a fairly big portion of his stories are about robots going haywire because of those laws. In really clever ways, mind you.
While the Daleks in Doctor Who with their iconic "Exterminate! Ex-ter-minate!" are not robots (they are living creatures inside machines giving them greater mobility), Terry Nation - who originally created them - apparently forgot this at least once (Destiny of the Daleks).
In an early appearance, Daleks apparently had some religious fervour: 'Align and advance! Advance to attack! Attack and destroy! Destroy and rejoice!'
The Cybermen have a similar iconic "DELETE" (although they are human brains in metal bodies, they have been reprogrammed in such a way that they may as well be robots).
And the Host.
Host: Information: Kill. Kill. Kill. Kill.
Lost in Space: This line is often mis-attributed to The Robot who does use the term "Destroy" several times in the pilot during his rampage. It's Killer Android IDAK Alpha 12 who says this in the episode titled, "Revolt of the Androids." Despite its use in only one episode, it became a more famous line than "Destroy" and was thus attributed to the main character robot.
This becomes an Ascended Meme in The Movie; Will has the Robot deliver the line (to scare his dad) in the scene where he shows that he's gained control over it. The movie soundtrack even has a Stupid Statement Dance Mix of the Robot saying "Destroy."
Mystery Science Theater 3000's Mike Nelson built a robot in episode #602, following the lead of ex-host Joel Robinson, who built fellow snarkers Crow and Tom Servo. However, Mike's robot seemed only able to shout "DESTROY.. DESTROY.. DESTROY..". After he shuts it down, Crow and Tom force Mike to promise not to try and build another.
Older editions of Dungeons & Dragons did this with golems, the magical equivalent of robots. Many golems had a certain chance every round of combat to simply flip out and try to kill everything in sight, as the golems of Jewish folklore often did.
Final Fantasy IX has an army of manufactured Black Mages who shout "KILL!" when they attack. The Black Waltzes aren't much better; "I EXIST ONLY TO KILL! I EXIST ONLY TO KILL!" Some Black Mages develop independent will and a better vocabulary, and form their own village. Another Black Mage, Vivi, is adopted by Quale, and later joins Zidane's party as they take on Kuja.
Ogres tend to yell in things like "Rawr me smash you!" and other things in You No Take Candle.
In Robot Alchemic Drive, one of the main robots the player controls will eventually activate its forbidden "Human Genocide Mode," which is pretty self explanatory. It even keeps droning, in the protagonist's head, "DESTROY IT ALL."
E-123 Omega is a textbook Turned Against Their Masters variety who is really pissed off about Eggman shutting him down and leaving him. And he's very entertaining in battle. ANNIHILATION! KILL! FIRE, FIRE!
In Spore, the Big Bad are The Grox, who all talk like this, being cybernetic gerbils.
The Slylandro probes in Star Control 2 begin by transmitting "We come in peace" before their buggy programming override activates and compels them to "Break target into component compounds/materials".
Starsiege: a repeated refrain from Cybrids: Hurt//Maim//Kill.
Arguably, in The Animatrix, the robot that signs the unconditional surrender treaty at the UN, when it calmly says "Hand over your flesh and a new world awaits you. We demand it." Right before it self-destructs in an atomic blast, killing everyone at the UN
The R.E.G.I.S. Mk. V in Megas XLR tells people to not panic it while destroying most everything in its path.
R.E.G.I.S. Mk. V: "Do not panic. You will all die."
Also R.E.C.R., in a spoof of 1950's-era panic.
R.E.C.R.: Everything is the enemy!
R.E.C.R.: But I must destroy and protect!
R.E.C.R.: I must destroy all enemies! Because all enemies are MY enemies!
Mr. Burns orders robot workers, and the box says "100% Loyal." The next scene is Burns and Smithers being chased by the robots, who are droning "Crush, kill, destroy!" over and over.
In another episode, Bart's class has a robot telling them about the new "fun museum" in town. Bored, Bart glances out the window and sees the robot's operator sitting in a tree. Bart hits him with a rock, knocking him out and making the robot slump over. After a second, it utters "Command link severed. Default setting..." and starts throttling Principal Skinner, to the delight of the children.
In "Itchy And Scratchy Land," the cat and mouse robots have a protocol that ensures that they only attack each other; their HUD commands them to "KILL" their opposite number. Inevitably, they malfunction, and the "KILL" command is demanded of human targets.
The Transformers: Used nearly word for word, wherein mad Decepticon leader Galvatron undergoes word association therapy (you know you're Ax Crazy when the Decepticons send you to a psychiatrist.) and the first things he can think of are "Kill! Smash! Destroy!" Asked to continue, he obliges with "Rend! Mangle! Distort!". Afterwards he blew up the planet where he got the therapy; it was less than successful. Clearly, he is a bot of his word.
Roberto was created by a team of engineers who actually wanted to build a criminally insane robot.
Roberto: "AND THEY FAILED!"
Vending Machine Bot: "But doesn't that mean-*Is stabbed*"
Robot Santa is at least willing to restrict his rampages to one night a year. Unfortunately he has much more firepower than Bender or Roberto.
The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3: Mario provides a non-robotic example when Bowser and his son, Kooky (Ludwig von Koopa,) puts him under his control with a mind-control helmet. When Luigi shows up to rescue him, Bowser orders Mario to "Smash! Crush! Pound! Destroy!" him.
Unfortunately, Kooky get the helmet put upon himself, much to Bowser's chagrin and terror!
In the Gargoyles episode, "Upgrade," when the Manhattan Clan gang up on the Coyote robot and Goliath rips out and squishes the controlling head, the rest of the robot gets up and blindly flails "Destroy, Destroy..." before being flattened by a subway train.
Courage the Cowardly Dog had a Monster of the Week that was a cruise-missile-delivered carrot that turned into a bomb. Anyone who ate the carrot began inflating to house-busting proportions before exploding themselves, and Courage had to dive through Murial's body to find the tumor-like carrot growth and shut it down. No, it does not make any more sense in context. However, when Courage gets there, for some reason the carrot can talk, and is chanting "Grow! Expand! Explode!" in ever-increasing volume and excitement.
In an episode of Class of 3000, the kids decided to replace all their teachers with celebrities. Their new dance teacher, a parody of Optimus Prime, kept shouting this phrase as he pirouetted through walls.
In the Family Guy episode "Hannah Banana", Brian and Stewie find that Miley Cyrus is actually an android. At Brian's suggestion, Stewie tries reprogamming her so Brian can have sex with her, but instead she goes haywire and starts running around saying "MILEY SMASH!"