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[[quoteright:300:[[ComicStrip/CalvinAndHobbes http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/CalvinHobbes_bats_report_2371.jpg]]]]
[[caption-width-right:300:Even (most) ''first'' graders know this one.]]

->''"The [[UsefulNotes/OlympicGames London 2012]] opening ceremony is going to be called Isles of Wonder, but there can be no wonderment more wonderful than the fact that Olympics organizers wanted [[Music/TheWho Keith Moon]] to perform.\\
\\
Moon has been dead for 34 years."''
-->-- '''[[http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/us-news-blog/2012/apr/13/keith-moon-london-olympics-organisers The Guardian]]'''
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[[noreallife]]

This is a particular instance where a story or character has something—a statement, the depiction of something—that is so egregiously off-the-scale in terms of inaccuracy that anyone with a high school education (or less) and/or a cursory knowledge of the subject realizes the writers made the whole thing up.

Many of these will be {{Disaster Movie}}s or Action Movies and will [[JustHereForGodzilla use state of the art computer effects to keep your interest]]. This can be PlayedForLaughs by having a BookDumb character make such an error so that a smarter character can spot and react to it.

Also see DidntThinkThisThrough, which is less about research failure and more about planning failure. Contrast with the MST3KMantra, which tells us not to worry about these little details, AccidentallyAccurate, which is when non-experts think the creators are wrong, but experts know the creators are right—[[RightForTheWrongReasons by complete accident]] and LikeRealityUnlessNoted, where what appears to be a research failure can be written off as the result of an AlternateHistory or AlternateUniverse.

For RealLife examples of this in action regarding media, see CowboyBebopAtHisComputer. Compare with ArtisticLicense and its subpages.
----
!!Works with their own pages:
[[index]]
* ''CriticalResearchFailure/{{Cracked}}''
* ''CriticalResearchFailure/GameTheoryWebShow''
[[/index]]
----
!!Unintentional Examples
[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder:Advertising]]
* A TV spot for the film ''Film/{{Gamer}}'' became [[MemeticMutation an Internet hit]] when it claimed that "the last time Creator/GerardButler kicked this much ass was Film/ThreeHundred years ago." [[note]]Amusingly, Gerard Butler has done quite a few other historical epics and at least one time travel story, covering damn near every period ''but'' the early 18th century.[[/note]]
* A commercial for Oscar Meyer Franks has a father come home and see his three kids on those electronic gizmos kids use these days. Wanting to spend Quality Family Time, he trips the circuit breaker of his house, knocking the power out and shutting off the older brother's computer, the younger brother's game console, and the sister's '''cell phone''', all of which have batteries.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* One scene in ''Manga/BakiTheGrappler'' involved a character who blinded people by pulling out their optic nerves... by sticking a finger into the side of his opponent's ''neck'' and pulling said nerve out. The optic nerve, which connects the eye and brain via a hole through the eye socket, has absolutely ''no'' business being there.
* A ''Anime/LupinIII'' episode had a sign marking the Kansas/Washington D.C. border. Was it that hard for the writers to get a map of the United States?
* Generally, ''Manga/DetectiveConan'' avoids these issues by Aoyama [[ShownTheirWork doing research]], off and on there are instances where the reasoning for even simple things in the series just don't make sense. One instance is when Ludger, a German character, appears and he speaks near-perfect Japanese. Conan deduces that his wife is British because Ludger referred to the restaurant being on the 2nd Floor, when it would be the 3rd Floor in Japanese, and that this is because the British refer to the 1st Floor of a building as the Ground Floor and then begin to count number-wise upward. The problem? ''Germans'' do that, too, so his reasoning is faulty since Ludger, being German, automatically counts floors in the German fashion, making Conan's elaborate reason why his wife must be British obsolete.
* ''Manga/CodeGeass'' loves its chess metaphors and concepts. Lelouch is also an avid chess player throughout the series, which he displays in his strategies. However, he always plays by moving his king first, because he believes the king should lead by example. In chess, it is not possible to move the king on its first turn; it only can move one space in any direction, and is blocked in by its own pieces. Its also an extremely risky way to play chess in general. Also in the second season, he stalemates his brother Schneizel by moving his own king into check, which is a completely illegal move, as any chess player knows.
* ''Manga/BlackJack'':
** If you didn't know Ozamu Tezuka was a certified M.D before he was a mangaka, you'd think he was this. As it is, the official translation actually has footnotes explaining the discrepancies between the manga and real life, with some being honest mistakes like claiming that dingoes are descendants of dogs brought to Australia by Europeans when in fact they were already present before colonization, which is a mistake anyone could make at first. Blatant errors in medical knowledge, are actually embellishments done on purpose for RuleOfFun and RuleOfCool, and a situation where a woman gets her ovaries removed and later on appears as a man is a case of [[CrossDresser cross-dressing]], which was been mistaken for a literal GenderBender due to the use of phrases like not being able live like a woman anymore used in dialog, making this a case where the readers, reviewers and critics are the ones that committed the failure in research, because a medical doctor like Tezuka would know that getting their ovaries removed wouldn't cause a woman to become a man.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ''Comicbook/{{Marville}}:''
** It begins [[AuthorTract a descent into utter madness]] starting in the third issue that includes, among many, MANY other offenses, the protagonists scooping up some water with microbes in it to use as a "biological clock" for their time machine, under the logic that ''they'll know to stop when the microbes evolve into a dinosaur''. It just gets worse from there.
** It also contains the popular misbelief that shows up a few times below that humans are the only creatures who kill members of their own species.
* Franchise/{{Superman}} once [[WritersCannotDoMath multiplied 10x20x16 and got 32,000]]. That wasn't just math, it was ''[[http://www.superdickery.com/middle-school-math-is-a-super-power-apparently/ Super Mathematics]]''.
* ''Franchise/{{Tintin}}'':
** Hergé was famous for his research, but made a serious error in ''[[Recap/TintinPrisonersOfTheSun Prisoners Of The Sun]]'': The Incas, with all their astronomical research, would have understood that a solar eclipse is not permanent. Hergé later regretted this scene and always wanted to correct it.
** The previous story, ''[[Recap/TintinTheSevenCrystalBalls The Seven Crystal Balls]]'', also contains a whopper, as the plot partly hinges on an inscription inside Rascar Capac's tomb which predicts that after many moons pale-faced invaders would violate it, but that they would be struck down by divine retribution. The Incas had no system of writing before learning Spanish and hence left no inscriptions. The original version of the story, serialized in ''Le Soir'', also contained a lead disc with symbols "resembling Aztec or Inca signs", but Hergé excised the panel that showed it and texts that mentioned it when the album version was produced, probably after learning that the Incas did not actually use lead in pre-Columbian times.
* The original authors of ''ComicBook/{{WITCH}}'' intended to set the series somewhere in America. This is obvious to an Italian, but they didn't bother to check on what an American city actually looks like, [[WhereTheHellIsSpringfield resulting in Americans and non-Europeans in general to wonder in which]] ''[[WhereTheHellIsSpringfield European]]'' [[WhereTheHellIsSpringfield country Heatherfield is]]. {{Averted|Trope}} by the cartoon version: in spite of being made in France, the staff of the animated series ''did'' do the research, and Heatherfield is recognizable as an American town.
* Chuck Austen's ComicBook/XMen story "Holy War" has the villain invoking a plot involving faking The Rapture and how it will devastate the Catholic Church. Both Havoc and Nightcrawler discuss the Rapture as a key part of the Catholic tenet. Austen seemed unable to do ten seconds of research to learn that The Rapture is not recognized by the Catholic Church; the belief is held primarily by American Evangelicals. ([[FridgeLogic On the other hand]] - if the Rapture really happened it ''would'' shatter the Catholic eschatology.)
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* ''FanFic/DumbledoresArmyAndTheYearOfDarkness'': If Thanfiction knew enough about Demiguises to include them in DAYD, he should have known enough about them to not portray them as invisible ''goats'' when they're invisible ''apes''.
* In ''Fanfic/MoonDaughter'', the author classifies dryads and satyrs as monsters. Also, [[MarySue Flavia]] claims that Literature/{{Percy Jackson|AndTheOlympians}} killed Luke.
* ''Fanfic/MyLittleUnicorn'': Dakari-King Mykan gets the most basic facts about ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' wrong. The author believes Rainbow Dash has magic and doesn't know who Derpy Hooves is.
* In ''Fanfic/SakiAfterStory'', the mahjong games in the tournament are presented as one-on-one, rather than four-player games. Additionally, the last match of the tournament is Saki against Teru, while in canon, Saki is the captain and Teru is the vanguard, meaning that Teru would face Yuuki, while Saki would face Awai.
* The author of ''WebAnimation/{{RWBY}}'' fic ''[[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/10154960/1/She-couldn-t-understand She couldn't understand]]'' admits to never having watched the series. And it shows.
-->'''Fic!Blake''': [''To Adam, [[EstablishingCharacterMoment a mass murderer of civilians in canon]]''] I've always been selfish, while you're selfless.
* From a ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'' fanfic: "At the next intersection, Dean turns left, [[http://community.livejournal.com/fanficrants/9652102.html heading south into the setting sun."]] (Which would only work if he were driving right on top of the north pole.)
* FanFic/SupperSmashBrosMishonhFromGod shows various examples in relation to the games that Smash Bros are based upon. The most egregious examples are in 'The REEL Sekwel', where she believes VideoGame/{{Pacman}} is a Franchise/{{Pokemon}} and [[VideoGame/FZero Captain Falcon]] is a villain in ''VideoGame/FireEmblem''.
* [[https://tellygunge.wordpress.com/archives/story-archive/by-tellygunge/ Tellygunge's]] [[RealPersonFic celebrity fics]] will often involve a scene where a character getting [[CoveredInGunge gunged]] suffers a WardrobeMalfunction (or a PantyShot) at some point, and the narrative [[ShowDontTell making a remark about how it would become a YouTube hit.]] Except that it wouldn't because nudity is banned on [=YouTube=].[[note]]While it is true that the rules are often ignored by users, they would still be enforced for a viral hit because the large amount of views would cause [=YouTube=] to take notice of it.[[/note]] From the policy centre:
-->''Videos containing fetish content will be removed or age-restricted depending on the severity of the act in question. In most cases, violent, graphic, or humiliating fetishes are not allowed to be shown on [=YouTube=].''\\
''A video that contains nudity or other sexual content may be allowed if the primary purpose is educational, documentary, scientific, or artistic, and it isn’t gratuitously graphic. For example, a documentary on breast cancer would be appropriate, but posting clips out of context from the same documentary might not be.''
* The ''Series/StarTrekVoyager'' fan-fic ''FanFic/TheMysteriousCaseOfNeelixsLungs'' is being written by two people who admit that they have not actually seen the show in full, and thus is full of mistakes. Which would be perfectly excusable for an average fanfic, except that these two are presenting it as a "fixer fic" for the show. As a result, half the "flaws" they're trying to rescue the show from are things that were already fixed onscreen when it [[GrowingTheBeard grew the beard]], while others are just blown out of proportion. Said flaws are "discussed" in author's notes that rant against the show and certain characters, getting facts blatantly wrong. To add the final dose of irony, the authors have been [[SmallNameBigEgo enthusiastically trying to promote their "fixer fic" on various websites, and seem to respond to constructive criticism like they think it's fan mail.]]
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Foodfight}}'' features main character Dex Dogtective, an [[PettingZooPeople anthropomorphic dog]] whose TrademarkFavoriteFood is raisins. It's a good thing that ''Foodfight!'' [[BoxOfficeBomb was seen by about six people]], because raisins are poisonous to dogs.
* ''WesternAnimation/AnAmericanTail'' has Tiger, the vegetarian cat. Cats are obligate carnivores, unable to survive without meat proteins. (Though he ''does'' mention that he has a little fish now and then.)
* ''WesternAnimation/TheRoadToElDorado'' [[BoxOfficeBomb flopped]] in large part because the Latin American market it aimed the most to already receives more information on the film's subject at school than the makers bothered to research for the movie:
** Hernán Cortés is introduced as a famous, feared figure recruiting a crew [[SmallReferencePools in Barcelona]] under the promise of finding large quantities of gold in the New World. In reality, Cortés was a nobody who had been living in Cuba for 10 years before the governor sent him west under orders of establishing trade with the natives.
** Cortés does refer to Cuba in the movie, however - when he [[KickTheDog threatens]] to sell Tulio and Miguel there as slaves, to work in the canefields. It was illegal to enslave a Christian under Spanish law (nevermind a ''Spanish'' Christian) and even worse, Cuban cane production was negligible at the time. He should have [[ScareEmStraight scared them straight]] by telling them that they were going to become convict laborers in mines or galleys, both considered AFateWorseThanDeath in the movie's time period.
** Eldorado arose as a myth ''after'' Cortés conquered Mexico (and Pizarro conquered Peru). It was presumably located in South America, not Mesoamerica.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* ''Film/AlienVsPredator'': The archaeologist Sebastian refers to the Aztec calendar as using the long count, which was used by the Mayans, not the Aztec. He says the calendar is metric (decimal), when The Aztec calendar is base 20. He can also read and translate centuries old hieroglyphics from a civilization that is supposed to be a composite written language based on a mix of Egyptian, Cambodian, and Aztec languages. Cambodia is from the 9th century Khmer Empire, which was not around early enough to meet the ancient Egyptian or Aztec civilizations. There have been 900 year old cities uncovered in Angkor Wat, though even if such an ancient Cambodian civilization existed, it's unlikely someone could glance at an unfamiliar language that they have just discovered and translate it in a few seconds, just because it appears to be based on three different languages, which would probably resemble the source languages even less than before, and not be recognizable enough to be translated so easily. Sebastian would have to figure out the meanings of the written characters and the correct grammar structure, which would probably have changed significantly from their original context. Given the AnthropicPrinciple, it appears Sebastian happened to be studying the appropriately compatible form of ancient Aztec, this ancient Cambodian language, and ancient Egyptian previously in order to become familiar enough to translate this composite language on the spot.
* ''Film/TheAmazingColossalMan'' features ''a scientist'' who claims that "the heart is made up of a single cell."[[note]]They probably got the "single cell" thing from the fact that heart muscle is "syncytial," meaning that its cells are not separated by membranes.[[/note]]
* The {{tagline}} of the film ''Film/{{Biggles}}'' is "Meet Jim Ferguson. He lived a daring double-life with one foot in the 20th century and the other in UsefulNotes/WorldWarI." World War I happened in the 20th century.
* ''Film/CourageUnderFire'':
** The writer admits that when he wrote the script, which involves a female military officer who died in the first Gulf War becoming "the first female Medal of Honor recipient", he didn't even bother to check whether or not there already was a woman who had that honor. Turns out that Captain Mary Edwards Walker, a US Army doctor, won the award during the Civil War, some 130+ years before ''Film/CourageUnderFire'' was set, when she refused to leave patients she was treating despite the fact that her field hospital was being actively shelled by the confederate army.
** A near-identical case happens in ''Film/AViewToAKill'', when James Bond is presented with the Soviet Order of Lenin and described as the first foreign recipient of the USSR's highest decoration, when Italian communist politician Luigi Longo received it many, many years earlier.
* The ''[=MST3K=]''-featured film ''Film/DevilFish'' has a rather infuriating example when a character who is supposed to be an expert is playing a slideshow of prehistoric marine life--mostly animals contemporaneous to, or even predating, the dinosaurs. We're then told they lived in the "Cetaceous" period (pronounced like 'cetacean'), which was two hundred years ago--not two hundred million, ''two hundred''.
* ''Film/DieHard2'':
** If you have even a cursory knowledge of airports, the entire plot will fall flat on its face. It relies on the whole cast not knowing that all of those airliners flying around without a working runway can just fly to another airport. The movie tries to explain this by saying that the nearest other airport is shut down because of the snowstorm, but if those airliners are carrying enough fuel to circle the sky for ''two hours'', they can just fly to an airport further away.\\
\\
For reference, Washington, D.C., where the film takes place, has two airports: Dulles International (the target of the terrorist plot) and Reagan National (the one that's shut down). It is bordered by two U.S. states, Virginia and Maryland, which have multiple airports that the planes could easily fly to within two hours. In that time, one can ''drive'' to Richmond, Virginia or Baltimore, Maryland and find airports. In fact, one of Baltimore's airports, BWI, is a half-hour drive from D.C. One would notice all this just by looking at a map. This doesn't even take into account the military airfields in the area which would be able to accept planes in an emergency.
** It also features a scene where the hero claims that the criminals were carrying Glock handguns that are invisible to airport scanners because they are not made of metal. Even accepting this ludicrous premise (a Glock is about 87% steel in reality and cannot get through an X-ray or metal detector), anyone would know that bullets are made of metals such as lead (there's a reason the phrase "Eat lead!" refers to bullets), and would thus set off metal detectors regardless of what the gun carrying them is made of.
* The kids' movie ''Literature/FiveChildrenAndIt'' features a scene in which an eccentric math teacher is about to discover that kid-related shenanigans have been going on, while one of the kids is desperately trying to distract him by finding the answer to a complicated sum. The kid eventually announces that the answer is "3,486,522." The teacher beams "Ah! A prime number of the Siemens series!" and is successfully distracted. Admittedly, the average person might not know that there's no such thing as the "Siemens series" in mathematics, but anyone who ''entered'' high school would notice that 3,486,522 is even, and ''2'' is the only even prime.
* ''Franchise/{{Godzilla}}'' franchise:
** For all the good things we can say about the [[Film/{{Gojira}} Japanese cut]] of the first ''Franchise/{{Godzilla}}'', it's still got a pretty glaring one of these when Prof. Yamane says that dinosaurs lived 2 million years ago, when any child could tell you that they went extinct 65 million years ago.
** Any and all films in the franchise can be expected to turn out half a dozen examples of this trope when trying to explain how Godzilla can exist. [[ILoveNuclearPower Nuclear bombs]] inevitably play a large role in his presence.
* At one point in ''Film/JupiterAscending'', Jupiter uses a maxi pad as a makeshift band-aid for Caine's wound. That in and of itself is not a bad idea[[note]]The disposable absorbent pad was actually developed to treat battlefield wounds and quickly adapted for women's hygiene.[[/note]], but she applies ''the sticky side'' to the wound, not the side actually designed for absorbing blood. One would think her actress, Creator/MilaKunis, would know herself which side does which.
* The magic ticket from ''Film/LastActionHero'' is said to come from Creator/HarryHoudini. This couldn't be farther from reality, since Houdini was a staunch opponent of all things supernatural and acted pretty much like a debunker would today.
* ''Film/TheMatrix''
** Morpheus's exposition that people are kept in suspended animation because they were needed as batteries for the machines is such an egregious violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics that it makes everyone with just a cursory knowledge of physics groan. The original treatment had the brains of humans used as sub-processors, which is at least defensible, but thought to be too complicated for moviegoers.
** Agent Smith mentions his contempt for humans, claiming that humans are the only creatures that don't instinctively seek an equilibrium to stop population growth, saying they are more like viruses than mammals. Many mammals have gone extinct through overpopulation, when something happens to the population of their predators.
* In a slightly more esoteric Critical Research Failure, ''Film/NumbersStation'' has the transmissions being read live by a real person, who's also the one doing the encoding--in her head, for all that she has a perfectly good computer on her desk. Modern NumbersStations only use live readers if their voice synthesizers break, and it would be a critical ''security'' failure to allow anyone who's ever seen leaving the bunker to see the clear-text versions of the messages. Plus, a computer can do the encoding much faster, and with no possibility of error.
* In ''Film/PatchAdams'', the title character is ranting at God after [[spoiler:love interest Carin dies]]. At one point, he laments that of all the creatures on Earth, humans are the only ones who kill their own kind. Ever watched the Creator/DiscoveryChannel, Patch? It'd be more accurate to say that humans are the only ones who feel bad about it.
* ''Film/ThePeacemaker'': In this film dealing entirely with [[WhyWeAreBummedCommunismFell problems arising from]] the [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp fall of the Soviet Union]], the writers don't bother to check a post-Soviet map of the world, and include crossings of the non-existent Russo-Iranian and Russo-Turkish borders as critical plot points.
* In ''Film/Plan9FromOuterSpace'', [[HumanAliens Eros]] informs the heroes that "a ray of sunlight is made up of many atoms." Light is made of photons.
* If you know ''anything at all'' about [[{{Mayincatec}} Aztecs]] or Myth/AztecMythology, you're doing better than the creators of ''Film/PumaMan''. To take but one example, Stonehenge is apparently an Aztec artifact according to this movie.
* ''Film/SavingMrBanks'' has a moment where P.L. Travers is given a stuffed animal of Disney's design of Franchise/WinnieThePooh, and bemoans the quality of the Disney shorts. ''Saving Mr. Banks'' is a film about the ''making'' of ''Film/MaryPoppins''. The ''first'' of Disney's Winnie the Pooh shorts wasn't released until a full year ''after'' Mary Poppins had been released.
* ''Film/{{Swordfish}}'': Gabriel Shear rants about ''Film/DogDayAfternoon'', and how he would have liked it to end differently, with hostages being shot, yet ''Dog Day Afternoon'' was based on a real event, and made an effort to depict those events realistically. Though not confirmed as intentional, this might as well be a demonstration of how out of touch the villain is.
* ''Film/ThisIslandEarth'' has this line: "It's only Neutron. We call him that because he's so positive." Neutrons of course have no charge.
* Creator/RolandEmmerich's disaster movie ''Film/TwoThousandTwelve'':
** [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hz86TsGx3fc This trailer]] for the film refers to the Mayans as "mankind's earliest civilization" within the first ten seconds. The Chinese, Sumerians, Babylonians, Greeks, and Egyptians are some of the many who say otherwise--also the Olmecs, who came up with the Long Count calendar all the brouhaha comes from in the first place.
** The film also attributes the apocalypse to mutating neutrinos. Neutrinos cannot mutate. Dara O Briain was able to spin this into a very successful comedy routine, also noting that for all the explanation's value they might as well have said 'The Latinos have mutated'.
* Another Emmerich film, ''Film/{{Anonymous}}'', has Edward de Vere show off his garden bush of Tudor roses... [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_rose a flower that has never existed as a real plant, only a figurative symbol]]. It's an error that must have been impossible for the director to ignore, since if the plant does not exist, a faked one must have been put onscreen. If they had to make a fake one, then why are they claiming it's a real flower in a film that claims to be based on history?! This is not even getting into the film's claims about De Vere writing Shakespeare's plays...
* ''Film/VantagePoint'': Moroccan radicals want to assassinate the President of the United States. Why are they speaking Spanish and have Spanish names?
** Well, part of Morocco ''was'' a Spanish colony [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_protectorate_in_Morocco at one point.]]
* In ''Film/BatmanVSupermanDawnOfJustice'', Franchise/{{Batman}} frequently commits murder with firearms without showing any major signs of guilt. To justify this incarnation of Batman's use of guns, Zack Snyder claimed in an [[http://www.heyuguys.com/exclusive-zack-snyder-explains-detail-dark-knight-kills-batman-v-superman/ interview]] that ''[[ComicBook/BatmanTheDarkKnightReturns The Dark Knight Returns]]'' incarnation of Batman "kills all the time" and stole a criminal's machine gun before he "shoots the guy right between the eyes with the machine gun". However, as the interview's comments section makes clear, this never happens in the comic: Batman takes a mutant's gun, and shoots the wall next to another mutant so that she gives up a baby. Neither mutant is killed, as shown [[http://a.disquscdn.com/uploads/mediaembed/images/3402/3190/original.jpg here]] and [[http://a.disquscdn.com/uploads/mediaembed/images/3402/3192/original.jpg here]]. The same mutant shows up perfectly alive later on to confirm that Batman did not shoot her. Furthermore, ''The Dark Knight Returns'' incarnation of Batman [[http://a.disquscdn.com/uploads/mediaembed/images/3400/805/original.jpg blatantly]] DoesntLikeGuns, and it is repeated several times in the graphic novel that no matter what happens to him, Batman [[ThouShaltNotKill cannot be pushed into killing]].
* Near the end of ''Film/AlvinAndTheChipmunks Road Chip'', [[TheSmartGuy Simon]] claims that there's no such thing as 1000%. As any child whose passed ''5th grade math'' could tell you, percentage is a numerator built on relative quantity. Claiming that 1000% doesn't exist is roughly equivalent to saying the number ten doesn't exist.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Literature]]
* Creator/DanBrown:
** ''Literature/AngelsAndDemons'', while famed for [[DanBrowned a sister trope]], has an example. The book claims that the Catholic Church copied communion (eating God) from the Aztecs. Even young children know that Europeans and natives of the more southerly regions of the Americas didn't meet until UsefulNotes/ChristopherColumbus' famous voyage of 1492... and that Christianity predates that voyage by about one thousand four hundred and sixty years. Also, the liturgies used by Orthodox Christians include communion, and some of them were composed by St. John Chrysostom, who ''died'' in 407 AD — four centuries before the beginnings of the Toltecs, the earliest civilization with any direct ties to the people we call Aztecs. He actually got something backwards here: it was Aztec religious leaders who jumped on board with communion. They would occasionally cannibalize sacrifice victims to obtain the dead person's powers, so a ceremony eating a god appealed to them.
*** Another one is Gunther Glick, the so-called "British" journalist. Amongst several indications that Glick is an American pretending to be British (and failing badly at it), in an ImagineSpot about his future success he likens himself to Dan Rather. Even granted that his career in journalism makes him one of the very few Brits who have heard of Rather, somebody who imagines their own future success will liken themselves with someone with whom they're familiar (in this case, Trevor [=McDonald=]), not someone who is just a name or a face on a few video clips.
** ''Literature/DigitalFortress'':
*** The novel portrays the entire NSA, the world's preeminent codebreaking organization, scrambling around trying to figure out the answer to a simple riddle that anyone who took high school chemistry could easily figure out. On top of that, the answer to said riddle printed in the book is ''wrong''.
*** The novel depicts Spain (and, specifically, Seville) as something resembling a Third World hellhole with, among other things, Spaniards unable to have normal wounds treated in hospitals.
*** The Cathedral of Seville and its belltower, the Giralda, is a climatic location in the novel. Brown describes the cathedral as "11th century Gothic" and claims that it was built like a fortress with a single door to fend off attacks from the Moors. [[AnachronismStew Gothic architecture is from the 12th century]]. [[ArtisticLicenseHistory The cathedral is from the 15th]]. It was built with the express purpose of being the largest cathedral in Christendom and boasts seven massive gates; at the time this happened the Moors were a hundred miles away and incapable of threatening it (and if they could, hiding in a church with a single entrance and no possibility of escape doesn't make a sensible strategy). In the 11th century? The city was ''ruled by'' the Moors, who obviously were in no hurry to build cathedrals. The Giralda in the novel has narrow, dangerous steps, while in real life it is famous for having no stairs but ramps expressly built to allow horses to climb to the top. The chase scene begins when all the parishioners get up to receive communion as soon as mass begins; in Catholic mass, communion is administered near the end.
** TheDragon in ''Literature/TheDaVinciCode'' is EvilAlbino marksman Silas, whose {{backstory}} includes getting arrested for murder in a port city of his native France, being sent to prison in Andorra, escaping during an earthquake and falling asleep in a train to Oviedo, Spain where he is rescued by a missionary from Madrid, Manuel Aringarosa, who has been sent to build a church for Opus Dei with his bare hands. Aringarosa names him Silas after Paul's companion because of his miraculous escape from jail during an earthquake. [[DanBrowned Once again]], Dan Brown manages to hit [[TheyJustDidntCare all the wrong notes]] at once:
*** Albinism causes bad eyesight and even worse marksmanship.
*** Andorra is its own country, not a special prison for French citizens.
*** There is no train in Andorra. The nearest line goes to Barcelona and would need several train changes to reach Oviedo.
*** The very idea of someone sending a Catholic missionary to Asturias, the historical and religious heart of Spain, is ridiculous (a Spanish saying goes that 'Asturias is Spain, and the rest conquered country'). Oviedo is not the village claimed in the book but a city and the seat of an archdiocese, home to a 400 year-old archbishop's palace and over 60 churches and chapels.
*** Opus Dei is a lay order and does not have churches of their own. If this is supposed to be a Catholic church, its construction would be ordered by the head of the diocese, that is, Oviedo's archbishop, not someone in Madrid.
*** The biblical Silas was in jail with Paul when an earthquake hit the prison. He did not escape (he was on the stocks, like Paul), and neither did any other prisoner because everyone chose to continue hearing their preaching rather than gaining their freedom.
* In ''Literature/TheBFG'', the eponymous Big Friendly Giant [[WriterOnBoard goes on a rant]] about how HumansAreBastards because they're the only [[ApeShallNeverKillApe species that kill members of the same species]]. In reality, intraspecies killing (and cannibalism) has been common in many animals other than humans. [[spoiler:He gets proven wrong when the other giants try to kill him.]]
* Robert E. Howard's Literature/BranMakMorn series contains an absolute howler, when the main character leads the barbarian tribes of England to a crushing victory against the Romans through use of the alien tactic of the shield-wall:
--> This was the first time the Roman legions had met with that unbreakable formation - that oldest of all Aryan battle-lines - the ancestor of the Spartan regiment - the Theban phalanx - the Macedonian formation - the English square.[[note]]A cursory look in a history-book at a Roman legionnaire, with his big, rectangular shield ''explicitly designed for shield-wall tactics'', will tell you exactly what is wrong with this picture. [[/note]]
** And the Macedonian general Pyrrhus had gone to war with Rome two and a half centuries before the Romans invaded Britain. Pyrrhus's troops employed "that unbreakable formation ... the Macedonian formation" in that war, and ended up being rather badly broken in the last battle. The Romans went on to beat phalanxes very often in the next century, conquering Greece.
* Jacqueline Rayner's ''Series/{{Doctor Who|Expanded Universe}}'' novel, ''The Last Dodo'', features "Mervin, the missing link between fish and mammals", which is just what it sounds like it should be. The thing is, we already ''know'' the steps between fish and mammals -- they're best known as ''amphibians and reptiles''.
** The back cover for ''Doctor Who and the Silurians'' describes ''TyrannosaurusRex'' as a 40-foot-tall ''mammal''. [[note]]And, of course, the character is [[IAmNotShazam not named Doctor Who]], but this error came from the title of the original serial.[[/note]]
* The author of ''Literature/DragonsLexiconTriumvirate'' tries to make Dennagon seem smart by making him recite scientific facts. This backfires at times, such as when he claims that "velocity is distance ''multiplied'' by time".
* ''Literature/EndersGame'': Col. Graff says they're looking for the generation-changing human like those who invented "the wheel. And light. And flight." Except nobody invented ''light''. If he had said "the lightbulb" or "lights", then his statement would hold. Guess Graff just wanted to rhyme.
** Even accepting light as meaning 'electric lighting', the latter two were invented by relatively large groups of people intentionally trying to create a specific effect long known to be realistically possible, and given that it was independently invented in several widely separate areas and adapted from an existing technology (pottery wheels) the same probably applies to the wheel. None of them were invented by a single inventor or researcher with special insight.
* Creator/LaurenKate has a lot of factual errors in her ''Fallen'' series.
** In ''Rapture'' there is a following scene: Moscow, 1930s, (Orthodox) church of Christ the Saviour. The main character is waiting for a mass to start. The church is full of waxed wooden pews and organs are playing. First of all, there were no masses in this church at that time, since Stalin's regime was actively fighting religious belief. Secondly, in Orthodox churches are very few benches, usually at the back, for elderly or ill people. The rest stand during the whole mass (and kneel, when appropriate). Thirdly, there are no organs in Orthodox churches. Or any other musical instruments. People sing and that's all.
** Also ''Rapture''. Egypt 3100 BCE. The Egyptians use iron chains. No, they still used bronze.
** ''Fallen in Love''. Mediaeval English village smells of boiling potatoes. Wrong, since potatoes first appeared in Europe in 16th century and became food staple even later.
** ''Unforgiven''. A girl from a Danite tribe in 1000 BCE presumably can read and write, since her father gives her a book with "parchment pages" to write her songs in. Impossible.
** Also ''Unforgiven''. The author describes "Russian samovar" as if it was a device to keep food hot - one of the characters takes the lid off and inside is an iron skillet with shakshuka. Wrong. Samovars are like kettles, they have always been used to boil water (traditionally for tea only) and then keep it hot.
* ''Literature/FiftyShadesOfGrey'':
** E. L. James' incorrect depiction of BDSM (she doesn't seem to grasp that the sub's consent every step of the way matters, that Christian Grey's constant state of rage does not indicate self-control at all, or that any alleged dom who lashes out at his partner in anger as he so often does would be blacklisted by those in the Lifestyle).
** At one point, Ana drives south from Vancouver, Washington to get to Seattle, which is ''north'' of Vancouver[[note]]There ''is'' a Vancouver north of Seattle, but that Vancouver is in ''Canada''.[[/note]].
** In ''Fifty Shades Darker'':
*** Christian's personal private investigator tells him that [[PsychoExGirlfriend Leila]] [[BrokenBird Williams]] has obtained a concealed-carry permit for a gun. Ana concludes (and Christian agrees) that this means that Leila can simply buy a gun. A concealed-carry permit has nothing to do with whether someone can buy a gun. Second, when it comes to concealed weapons—and by the way, there are states where having pepper spray in your purse is considered "carrying a concealed weapon"—Washington state is what is known as a "shall-issue" jurisdiction. That means that yes, you can get a concealed weapons license—but you have to meet very strict criteria. [[http://www.dol.wa.gov/business/firearms/faconcealreq.html Leila does not qualify for five reasons]]: she is on record as Christian's stalker, and has been for a year; he has a restraining order against her and she's not supposed to come anywhere near him; she has been involuntarily committed to a mental institution; she is a fugitive from ''two'' mental institutions; and she's been on suicide watch since Grey broke off the relationship with her.\\
\\
Also, in Washington state, Leila needs the following just to ''apply'' for a concealed-carry permit: a valid, government-issued photo identification (for example, Washington driver license or ID card). If you don’t have a Washington State driver license or ID card, you must provide proof you have lived in the state for at least the last 90 days. Well, Leila has neither a Washington driver's license nor a state ID, and not only hasn't she lived in the state for ninety days, she's a fugitive.\\
\\
That's leaving out the problem of her buying the gun legally in the first place.\\
\\
Just to apply for a concealed-carry permit, Leila would have to walk into a county sheriff's office or a town/city police department. The sheriff or cops would fingerprint her and do a background check. For a non-resident of Washington, that would take about sixty days. Yet she is supposed to have obtained the concealed-carry permit the day before...despite having first been confirmed to have been in the state the previous Thursday. The timeline just doesn't fit.
*** Ana says that Christian is "intent on being first to market with a wind-up mobile phone." Well, he's not going to succeed. Know why? [[http://www.gizmag.com/ulysse-nardin-mechanical-mobile-phone/11228/ Because Swiss watchmakers Ulysse Nardin teamed up with European company SCI Innovations to develop the world’s first mechanical mobile phone...in 2009]]. It's 2011, in-universe. He's trying to develop something that's already in ''existence''.
*** Mia Grey, Christian's sister, tells Ana that he was expelled from two different schools for beating up other students. There would have to be a hearing before expulsion, and his parents would have to specifically waive the hearing—which it's unlikely his lawyer father would do. And if there was a hearing, [[http://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=392-400-285 here are all the rights Christian would have had]]. Expulsion's not casual and it doesn't happen instantly. [[http://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=392-400-310 There's also an appeals process]].\\
\\
Here's the reason for keeping a kid out of school in Washington state while he's appealing his expulsion. The kid is "[[http://app.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=72-120-210 an immediate and continuing danger to the student, other students, or school personnel or an immediate and continuing threat of substantial disruption of the educational process of the student's school]]." So Christian isn't some "[[TroubledButCute poor sad disturbed boy]]"--''he's too dangerous to have in school''.
* Creator/MichaelCrichton's ''Literature/JurassicPark'':
** Many of Ian Malcolm's {{Author Tract}}s about how ScienceIsBad include whoppers, such as the idea that "cheating, lying, falsifying" and any kind of learning or discipline doesn't matter in science (it kinda does), and the howler that the intellectual justification for taking science seriously is dead because Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Godel's incompleteness theorem, and chaos theory prove we can't control everything, which is apparently all science is about. Other things are huge exaggerations and oversimplifications, such as the idea that "since Newton and Descartes" science has been explicitly about control. That's before it gets to the downright offensive portrayal of scientific discoverers with a not-so-subtle rape analogy.
** Dr Sattler reveals to the vet Gerry Harding that the Stegosaurus' pupils are dilated, which is treated as a mighty revelation rather than as evidence that he's clearly not a very good vet, since this is a basic test.
** The novel ends with the Costa Rican government sending in their military to bomb the island with napalm. The problem is that Costa Rica is notable for being the one country in the world that constitutionally forbids a national military. They wrote that constitution in 1949.
* In ''[[Literature/TheHeroesOfOlympus The Son of Neptune]]'', Octavian claims that 'sea travel has never been the Roman way'. This could just be written off as Octavian being a dickhead and wanting to screw up the quest, but the sum total of the Roman navy turns out to be exactly one very shoddy boat. While sea travel wasn't wholly embraced, saying that it was never 'the Roman way' is a ''massive'' error, and it begs the question of exactly how the Romans conquered places like Britain without ships.
** For a list of Roman fleets, [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_navy#Fleets click here]].
** The series then tops itself by claiming Minerva was a minor god to the Romans. Those of you who play ''Franchise/AssassinsCreed'' will be aware, she was one of the three deities important enough to warrant a statue on Capitol Hill. Those of us who are into Roman history know it too. Minerva was a very important goddess in Ancient Rome.
* There are two ''classic'' ones in ''Literature/LordOfTheFlies'':
** The boys use Piggy's glasses to focus the sun's rays and hence start a fire. Piggy is short-sighted; short sight is corrected with lenses of negative focal length, which cannot bring light to a point.
** In one scene, the sun is setting while a thin crescent moon rises. A moon which rises at or around sunset in the tropics can only be a full moon. It is entirely possible in further north though, which is what the author would be more familiar with.
* ''Literature/MaximumRide''. Anyone who knows anything about Game Boys could tell you that they don't have downloadable games, and certainly wouldn't have a bunch of them pre-installed if they did. And that you don't sell the display copy of a game console.
* In Julio Cortázar's story "The Pursuer" ("El Perseguidor"), the main character dies of an overdose of marijuana, which is impossible. [[http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_perseguidor#Cort.C3.A1zar_con_el_tema_de_la_marihuana Cortázar acknowledged this mistake]].
* Creator/LarryNiven is famous as an author of "hard" science fiction, but even he isn't immune to the occasional whopper. In ''Literature/{{Ringworld}}'', he gets the rotation of the Earth wrong in the first chapter, by having the hero teleport eastward around the Earth in order to extend his birthday. Eastward, as in ''toward sunrise''. This is fixed in later editions.
** The Ringworld itself is scientifically flawed. At least one reader pointed out that a solid ring-shaped object cannot orbit a sun, and would soon drift out of alignment and crash into it. This required a technological fix in later books in the series.
* Creator/SidneySheldon's ''The Sands of Time'': ''The riveting story of neverending war and liberal revolution by the Catholic Church against [[UsefulNotes/TheFrancoRegime Franco's dictatorship]] in Spain!'' The problem is that the Catholic Church was the main supporter - and beneficiary - of Franco's dictatorship. And the history of the Catholic Church ever backing anything that could be considered remotely liberal or revolutionary in Spain is somewhat lacking, to say the least.
** One thing the book [[ArcFatigue can't shut up about]] and keeps [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment bringing over and over and over]] is the claim of Francoist forces raping nuns, murdering priests and ransacking convents during the UsefulNotes/SpanishCivilWar and after. These were cornerstones of Francoist propaganda about what ''their enemies'' did. The apparent root of Sheldon's mistake is the (real) execution of 16 Basque priests by Franco's forces, but he is oblivious to the fact that these 16 were executed for being ''Basque nationalists'' and ''Republican loyalists'' as a result, not for being priests (or even Basque). In fact, one thing the Vatican is criticised about is that to this day [[NoTrueScotsman they still have to acknowledge these priests and others]] murdered by nationalist forces as victims, while they honor and beatify those murdered by republicans every few years.
** The [[SmallReferencePools only other]] opposition group in the novel is the Basque separatist group ETA (who seems to be made of about six people and is all about Basque autonomy, not independence). Though [[FamousNamedForeigner Famous-Named Foreigners]] are rampant through the novel (and when not, they are called [[SouthOfTheBorder Juanito]] or [[ElSpanishO Patricko]] - yep, with a 'k'), the only character with a Basque surname is Arrieta, the right hand man of the evil Spanish Colonel Acoca who hates Basques. The main ETA trio are named [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Aragon Jaime]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_Miro Miró]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lope_de_Vega Felix Carpio]] and Ricardo [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Gutierrez_Mellado Mellado]].
** Said ETA members are also vocal fans of Film/ElCid, [[TorosYFlamenco bullfighting, gazpacho and chorizos]]. In fact, everyone is such an [[EthnicScrappy over the top]] Spanish stereotype ([[UnfortunateImplications and so in love with ETA]], unless they are [[BlackAndWhiteMorality a member of the army or government]]) that readers should be excused for scratching their heads while wondering [[CompletelyMissingThePoint why is there a Basque identity at all]]. Though there is mention that the Basques "want their own language" (whatever this means), the only Basque words in the book are ETA's full name ''Euskadi ta Askatasuna'' -- and it's misspelled.
** The book is set one year after Franco's death, but there is no notion of political reform to come. In fact, the evil fictional prime minister that succeeds Franco seems to have greater powers than Franco himself, ordering hangings of separatists without even a mock trial, and gloating at his accession that his mandate will be the destruction of separatism. For added surreality, he's named and physically modeled after [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopoldo_Calvo-Sotelo Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo]], the blandest and most forgettable of Spain's heads of government after Franco.
** As for hanging, it was abolished as an execution method in Spain in 1828.
* In Creator/ChristopherPike's book ''The Secret of Ka'', basic errors abound in the first thirty pages alone:
** There is no desert outside of Istanbul. Indeed, the city is right on the water, lying on the rather famous Bosporus Strait, in fact.
** Istanbul is likewise portrayed as an extremely violent city, similar to popular portrayals of places like the Gaza Strip, which it isn't. It's also portrayed as the capital of Turkey, which it also isn't (it's Ankara).
** The narrator is scolded for saying "Hell" and "Christ," because she's in an Arab country. Turkey is a Muslim country, but not Arab.
** The only Turkish name in the entire book is the protagonist's friend's last name, Demir. Demir's first name is Amesh, an Indian name.
** Turks are described wearing turbans, if male, and burkas, if female. Neither is Turkish attire. Turkey is actually a very secular state that tries to keep Muslim influence to a minimum.
* In the '70s horror novel ''Literature/TheSentinel'', author Jeffrey Konvitz talks about translating ''Literature/ParadiseLost'' from the "original Latin".
* In the Literature/SisterhoodSeries by Creator/FernMichaels, ''Free Fall'' depicts ''Japan'' as a Third World country that sells kids to Americans for 100 American dollars. Again, that's ''Japan'', as in the country that was widely believed to be [[JapanTakesOverTheWorld taking over the world]] only a decade or two before the novel was written.
* ''Literature/TheSongOfRoland'' is both a classic piece of literature and proof that this trope is OlderThanPrint. It claims within the first few pages that Muslims worship "Apollin" (who is either [[Myth/ClassicalMythology Apollo]] or [[BigRedDevil Apollyon]] (or both)), "Mahomet" (Muhammad, a statement equivalent to claiming that Christians worship the saints or the Jews Abraham or Moses) and, perhaps most bafflingly of all, "Termagant" (a figure who seems to appear only as one of the "Moslem gods"). Early medieval troubadours didn't have access to Wikipedia, or even Wiki/TVTropes. All they had was garbled traveler's tales, accounts written by classical travelers, and the knowledge of what makes a good story. They worked with what they had, which wasn't extensive. It is also claimed that Charlemagne is 200 years old, and the ''The Song of Roland'' got major details about the story's historical battle wrong (such as who the two armies were).
* Literature/TheSookieStackhouseMysteries briefly mentions Hepatitis D as a disease that affects only vampires. Not only is it a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatitis_D real illness]], it'd been known about for 24 years before the first book came out. [[Series/TrueBlood The TV show]] dealt with this by changing the disease to Hepatitis V.
* In Richard Lewis's 1980 eco-horror novel ''The Spiders'', the author is constantly referring to the title creatures as "insects." Arachnids are significantly different from true insects.
* There's a ''Franchise/StarTrek'' book in which the author tried to convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius merely by subtracting 32, without dividing by 1.8 afterwards. As a result, a supposedly perfect paradise planet is said to have a mean surface temperature of a "pleasant 50 degrees centigrade". That's actually 122 degrees Fahrenheit.
* {{Tarzan}} fought [[MisplacedWildlife a tiger]] when the tale was first being released as a periodical. A reader complained that there are no tigers in Africa and E. R. Burroughs changed it to a lion in the novel version. Creator/{{Disney}}'s ''{{Disney/Tarzan}}'' went even further and changed the lion to a leopard, because lions live in open spaces and are thus absent from the thick, dense African jungle, while leopards can be found in both.
* Examples from the ''Literature/{{Twilight}}'' series, whose author, Creator/StephenieMeyer, has infamously bragged about doing as little research as possible. Garbled half-remembrances from high school abound:
** There's no way in ''HELL'' that a teacher would be allowed to administer a blood test without sending home permission slips informing parents ahead of time. Had Bella enrolled in school after the permission forms had been sent out and returned, chances are she would have been excluded from the experiment. And even failing that, no teacher who didn't want his pants sued off would ''grab a kid's finger and jab it with a needle''.
** Rosalie says that, as her father was a banker, her family wasn't hit at all by the Clutch Plague and still retained their wealth. Anyone who's ever taken a US History course would know that bankers were among the ''hardest'' hit by the Depression, because most of the banks failed.
** The fourth book refers to giving Alice "free reign" over the wedding preparations. The correct term is free ''rein'', derived from the technique of loosening a horse's reins so it can go where it likes -- i.e. you give someone free rein, you give them the freedom to do whatever they want. Although that usage still makes sense, Meyer still has the use of "reign" confused: later in the book a girl holds up a boy's hair "like reigns," and a reign with a G isn't something you can touch.
** In Chapter 19 of ''New Moon'', we get this passage about St. Marcus Day in Volterra, Italy: ''[Alice Cullen] chuckled darkly. "The city holds a celebration every year. As the legend goes, a Christian missionary, a Father Marcus — Marcus of the Volturi, in fact — drove all the vampires from Volterra fifteen hundred years ago. The story claims he was martyred in Romania, still trying to drive away the vampire scourge. Of course that's nonsense — he's never left the city. But that's where some of the superstitions about things like crosses and garlic come from. Father Marcus used them so successfully. And vampires don't trouble Volterra, so they must work."''
*** First, there was no "Christian missionary to Volterra" in the fifth century A.D. ''There was no need for one.'' Catholicism, which hadn't split into Roman Catholicism and the Greek Orthodox Church yet, was legalized by the Emperor Constantine in 313 A.D. (or Common Era, if you prefer). And it became the state religion of the Roman Empire in 382 A.D. As a matter of fact, [[http://www.turismo.intoscana.it/intoscana2/export/TurismoRTen/sito-TurismoRTen/Contenuti/province/PI/volterra/visualizza_asset.html_198747442.html during the fifth century CE, Volterra was the residence of a bishop]], and [[http://toscana.indettaglio.it/eng/comuni/pi/volterra/volterra.html the bishops kept that power in Volterra until the twelfth century]].
*** Second, Volterra ''does'' have a celebration every year in honor of their patron saint--[[http://www.tuscantour.com/tours/events.php San Giusto]]. St. Justus, it would be in English.
*** Third, the celebration isn't centered on the cathedral. There's a parade, a tug-of-war, and a city-wide foot race where participants hold lit candles while they run.
*** Fourth, it doesn't happen on March 19th, either--which is [[http://www.calendar-updates.com/info/holidays/us/stjoseph.aspx Saint Joseph's Day]], by the way. It takes place on June 5th, probably because the weather is nicer on that day than on Saint Justus's ''real'' feast day--[[http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-justus-of-trieste/ November 2nd]].
*** Fifth, Volterra's actual patron saint doesn't have a thing to do with vampires--not in his life, and not as a patron saint invoked against them. This is significant, because some saints are enemies of vampires. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Roch St. Roch is prayed to in Poland to keep vampires at bay]]. And [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gello#Gello_and_her_adversaries St. Sisinnius, the Virgin Mary and the Archangel Michael are invoked against the gello (a special kind of vampire-demon that steals and eats children)]].
*** Sixth, St. Marcus could not have been martyred in Romania in the fifth century CE, because Romania didn't ''exist'' then. Romania was formed from the provinces of Moldovia and Wallachia in 1859 and was named Romania in 1866. In the fifth century, the area would have been divided into two regions: Dacia Ripensis (a military province) and Dacia Mediterranea (a civil one). Dacia Ripensis flourished particularly well, becoming the birthplace of a noted fourth-century Christian theologican. Then it was captured in the 440s--the fifth century, in other words--by the Huns.
** Meyer's research failures extend to not even glancing at a globe. In ''Breaking Dawn'', Edward and Bella honeymoon on the west coast of Brazil -- Brazil only has an east coast.
** For all that Bella [[InformedAbility supposedly]] reads the classics, she sure doesn't get much right about them. In ''New Moon'', she contemplates what would have happened if Romeo had fallen in love with "Rosalind" instead. [[Theatre/AsYouLikeIt Rosalind was from a different play than Romeo entirely]]--[[Theatre/RomeoAndJuliet Rosaline is the character Romeo initially takes a shining to.]] Worse, this mistake happens ''twice'', meaning Meyer's editor missed it both times, as well.
** And then there's Jasper Hale.
*** First off, according to Chapter 13 of Eclipse, Jasper is described as being nineteen and the youngest major in Texas. Sorry, Meyer, but he wasn't. At least three guys who signed up circa 1861 at the age of sixteen or seventeen received battlefield commissions to captain, major, colonel and even general within the next two years. Apparently it was pretty easy to get promoted during the Civil War; if an officer in your unit died and you brought back most of the men alive, you tended to move up in rank. Also, the youngest major ''general'' in the Confederacy--a guy who outranked a brigadier general--was twenty-three. So Jasper being a plain old regular Confederate major at nineteen means very little.
*** However, it's unlikely that Jasper got any battlefield promotions, because Jasper was a Confederate major ''in Texas''. Until about mid-1863, Texas was largely a supply depot. Know how many Civil War battles were fought in Texas? ''Five''. And four involved naval operations.
** Jasper also says that on the night he was turned--which he claims that he remembers very clearly--he was moving some civilians to Houston and then went off to Galveston to round up the last ones. The problem with this? Galveston is in the opposite direction from Houston, its harbor had been blockaded since the war started, and oh, yeah, '''it's an island'''. How he thought he was going to get across the harbor, past the blockade, onto the island and back again without any help or transportation remains a mystery.
** Chapter 14 of ''Literature/{{Twilight}}'' says that Rosalie found Emmett when he was being mauled by a grizzly bear in Appalachia. WordOfGod says that [[http://twilightlexicon.com/2006/03/11/personal-correspondance-1/ he was living in Gatlinburg, Tennessee at the time]]. The problem is that there aren't any grizzlies in Tennessee and haven't been for hundreds of years. There ''are'' bears in Tennessee, yes--but they're black bears, which are rather shy of humans.
%%Unless you have a page citation, don't add anything about a supposed "west coast of Brazil" mistake unless you have proof that it actually happened.%%
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* ''Series/AllyMcBeal'', another Creator/DavidEKelley show, makes many legal errors, but the law firm is shown to be "functionally corrupt" and ethically questionable in many ways. Why every single other person in the entire bloody legal system plays by the same rules, on the other hand, is an open question.
* One episode of ''Series/TheBigBangTheory'' has Sheldon wanting to become friends with his [[SitcomArchNemesis rival]] Kripke because Kripke could grant him access to special equipment. He goes to a book store and asks for books about making friends, and is told that all those books are in the children's section. Apparently the writers have never heard of the world famous book "How to Win Friends and Influence People," or the concept of self help books in general.
* The British "historical" drama miniseries ''Series/{{Bonekickers}}'' was so rife with simple factual errors, WebVideo/DiamandaHagan deliberately avoided doing research herself when reviewing it, reasoning that she could get more than enough material to criticize just from what she passively knew was wrong. She was correct.
* ''Series/BostonLegal'' frequently makes errors obvious to even non-lawyers. Lawyers routinely meet with judges without the presence of opposing counsel, evidence that has nothing to do with the case is introduced at the last minute, and the same firm occasionally represents ''both'' sides in a case.
* In the 2012 episode of ''Brad Meltzer's Decoded'', Brad brings up the prophecy of the "Blue Star Kachina" and mentions how NASA has recently discovered an actual blue star. They go on as if it was possible for an actual honest-to-goodness ''star'' to hit the Earth come December 21, 2012, ''and ask a NASA guy about it''.
* ''Series/BuffyTheVampireSlayer'': In "Bewitched, Bothered & Bewildered" Amy casts a love spell by invoking Diana whom she describes as "goddess of love and the hunt". While Diana was indeed the Roman goddess of the hunt, anyone could tell you that Venus was the goddess of love. What's more is that Diana was one of three goddesses who swore never to marry. The closest she comes to being associated with love is becoming a goddess of childbirth in other myths. Of course, this could be why the spell goes so badly wrong, but it was more likely a coincidence since, like some other creators named on this page, Joss Whedon boasted about not doing any research.
* In the "killer gamers" episode of ''Series/CSIMiami'', the bad guys are basing their crimes on the plot of [[UltraSuperDeathGoreFestChainsawer3000 a video game]]. [[PacManFever The only way the team can find out what happens next is to play the game.]] Anyone who has ever set foot in a video game store has seen shelves full of [[StrategyGuide Official Strategy Guides]] proclaiming "All Secrets Revealed!" on their covers. And Website/GameFAQs and other online sites, which will reveal those secrets for free! Failing that, you could probably find a [[LetsPlay playthrough]] on Website/YouTube.
* An episode of ''Series/{{CSINY}}'' had a corrupt ex-coroner who'd been stealing organs and tissues for a reason other than organ theft: to process them for the drugs they contained; the victims were all dead drug addicts from cases that came through his morgue. There wouldn't be enough of the drug left to get out, and it would be difficult to do so.
* ''Series/{{Dexter}}'' would sometimes look up potential victims of his prey, as well as their victims, on his ''police computer at the police station''. Even if the computer's search history itself wasn't monitored, the police databases he would pull this info from had to be protected enough to keep tabs on who keeps asking for information...
* ''Series/DoctorWho'' can get away with a fair bit; but sometimes the only reaction to something has to be "no it isn't". In "The Impossible Planet", the Doctor and Rose find themselves on the eponymous planet, which apparently is so-called because it's in orbit about a black hole. Which is ''perfectly'' possible; a planet can orbit a black hole as easily as it can orbit any other massive body. What would be much more difficult would be to remain ''hovering'' over the hole, while material in the hole's accretion disk (which is in orbit) continually blows over it. That's actually the situation in the story, but somewhere along the way the exposition fell over and sprained an ankle.
** An even more egregious example came in the 2014 episode "Kill The Moon" which shamelessly breaks the WillingSuspensionOfDisbelief several times over.
*** The Moon's mass increasing tenfold caused "high tide everywhere at once". Quite apart from the question of where the extra water is supposed to come from, anyone who knows anything about lunar tides knows that they bulge out along the line to the moon, not in all directions. Also, the Moon having an Earth-like gravity should have made a tidally-locked binary system.
*** The "giant [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment single celled prokaryotic]] bacteria" has teeth, hair, saliva, and joints, which are features too complex for a prokaryotic organism, and downright impossible to have if the entire thing is just one cell.
*** The entire concept of the Moon being an egg. An egg is a closed system with the same mass from when it's laid to when it hatches, meaning the Moon could not have just suddenly gained extra mass out of nowhere.
*** The egg breaking apart harmlessly, despite logic dictating that the gigantic shell bits should now rain down on Earth as fire meteor chunks. Also, the strange lack of flooded continents, despite tides having been mentioned as a problem.
*** The egg creature flying away at the end, by flapping its "wings". In space. Which is a vacuum. There is no possible way flapping wings can gain any propulsion without mass to propel against.
* On January 18, 2012, the commercials for ''Series/EntertainmentTonight'' previewed a story about the Concordia cruise ship capsizing disaster, which they called "The RealLife [[Film/{{Titanic1997}} Titanic]]". [[AluminumChristmasTrees One would think the real-life Titanic]] would be, well, ''[[UsefulNotes/RMSTitanic the Titanic]]''.
* ''Series/TheFlash2014'' episode "The Sound and the Fury" is full of chess metaphors, but the actual game between Harrison and Hartley disregards the rules. Harrison, in check, moves his rook in front of Hartley's king, which is illegal because it doesn't remove the threat to his own king. Even if it were legal, it would only put Hartley in check because Hartley could have taken Harrison's rook with his knight.
* ''Series/{{Forever}}'': In "Hitler on the Half-Shell", we see Henry's flashback to 1812, where he learned his father was involved with the slave trade. However, it had been abolished in 1807, and there's no indication this is illegal trading.
** This builds on the error in the pilot episode, in which Henry is shown on a ship carrying a black man described as "property" some time after 1814 (Henry narrates his first death as "almost two centuries ago" speaking from 2014). To add insult to injury, the ship is flying an out of date British merchant ensign - the ensign clearly lacks the cross of St Patrick, which was added to the flag in 1801 after the Act of Union with Ireland.
** In "The Man in the Killer Suit" the fake aristocrat claims that he's not a Lord, he's a Viscount, despite the fact that a Viscount is ''by definition'' a Lord. His fake passport also, incorrectly, contains the title "Viscount". Given the amount of research the woman training him did to help him with his role, you'd have thought she'd spend five minutes checking Debrett's, which would have prevented these errors.
* In ''Series/{{Friends}}'', Phoebe's boyfriend David ends their relationship when he takes on a scientific grant of some kind in Minsk, which he excitedly declares is in Russia. Even the cheapest world atlas would demonstrate Minsk is the capital of a different country bordering Russia, Belarus, and one made before 1991 would have still marked it as the capital of the Byelorussian SSR and a city in the USSR, not Soviet Russia.
* ''Series/FullHouse'': One particular episode features Joey cleaning out his car and finding a number of baseball cards. Included in this list is a Nolan Ryan card, which DJ gives to Scott. Later, its mentioned that a Nolan Ryan rookie card sold for over $3,000 and Scott goes to try and find it. There are two issues with this one, number one, Nolan Ryan's 1968 Topps rookie card was a two player card featuring Ryan and Jerry Koosman, who is not mentioned at all. Second, the only way the card would be worth $3,000 is if it was in "near mint condition" or 8 on a scale of 10 in terms of condition. Since it was in the back of Joey's car for a number of years, it is next to impossible for a card to be near mint.
* ''Series/{{Heroes}}'':
** Almost any time someone mentions evolution, you can bet it will be entirely wrong. The book of a biology professor claims that the right combination of genes could do things that blatantly break the laws of ''physics''. The son of said professor seems to believe natural selection works by ''destiny'', randomly selecting an individual to be awesome, instead of gradually weeding out unfavorable mutations and allowing better mutations a better chance to survive.
** The son also states that individuals with beneficial mutations have to fight harder than other people to survive. Which not only fails biology, but also inverts the definition of "beneficial".
** And those ever-so-convenient eclipses, which somehow occur all over the planet. Even in Japan and the United States simultaneously, never mind how it'd be ''the middle of the night'' in one when it's mid-day in the other. Season 3 even has a two-parter where an eclipse lasts for several hours (which is... unlikely, to say the least).
* In the 2000 TV series ''Series/TheInvisibleMan'', Darien's surface temperature drops below freezing when he turns invisible. The reason given is that no light is hitting him, but this isn't a plausible one as his body is still generating heat. Not to mention that people's skins generally don't start freezing if they turn the lights out.
* The Taiwanese adaptation of ''[[Series/MillionDollarMoneyDrop The Million Pound Drop]]'' does this often enough to lead to suspicions that the show is rigged. Frequently, a blatantly false "correct" answer is given for an answer that happens to be one that the contestants left empty. One particularly obvious incident was when they claimed the correct answer to "Which of these animals is warm-blooded?" was ''salmon''.
* ''Series/TheOReillyFactor'':
** In an example that produced no fewer than two {{meme|ticMutation}}s, had O'Reilly claiming that there was no scientific explanation for tides, notoriously claiming "You can't explain that!"[[note]]meme one[[/note]] while the guest he was interviewing, David Silverman, stared at him with a face that just ''screamed'' "you can't be serious"[[note]]meme two[[/note]]. For bonus points, when the mechanics behind tides were later explained to him, he showed his lack of understanding of the scientific method by claiming that tidal forces are "[[GravityIsOnlyATheory just a theory.]]"
** A viewer wrote that the average life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. Bill replies that this is only natural... then makes a statement that would fit right in as a "spot the flaw in the logic" problem in an elementary school math class: 'The [=USA=] has ten times as many people as Canada, leading to ten times as many violent crimes and accidents, leading to a lower average life expectancy.'
* In ''Series/RedDwarf'', the usually very well-informed Kryten thinks that Virgil's ''Aeneid'' is about the rescue of Helen of Troy. Nope: that was Homer's ''Iliad''.
** Though in fairness, the ''Aeneid'' does at least feature the rescue of Helen (as part of the flashback in book 2) whereas the ''Iliad'' ends before the rescue of Helen. And the ''Iliad'' is specifically stated from its opening line to be about the Wrath of Achilles.
** Another something one would expect Kryten to know is how to pronounce ASCII (e.g. ass-key), which stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Actually, he thinks the "II" at the end is a Roman numeral, so he calls it an "A.S.C. 2" code.
* ''Reviews on the Run'''s 2010 Blu-Ray award special gave the best voice actor to Creator/KevinConroy for his performance in ''WesternAnimation/BatmanUnderTheRedHood''. While Conroy voiced Batman in the Franchise/{{DCAU}} and for some other projects, he wasn't in ''Under The Red Hood''. That was Bruce Greenwood.
* In one episode of ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'', a character describes Picard as being "two meters tall". Given that he isn't even close to that height (equivalent to about 6 foot 7 inches), the writer clearly didn't know the metric system (they might have mistaken meters for yards)[[note]] Although, in RealLife, Creator/PatrickStewart isn't even that tall [[/note]]. Joked about in Picard's last appearance, ''Film/StarTrekNemesis'' -- Picard and his clone both lament not having reached two meters in height.
* ''Series/{{Seinfeld}}'': In "The Contest", Jerry watches ''WesternAnimation/TinyToonAdventures'', singing along to "The Wheels on the Bus", a song that has never been on the show, acting as if the show is meant for toddlers.
* ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'': In an early second-season episode, John Winchester's blood type is shown on his dogtags as AB (though no Rh factor is given). Early in Season Ten, Dean's blood type is established as O. This creates an interesting situation that is just this side of AccidentallyAccurate in that it is technically possible but extremely unlikely. Dean can't actually have type O blood as the type A and B genes are dominant, so Dean should have inherited one or the other from his father and have either type A or type B blood. However, it is possible that Dean has the very rare h/h blood type also known as "Bombay blood" (denoted as h/h or Oh). People with Oh blood are missing the H antigen which is the precursor the A or B antigen. So an individual with Oh blood will appear to have type O blood even if they have the genes for A or B antigens because they simply can't make them. Basic blood tests won't pick up the difference, so Dean could have "type O" blood.
** However, this explanation would complicate the show a little bit. People with Oh blood can't actually accept type O blood because it contains the H antigen. People with Oh blood can only accept blood transfusions from other people with Oh blood. Which, again, is rare. Like, generally only about 0.0004% of the population rare. So having Oh blood would pose a pretty serious problem for somebody in a dangerous profession that would almost certainly require blood transfusions at some point.
* ''Series/TheUniverse'' had an episode on Mercury and Venus, calling them the two most hostile terrestrial planets in the solar system. So far, so good. The problem was that when the narrator said "Mercury" in the opening, Venus was shown, and vice versa. The two planets look nothing alike: Mercury looks like our moon, while Venus's surface is completely hidden by its clouds.
* ''Series/TheWeakestLink'' research team has proved itself to be the weakest link on occasion. When the question "UsefulNotes/{{Montreal}} is the capital city of which Canadian province?" was asked to a contestant, the show claimed the answer was Quebec, while in fact the correct answer is "none": Quebec City is the capital of Quebec.
* ''Series/WhiteCollar'''s pilot revolves around the counterfeiting of "Spanish Victory Bonds", some rare 1944 bonds issued by the US government "to support the Spanish underground in their battle against the Axis". The Axis did not invade Spain during UsefulNotes/{{W|orldWarTwo}}W2, a neutral (and ''Axis-leaning'') country through the whole war, and while there was a Spanish underground against UsefulNotes/TheFrancoRegime in 1944, the US never supported it financially or diplomatically. The plot [[FridgeLogic could have been]] [[TheyWastedAPerfectlyGoodPlot easily saved]] if the writers had explained the bonds' rarity as a result of [[RealityRetcon the US government considering intervention in Spain and then cancelling it for some reason]], but we are told that these bonds were printed in Madrid (what ''[[CompletelyMissingThePoint underground]]'' controls the nation's capital?) and then hidden in Cantabria's [[AlternateLandmarkHistory Altamira Caves]], which would mean that the Axis invaded Spain [[ArtisticLicenseGeography from the south]].
* ''Series/XenaWarriorPrincess'' was famous for playing fast and loose not only with myths but history and religion as well, often lampshaded in the scripts, but the worst example has to be the episode "One Against an Army" (based on the film ''Film/{{Zulu}}'' and the battle of Rorke's Drift), in which Thermopylae (remember ''[[Film/ThreeHundred 300]]''?) is located ''between'' Marathon and Athens) and the Persians are said to have arrived in three-masted "tall ships".
* ''Series/ZeroHour'', which centers around a conspiracy related to Jesus' apostles, seems to think that Luke was one of the twelve. Ten seconds on Google would have confirmed that he wasn't.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Music]]
* Music/MichaelJackson's "Liberian Girl" not only opens with Swahili, but with a South African singer singing it. They speak Swahili in East Africa, Liberia is in West Africa. The main language of Liberia is English.
* Music/NeilYoung has a song called "Cortez the Killer", in which he praises the pacifist and egalitarian... ''Aztecs!?'' Seriously, he comes right out and says "Hate was just a legend, / And war was never known" while he's talking about [[http://www.cracked.com/article_16972_5-most-terrifying-civilizations-in-history-world.html one of the most bloodthirsty civilizations in human history]]. He also says they "lifted many stones" and "built up with their bare hands / What we still can't do today." So, which early 16th century Aztec stone buildings were unmatchable by 1970s technology exactly?
* There is a Dutch DJ who, as of October 2011, claims to get phone calls from Madonna and Frank Sinatra on a regular basis. His phone bill must be through the roof, because Sinatra died in May ''1998''. [[note]](Maybe he's talking about Frank Sinatra, Junior?)[[/note]]
* The song "The Legend of Xanadu" by Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick and Titch sets the named city in a desert land, and has a Spanish/Mexican feel, especially the intro. Xanadu (modern preferred transliteration: Shangdu) was the summer capital of the Khans (the winter capital was what is now Beijing) hence is in China, a mostly temperate country.
* The entire song "King Midas in Reverse", about a character who has the Midas talent but "with a curse" ("everything he touches turns to dust"). When he wrote that song, Creator/GrahamNash missed the [[AnAesop Aesop]] of the Midas legend, that the ability to turn things into gold at a touch is itself a curse if not controllable; how would such a person eat or drink?
* Creator/JerryGoldsmith's score for ''Under Fire'' makes heavy use of panpipes to go with its South American setting of Nicaragua - except that panpipes aren't used in Nicaraguan music. Interestingly, Goldsmith actually ''knew'' this, but panpipe music was used in the movie's temp track and a film company executive commented to Goldsmith how well they worked with the movie, and the composer agreed.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Newspaper Comics]]
* An early ''ComicStrip/{{Garfield}}'' strip featured Garfield reciting a short poem about spiders. Problem is, he refers to them as insects, when they are actually arachnids. This was pointed out in the author's notes for [[http://www.mezzacotta.net/garfield/?comic=204 one strip of]] ''Webcomic/SquareRootOfMinusGarfield''.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Pro Wrestling]]
* [[WrestlingDoesntPay Wrestling Hockey Players]], The Ballard Brothers, took up a valet to serve as their Wrestling/{{Cheerleader|Melissa}}, even though hockey doesn't make use of cheerleaders. This could be excusable but the Ballards are Canadian, so there really is none.
** They just don't ''call'' them [[http://www.totalprosports.com/2012/05/02/15-hottest-nhl-ice-girl-crews/ cheerleaders...]]
* Wrestling/{{WCW}} boasted that an album of a group known as Three Count had gone Platinum. Fair enough. Then Evan Karagious claimed an upcoming second album of there would be more successful than that, going not double platinum but ''gold'', to the amusement/bewilderment of anyone who knows anything about album sales.
* Wrestling/VinceMcMahon, pleased with the success of Wrestling/ReyMysterioJr on Smackdown, decided he wanted another flippy luchador. So he hired Wrestling/UltimoDragon and then got upset when he discovered Ultimo Dragon really was not all that flippy. This is despite the fact Ultimo Dragon had wrestled under the WWF banner before and won a WWF "[[InsistentTerminology championship]]", suggesting Vince did not even watch ''his own product''.
* During WWE's self congratulatory ''Monday Night War'' series, Wrestling/TheMiz inadvertently took a shot at his own company by suggesting the women of the 1980s did nothing interesting, conveniently forgetting Wendi Richter was almost as big as ''Wrestling/HulkHogan'' during the time and subterfuge involving Fabulous Moolah had to be used to stop her.
* Wrestling/ScottSteiner once asked "Remember when Pearl Harbor bombed the Germans?"
* Wrestling/DamienSandow's character was that of 'the intellectual savior of the masses', a highly-cultured InsufferableGenius who claimed that he was superior to everybody else. His merchandise included a T-shirt with the slogan 'I > U: The Sandow Equation'. Unfortunately an equation, by definition, must include an equals sign. Sandow should have been smart enough to realise that his mantra was an inequation.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Radio]]
* An episode of ''Radio/FagsMagsAndBags'' centering around the local rabbi, imam and priest all [[ItMakesSenseInContext sitting in the same bath of baked beans for charity]] includes the priest's disappointment that as the representative of the newest Abrahamic religion, he has to take the traditional youngest sibling place at the tap end. This line should really have gone to the imam.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* The ''TabletopGame/DarkSun'' setting was originally designed as taking place on an icy frozen world. During development, it was changed to a desert world because the developers thought that a warm climate would justify {{fanservice}}y art with {{Stripperiffic}}ally dressed characters. Showing that much skin is just as dangerous in a desert as it is in the cold because it leaves the body open to sunstroke and allows for more water loss from perspiration, as evidenced by how actual desert-dwelling peoples traditionally dress in long, flowing robes that cover the entire body.
* The first ''TabletopGame/{{Rifts}}'' sourcebook, printed in the 1990s, had an animal/monster race called the Ostrosaurus. In the description, they note that despite the name, it's not a lizard like a dinosaur, but closer to a featherless bird. The irony kicks in with the realization that [[ScienceMarchesOn Theropods, which the Ostrosaurus resembles, essentially were featherless birds]]. Or more accurately, [[SomewhereAPaleontologistIsCrying birds are feathered dinosaurs]]. Or, even more more accurately, [[ScienceMarchesOn birds are dinosaurs with (perhaps) a few more feathers.]]
* The Top Trumps card game has FlavorText that attempts to be informative and educational, but the creators don't seem to have done very much research. There's a particularly monstrous error on the "Life" card in the "Wonders of the World" pack:
-->The first known animals to roam the Earth were dinosaurs, over 65 million years ago.
** Particularly infamous is the ''Space Phenomena'' themed deck. Amongst other glaring errors, it states that the ''Moon'' was spotted in '''1651''', Ganymede was discovered before the Sun, and asserts that Halley's Comet has negative mass. Somehow.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Theatre]]
* Creator/WilliamShakespeare, as the son of a glove-maker whose schooling mostly included Latin and classic literature (written in Latin), was prone to making these when discussing geography. His plays also include a healthy dose of AnachronismStew--allusions to Christian themes are frequent even in stories that took place before Christ was born, there are references to contemporary English clothing and culture regardless of setting, etc., so how much of those errors are just stylistic choices is debatable.
** In ''Theatre/TheWintersTale'', Shakespeare committed a Critical Research Failure and was called out on it by his contemporary, Ben Jonson. Shakespeare had his characters shipwrecked on the coast of Bohemia (which is now the Czech Republic) "where there is no sea near by one hundred miles." Shakespeare's mistake was likely [[TheArtifact an artifact]] from his original source, which took place in Sicily, not Bohemia.
** In ''Theatre/AntonyAndCleopatra'', Cleopatra suggests playing a game of billiards, a game which wouldn't exist until about 1000 years later.
** In ''Theatre/JuliusCaesar'', Caesar proclaims himself to be "constant as the Northern Star". As was well-known to educated people by Shakespeare's time, the Northern Star isn't a constant (which star it currently is, is affected by the precession of the equinoxes) and there are even long periods when there isn't a Northern Star -- such as Caesar's time. Creator/IsaacAsimov called out Shakespeare on this in his essay "Constant as the Northern Star" -- partly as evidence that the plays (or at least ''Julius Caesar'') couldn't (as some people suppose) have been written by Francis Bacon, as Bacon was well-educated and would have known this.
* In one promotional appearance for the then-upcoming ''Theatre/SpiderManTurnOffTheDark'', Julie Taymor went on record saying that she was drawn to the character of Franchise/SpiderMan because of his long-running popularity, as he remained beloved by audiences since his creation in the 1950's. Nearly everyone with even a passing knowledge of Marvel superheroes knows that almost all of them debuted in the ''1960's'', and more serious fans could tell you that Creator/MarvelComics didn't even exist in the 1950's (the 1950's were an infamously bad decade for superhero comics, occupying [[UsefulNotes/TheInterregnum the slump between the Golden Age of Comics and the Silver Age of Comics]]).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The official Prima strategy guide for ''VideoGame/Kirby64TheCrystalShards'' has a description that claims 02 is a "benevolent creature" who "rarely presents any trouble in the cloud levels of Shiver Star." This is wrong because 02 is not only ''not a nice guy'', he's actually the TrueFinalBoss of the game, and doesn't appear on Shiver Star at all. He's fought on Dark Star, which isn't even mentioned in the guide.
* ''VideoGame/TheLegendOfZeldaMajorasMask'' sometimes came packaged with the promise that the game is for 1 to 4 players. The manual and official guide clarified that the game is for 1 player only. Couldn't research your own game, huh guys?
* In ''VideoGame/MegaMan8'', the English voice actors pronounce the name of Mega Man's rival not as "Bass" the sound, but as "Bass" the fish. Considering the number of references to sound in the names of ''Mega Man'' characters, it's baffling how Capcom got this wrong.
* ''VideoGame/TotalWar'' tends towards accuracy, which makes its shortcomings all the more glaring.
** Sieges in the early modern period required the careful and continuous digging of trenches to shield oneself from heavy artillery housed in fortresses and move ones own siege guns up to the curtain wall, and the thick, low, sloped bastions of trace italienne fortresses were almost immune to field artillery. Even when the wall was breached, attackers were often hesitant, since it would mean advancing through overlapping fields of artillery fire from the bastions. However, in ''VideoGame/EmpireTotalWar'' and it's successor, it's the ''bastions'' that will break under light artillery fire in under three minutes, while the curtain wall is generally indestructible. This leaves the assault force relatively safe from overlapping fire, and makes fortresses a questionable investment, when in the Early Modern Period, the were so essential that states bankrupted themselves to pay for these fortifications.
* In the PSP game ''VideoGame/{{Def Jam| Series}}: Fight for NY: Takeover'', there is plenty of cringe-inducing trash-talk that gets tossed back and forth before almost every fight in the main storyline. One of the opponents you can fight for money in the Dragon House is Prodigy. All trash talk pertaining to this opponent makes reference to him claiming to be a prophet. Prodigy, prophecy, what's the difference?
** Plenty, but Prodigy is a member of rap group Mobb Deep, which was previously known as ''Poetical Prophets''. Prodigy himself makes frequent reference to himself as a prophet in his lyrics, so this most likely carried over to the game.
* The StrategyGuide for ''VideoGame/PokemonRedAndBlue'' that was published by Versus Books is considered SnarkBait by people even moderately good at the games, because of [[EightPointEight how badly underrated many of the Pokémon were]], but the greatest example of research failure is the claim that several Pokémon which do not learn any moves of their type through leveling up would have just been better off being Normal-type, so that they are unaffected by ElementalRockPaperScissors [[note]]which isn't entirely true either; Normal is weak to Fighting but mutually immune to Ghost[[/note]]. The writers ignored the defensive benefits of those Pokémon's typings, and four of the Pokémon they mentioned this on can learn moves of their type by TM [[note]]Sandslash and Rhydon get Earthquake/Dig, Electrode gets Thunderbolt/Thunder, and Hitmonchan gets Submission[[/note]].
* In ''Koudelka'', the first part of the ''VideoGame/ShadowHearts'' series, the action takes place in an old abbey in Wales, which the manual says is a "small country in the north of England." Wales is southwest of England, and calling it a country is a stretch -- it's part of the UK. It's a fairly common error in Japan (and other parts of the world as well) [[UsefulNotes/BritainVersusTheUK to think England, Britain, and the United Kingdom are synonymous]].
* PETA's video game parodies tend to fall into this. ''VideoGame/SuperTanookiSkin2D''[='=]s entire "fur is murder" message is undermined by the fact that ''the titular [[VideoGame/SuperMario3DLand Tanooki Suits]] aren't made from actual tanuki''.
** Then there's ''Franchise/{{Pokemon}} Black and Blue'': it completely omits the whole "trainer-Pokémon trust" dynamic that plays a critically thematic part of the franchise (especially in the Generation V titles), claims that Ash wants to imprison Pikachu in a tiny Poké Ball for the rest of his life even though Ash ''never'' put Pikachu in a Poké Ball, and has the Pokémon supporting Team Plasma ''despite the fact that they were revealed to have less than savory ulterior motives '''in the previous game'''''. Moreover, N, one of the few characters whose ideology does align with PETA's mission [[spoiler:at least until he realized the error of his ways in the first game]] never makes a single appearance to support the player's liberation campaign!
* One of the various news bulletins in ''VideoGame/TomodachiLife'' claims that children attend kindergarten at age 0.
* The 8-Bit adventure game ''Sherlock'' (successor to ''VideoGame/TheHobbit1982'', using the same game engine) was based on various details from the stories. Sadly, Mitchell and Megler got one detail wrong -- they assumed that Leatherhead was a fictional town, hence the heroes travelled to it from King's Cross Station, placing it somewhere to the north of London. Leatherhead (like nearly all towns in the Franchise/SherlockHolmes stories) is real; and is in Surrey, to the south-west of London. Try travelling there from Waterloo next time, guys. (They also sometimes misspelled it "Leather Head".)
* In ''VideoGame/{{Overwatch}}'', healer Mercy's healing weapon is called the "Caduceus Staff" after the famous snake on a rod symbol. The problem is, the Caduceus symbol has nothing to do with medicine - that would be the Rod of Asclepius.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Webcomics]]
* [[http://nekothekitty.smackjeeves.com/comics/939959/739-showdown-at-the-giant-slug-exhibit/ This episode]] of ''Webcomic/NekoTheKitty'' is set in a museum, near the Giant Slug exhibit. The author admits to doing no research on museums for this sequence.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Web Original]]
* ''WebVideo/TheAngryVideoGameNerd'' ranted, among other things, about being killed by a frog in ''Super Pitfall''. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granular_poison_frog The Granular Poison Frog]] has killed more than a few people, and yes, it lives in the jungle. That's also not counting people killed by weapons dipped in their poison, or various other kinds of frogs from the jungle that are also deadly to the touch.
-->'''AVGN''': Has anyone ever died by being attacked by a fucking frog?![[note]]Yes.[[/note]]
** He also has a few others - in his ''Castlevania'' series, he mentions the plot of ''VideoGame/CastlevaniaAriaOfSorrow'', but talks about ''VideoGame/CastlevaniaDawnOfSorrow'', two much different games. His "Fatal flaw" in ''VideoGame/{{Castlevania 64}}'' is actually his own inability to try hitting the "interact" button. (Which is surprising - since he made it that far), instead he had tried to use the items from the menu, which is for items you use on yourself.
** On a making-of video, he revealed a particular blunder from his review of ''VideoGame/StreetFighter2010'' wherein he said the final boss looked like Grimace from ''Series/SesameStreet''. Grimace is from McDonalds. Fortunately, a friend had caught the mistake before the video went live.
* ''WebVideo/CinemaSins'' has numerous. Due to the nature of the show (i.e. finding as many sins as possible to fill a comedy video up), quite possibly every single video has Jeremy critique things that are explainable; some, of course, he really does think are mistakes, but are not. To name an early example, ''Everything Wrong With Film/{{The Avengers| 2012}}'' states, "There is no gravity in space, but Iron Man falls back to Earth anyway." Even discounting the wormhole, there is too gravity in space. There is gravity EVERYWHERE. Distance only makes gravity weaker; it never goes away entirely. The series also has numerous times Jeremy calls something a PlotHole only because he apparently zoned out at the part where the movie explained it.
* In their video about sexuality, ''WebVideo/ExtraCredits'' they talk about how tired the trope of a tough male with a feminine side is. As an example, they show ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyXIII'''s Lightning, who anyone looking at the character can tell you is ''female''.
* ''Website/GaiaOnline'' made a terrible mistake whilst describing a new item called Lala the Koala Plushie.
-->"Lala the Koala Plushie pays tribute to the noble koala bear, which is now just returning from hibernation to resume it's [sic] voracious consumption of eucalyptus".
** While regular bears hibernate, koalas (which are not bears, or even placentals) live in Australia, which even in its temperate zones doesn't get cold enough to necessitate hibernation.
* In the ''[[WebVideo/RedLetterMedia Half in the Bag]]'' [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-x1YuvUQFJ0 preview]] for their ''{{Film/Prometheus}}'' review, Mike claim that there were 65 million years of dinosaurs before humans. Unfortunately, he has that backwards: dinosaurs have been ''extinct'' for 65 million years.
* ''WebVideo/TheIrateGamer'' claims a lot of these, including the fact that ''VideoGame/TeenageMutantNinjaTurtlesTurtlesInTime'' was only released on the Super Nintendo.
* The [[MemeticMutation now-memetic]] "Jimmy [=McPerson=]" essay includes, among others:
** Having Jimmy grow up in Illinois while living in Harlem.
** Having the Japanese attack Jimmy's town, when neither NY nor Chicago was attacked.
** Alleging blacks couldn't join the military in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII because Martin Luther King Jr. wasn't born yet. Yes, they could, and MLK was born in 1929.
** Jimmy meets with the president of Japan. [[FridgeLogic President of the Japanese Empire?]]
** There's also the rather hilarious image of Jimmy fighting off "[[AnachronismStew countless samurai and ninjas]]" in his quest for revenge.
** Jimmy battles with both said president/emperor/whatever AND Hitler.
** Jimmy kills Hitler in a suicidal charge. [[DrivenToSuicide Which is not how Hitler died.]]
** Often overlooked: Jimmy's battle with Hitler and "President Japan" takes place on a military base in Tokyo, China.
* WebVideo/MatthewSantoro:
** In "20 Reasons Why NOT to Be 'In Da Club'", Matt says that if you're at a club and you fall anywhere, you should just assume you have AIDS or herpes, because of all the broken glass lying around. In reality, falling on broken glass lying around is extremely unlikely to give you AIDS, as that has only happened a few times.
** In "Catching Up: With Matt! (#1)", Matt says that Mexico is part of South America, [[ArtisticLicenseGeography but it's actually only part of North America]].
* WebVideo/TheMysteriousMrEnter claimed in his [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0XawmU9zn4 Animated Atrocities review]] of the ''WesternAnimation/SpongeBobSquarePants'' episode "One Coarse Meal" that whales only eat krill, ignoring that some whales in RealLife actually ''do'' [[http://www.whalefacts.org/what-do-whales-eat/ eat plankton]].
** He actually does bring up this point in his "Top 11 Worst Episodes Reviewed" video, admitting he did some research and yes, some whales do eat plankton...and then points out that some whales also eat crabs, fish, and squid.
** In the same video, he mentioned that Pearl was a Sperm Whale, which doesn't eat plankton.
** In his videos on the Worst Cartoon Themes, he refers to the theme song for WesternAnimation/StreetSharks as bluegrass. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqGQyMF5a_0 This is the Street Sharks theme]]. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQnmQInRm_0 This is bluegrass]].
* WebVideo/TheNostalgiaCritic:
** In a satirical skit (so the character's stupidity isn't an excuse), he once called ''Literature/TheLittleMermaid'' "English". What's weird is that back in Disneycember, Doug knew all about the book and compared it to the Disney movie.
** In his Disneycember review of ''Disney/SnowWhiteAndTheSevenDwarfs'' Doug mentioned it's "typical 1940s animation." In reality "Snow White" was released in 1937. Maybe it was just ahead of it's time.
** In his review of ''Film/PearlHarbor'', he embarked on a [[TheReasonYouSuckSpeech Reason You Suck Speech]] about how Michael Bay had disrespected the sailors who were at Pearl Harbor by, among other things, having a sailor shout, "I can't swim!" before falling into the water. Not only was it common for sailors to not know how at the time (swim tests in the Navy weren't introduced until years later), but Doug's father is a Navy veteran, so he had easy access to the correct information.
** In his review of ''Film/TheMatrix'', he said that Trinity was played by Kate Moss. She's actually played by ''Carrie-Anne'' Moss.
** The entire review of ''Anime/SailorMoon'' counts as one, since he focuses on the wrong things and then proceeds to go off on a tangent of the age of consent in Japan being 13. While that certainly is true, it's not the case ''everywhere'' in Japan. [[ComicallyMissingThePoint And still had nothing to do with Sailor Moon]].
** In his review of ''Film/JurassicWorld'', he consistently calls ''Pteranodons'' dinosaurs, which they aren't - they're in a class of related but separate reptiles called pterosaurs. He's also seemingly convinced that ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimorphodon Dimorphodons]]'' are genetically-engineered "Pterodactyls with T-Rex heads".
** The critic has actually made so many such goof-ups that he has released, as of now, ''[[http://channelawesome.com/nostalgia-critic-top-11-fck-ups/ three]] [[http://channelawesome.com/nostalgia-critic-the-next-nostalgia-critic-f-ups/ separate]] [[http://channelawesome.com/the-top-11-nostalgia-critic-f-ups-part-3/ countdowns]]'' where he adds up all the mistakes he's made while soundly being chastized by the overly-obnoxious [[TakeThatAudience Douchy McNitpick]]. While some are where he made an insensitive joke or a bad review, most have to do with this trope.
* In Quality Control's review of ''Anime/{{Interstella 5555}}'', he claims that ''Discovery'' was Music/DaftPunk's first album. ''Discovery'' is their second album. ''Homework'' was their first.
* Website/SFDebris has a couple minor examples. Chuck says in his ''Batman Beyond'' review that the movie was censored because it was judged too violent. While that helped, the real catalyst was the Columbine Shooting that occurred before the film came out.
** Another small error is in his review of ''Series/TheXFiles'' episode "Aubrey", where Chuck says Harry Cokley (a suspect in unsolved serial murders from the 1940s) did only 8 years for attempted murder and rape. In the dialogue, however, it's said he was convicted in 1945 and released December 5th, 1993, meaning he must have served 4''8'' years at least.
** In his review of ''Series/StarTrekTheAnimatedSeries'' episode "Yesteryear", Chuck claims that the series was perhaps best known for the infamous audio clip of Shatner arguing with a producer over the pronunciation of the word "sabotage". Said audio clip was actually from the recording session for the video game ''[[VideoGame/JudgmentRites Star Trek: Judgment Rites]]'', not ''Series/StarTrekTheAnimatedSeries''.
* Creator/BobChipman once did an episode about how ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'' was racist because [[HumansAreWhite the UNSC was composed of white people]], while the Covenant were ethnically diverse. However, both of these are quite false. Sergeant Johnson, one of the biggest badasses in the series and a fan favorite, is black, and several of the Marine {{Red Shirt}}s beginning in [[VideoGame/HaloCombatEvolved the first game]] have identifiably Latino accents, the Elites leave the Covenant to assist humanity in ''VideoGame/{{Halo 2}}'', and in ''VideoGame/HaloReach'', the majority of the place names are Hungarian, while Emile is black and Jun is Chinese, making it clear that the UNSC is composed of ''all'' of humanity. As for the Covenant, while they do have a wide range of alien races, they're segregated in a strict caste system and most of them are enslaved (and the reason the Elites jumped to humanity's side was because the Brutes and Prophets enacted ''genocide'' against them); hardly a shining example of ethnic diversity.
* The creature, the [[GratuitousJapanese Kiseichu]] [[http://legendaryeon.deviantart.com/art/Kiseichu-Ryu-482690667 Ryu]] is said to be a Carnivore at birth (after devouring from dead criminals), then a Herbivore for the rest of its life. Animals cannot switch diets at will; the stomach for both Carnivores and Herbivores, and their digestion system are not the same thing, meaning that they could most likely die of malnutrition.
* EpicRapBattlesOfHistory: It could probably be chalked up to RuleOfFunny, except that this series is usually so well-researched that almost every line is a reference to one of the rappers' lives. Mr. T calls Mr. Rogers a "40 Year Old Virgin." This is just wrong. Fred Rogers married at the age of 24, and had his first son at the age of 31.
* ''WebVideo/DeathBattle'' tends to get a number of their information wrong about various characters they're pitting against. One that was actually caught and changed concerned [[ComicBook/IronMan Tony Stark]] and being genetically altered to be a transhuman savior of the universe. That was actually [[spoiler:his brother Arno Stark and Tony was adopted to fool the one doing so.]]
* In the 2007 YouTube classic "[=SpongeBob=] In China", a parody of ''WesternAnimation/SpongeBobSquarePants'' which satirizes the Chinese economy, [=SpongeBob=] explicitly states that Patrick works in a factory. However, Patrick is wearing a [[http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_conical_hat conical hat]], whose purpose is to protect outdoor workers from rain and sun.
* In WebVideo/SomeCallMeJohnny's review of ''VideoGame/PokemonRedAndBlue'', he mixes up a photo of Satoshi Tajiri (creator of Pokemon) with that of Tsunekazu Ishihara (the president and CEO of The Pokémon Company). Not a huge offender, but it's still a failure in research.
** Another minor one appears during his ''VideoGame/PokemonGoldAndSilver'' review not from Johnny, but from co-reviewer Ryan when they question some of the evolution methods. Ryan then takes a potshot a [[VideoGame/PokemonDiamondAndPearl Generation 4]] for its use of trade evolutions which has existed since the beginning of the series and has appeared in every generation. Even worse, this was said when the Porygon line was shown on-screen, which received its first evolution by trade in the same generation they're reviewing.
* One editor on the Disney Wiki reckoned that all cameos in ''Disney/WreckItRalph'' movie are either Creator/{{Disney}} or Creator/{{Nintendo}}. They even gave among the "Nintendo" examples, VideoGame/PacMan and VideoGame/DigDug -- both of which are Creator/{{Namco|Bandai}}. This edit also ignored the VideoGame/{{Qix}} (Taito) and VideoGame/QBert (Gottleib), amongst other decidedly not-Nintendo examples. Even better is the fact that Sonic and Dr. Eggman are from [[Franchise/SonicTheHedgehog a series]] made by [[Creator/{{Sega}} a former competitor]] of Nintendo's and never appeared on a Nintendo console until the early '00s.
* There is a Website/YouTube video called [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlc_wTXdjjY Romance Languages Explained]]. Oh boy, where to begin? According to this video, there are only five Romance languages: French, Italian, Romanian, Portuguese, and European Spanish (apparently, Latin American Spanish is not a Romance language because it’s “a different dialect”). This claim is made all the more bizarre by the fact that we are later shown a list of many more Romance languages. Also, Romanian is supposedly much closer to Latin than to the other Romance languages because “Salut, ce mai faci?” (Romanian for “Hello, how are you?”) is ''obviously'' much more similar to the Latin translation “Salve, quid rerum geritis?” than to its French counterpart “Bonjour, comment allez-vous?” Yeah, don’t you see the similarity? True, the Latin "salve" is somewhat similar to the Romanian "salut", but ''the word "salut" also exists in French''. You may also notice that the Latin phrase doesn’t make much sense because the creator of the video uses Google Translate for everything. The video goes on to say that Vulgar Latin is “difficult to untangle.” Why? Well, the author simply shows us a tree of the Satem branch of the Indo-European languages and goes, “Look at how complex this is!” What the Satem languages have to do with the supposed difficulty of untangling Vulgar Latin is anyone’s guess. The real kicker is the claim that German (yes, we’re suddenly talking about German, a ''Germanic'' language, in a video that is supposedly about the ''Romance'' languages) is “derived from a contraction of Greek and Latin” (whatever that means — for the record, Greek is a Hellenic language (and, in modern day, the only living one) and German, which is more closely related to English than either of those, didn’t descend from either of those languages) which is somehow the reason that German words are, according to the narrator, “abruptly harsh.” Oh yeah, and “German languages” are also difficult to untangle, which, apparently, we “can see.” No explanation beyond that is given. All this is rounded out with baffling and irrelevant deviations discussing things like the Schengen Area. The people on the [[Website/{{Reddit}} subreddit]] /r/badlinguistics [[https://www.reddit.com/r/badlinguistics/comments/2zmrr8/romance_languages_explained/ had a field day]] with this video.
* In Lady Jess's crossover review of ''Film/TheJazzSinger'' with WebVideo/TheRapCritic, she briefly discusses heroines in young adult novels, putting up images of their covers. Problem is, half of them have ''male'' protagonists (''Literature/IAmNumberFour'', ''{{Literature/Beastly}}'', ''Literature/TheMazeRunner'', ''Literature/HarryPotter'', and ''Literature/TheHobbit''). This is all the more JustForFun/{{egregious}} by how the male lead of ''Harry Potter'' is ''right on the front cover'' on the image and ''The Hobbit'' (which isn't even a YA book) has no female characters.
* A ChainLetter which circulated in the late [[TheNineties 1990s]] promised that if it were kept going until the millennium, all participants would get their names listed in the Guinness Book of World Records. Apart from the obvious fact that what goes in [=GBWR=] is solely up to Guinness Superlatives and nobody else, there are a few other points:
** Guinness can and sometimes does reject records which it considers undesirable or unwholesome (for instance, all food-consumption categories have been retired). A spam-related record is likely to fall foul of this.
** Guinness only publishes names where the record is held by an individual or a very small group; where there are hundreds or thousands of holders, it would be tedious and pointless to name every last one, so they are acknowledged only as "[X number of] people".

[[/folder]]

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''Western Animation/{{Archer}}'' is famous for its pop culture references, but the characters still screw up their facts a few times.
** In one episode, when discussing the world's worst co-worker, Pam suggests Bishop from ''Film/{{Aliens}}'', even though Bishop was extremely helpful to Ripley and the marines, and served as one of the film's main protagonists. If they wanted an evil android co-worker from the ''Aliens'' franchise, they probably meant the traitorous Ash from the previous film, ''film/Alien''.
** While hunting in the snow, Archer is initially scared of the Predator, before reminding himself that he only hunts in tropical jungles. However, the whole premise of ''Film/Predator2'' is a Predator loose in a city.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheAdventuresOfJimmyNeutronBoyGenius'':
** Jimmy does a report on UsefulNotes/ThomasEdison. Why? Because Edison ''invented electricity''.
** Another particularly glaring example was that Jimmy in one episode refers to the Cretaceous period as the Cretaceous ''era'' (the era was the Mesozoic), and that it ended 200 million years ago. Any dinosaur-crazed eight-year-old could tell you that it ended 65 million years ago.
** The series has a surprising tendency to do this. Other examples include claiming that Chinese ginseng is a muscle relaxant, Australia isn't a continent, and that ''people can never change because their personality is imprinted on their brain at birth''.[[note]]The latter two examples are argued against in-series, however.[[/note]]
* In Yakko Warner's otherwise wonderful song from ''WesternAnimation/{{Animaniacs}}'' where he lists [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x88Z5txBc7w all the nations of the world]], Ireland isn't noted as being ''two'' countries (Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, although the animators actually include the divide!) and Wales is the only country in the United Kingdom that's not mentioned at all. South Africa, Singapore, Cote d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, San Marino, Vatican City, and various countries in Oceania (such as Samoa or Tonga) are also not mentioned, and Transylvania is mentioned as a separate country from Romania.
** Also, the Korean peninsula is made up of two separate countries: The Republic of Korea and the [[PeoplesRepublicOfTyranny Democratic People's Republic of Korea]], or [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin South and North Korea]] as they are often referred to as.
** One of the countries mentioned is Dahomey, a country that ceased to exist decades before the episode was aired.
** Czechoslovakia is mentioned, although it was already split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, although in this case it's likely the song was recorded before the split, as they officially became the Czech Republic and Slovakia January 1, 1993, and the episode featuring the song aired in the fall of 1993
* An episode of ''WesternAnimation/ArchiesWeirdMysteries'' had a mummy haunting the museum it was kept in. It turns out the mummy was vengeful because his fiancée left him because he kept putting off their wedding until after his pyramid was built. One, pyramids tended to take a pharaoh's whole life to build and sometimes weren't completed until after their death; two, pharaohs were married as children; and three, a pharaoh's marriage was arranged for them between them and one of their siblings, so no one could just decide to leave a marriage they were fed up with.
* The main character in ''WesternAnimation/BackAtTheBarnyard'' is Otis, the male cow. He has [[AnimalGenderBender udders]].
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Ben 10}}'' claimed in one episode that the mysterious "[[{{Unobtainium}} Bicenthium alloy]]" was extremely rare on any planet except Earth... except the "alloy" was ''iron'', the sixth most common element in the galaxy. And iron ''isn't an alloy''.
* ''WesternAnimation/BojackHorseman'': A flashback scene from 1994 has Bojack claiming he'll go home to watch Disney Princess movies. The franchise didn't exist until 2000.
* ''WesternAnimation/DanVs'' gives us "Sergeant Saskatchewan", an overly patriotic Canadian CaptainErsatz of Comicbook/CaptainAmerica... who wears the ''American sergeant emblem on his sleeve''. Then seconds later Dan encounters a man asking for donations to save the Canadian geese. You'd think this guy would know it's "''Canada''" geese, not "Canadian" geese.
** Dan freaks out when he unthinkingly drinks a milkshake, thinking he will die. In actuality intolerance to lactose isn't fatal (worst case scenario, he'll have a bit of gas and possibly [[BringMyBrownPants need a change of underwear]]--plus, a couple of swallows of dairy might not even do anything if one's lactose intolerance is fairly mild. Of course, Dan tends to be a drama queen).
* ''WesternAnimation/TheFairlyOddParents'':
** One episode treats the giant squid as a mythological creature. [[EskimosArentReal It's a real species.]]
** "Fairy Idol" shows penguins living at the North Pole. Not just a few, but a whole rookery (though a lot of American cartoons show [[PolarBearsAndPenguins penguins as North Pole animals rather than South Pole/Antarctic animals]], so it's not that much of a surprise).
* A terrible offender is ''WesternAnimation/TheMummyTheAnimatedSeries'' in the episode "The Cloud People". Lake Titicaca is described as both puma-head shaped and as being found below the ruins of Macchu Picchu. A ''portion'' of the lake's southern bank [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lake_titicaca.jpg vaguely resembles a cat's head in profile]], but only if viewed from the air while flying north-to-south. The whole thing, not so much, and it's still southeast of Machu Picchu, not below it.
* Two of the ''Franchise/ScoobyDoo'' movies hit this particularly hard, mainly because the two movies between them got their respective monsters BACKWARDS. {{Chupacabra}} is a reptilian [[OurVampiresAreDifferent hematophage]] that preys on goats. The Australian {{Yowie|sAndBunyipsAndDropBearsOhMy}} is supposedly a large humanoid creature, along the lines of [[BigfootSasquatchAndYeti Bigfoot and the Yeti]]. ''Monster of Mexico'' says that Chupie is Bigfoot, and ''Legend of the Vampire'' that the Yowie is a vampire. It's easy to think that they picked monsters that they thought nobody knew, but Chupacabra at least is rather well-known.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'' episode "Road to Germany," they make a jab at modern American politics by saying that America didn't attack Germany for building nukes because they didn't have any oil. Everything about this is wrong. 1) Germany's project to make an atomic bomb ended before WWII began. 2) During WWII, the U.S. and Britain did attack Germany's atomic projects (which were not focused on making bombs then, but on making reactors. 3) President Roosevelt did not order the bomb research project on an accelerated basis till December 6th, 1941, the day before the Pearl Harbor attack. All U.S. research up till then was concentrated on the question of whether a bomb was even theoretically possible. 4) In WWII, uranium could be obtained from Canada and the Belgian Congo. Radium was extracted from uranium ore, and uranium itself was used in pottery, as a glaze ingredient. 5) During most of WWII, Germany controlled oil fields in Poland and Romania.
* Maybe it's a case of creative liberty, but the Al Brodax {{Popeye}} cartoon "I Yam Wot I Yamnesia" posits that if two people bump heads with each other, they switch personalities and voices. Wimpy diagnoses this as amnesia.
** And speaking of Popeye, in the Creator/FamousStudios short "Big Bad Sindbad" of 1952, Popeye and his nephews go to a museum where they are watching statues of some famous sailors across history, Among them is, apparently [[Literature/TheBible Noah]], and the pedestal under his statue reads "The First Great Sailor"; Noah built his ark not to sail, but to take cover from the great flood along with his family, and the animals that came in pairs.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/JusticeLeague'' finale, Clark asks the Thanagarians about the machine they're building 'in the Gobi desert'. Later, the location shows up on the Watchtower's radars in northern Africa. That's the ''Sahara'' Desert - the Gobi is in eastern Asia.
* ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'': In the episode "Go, God, Go!", a Catholic family scolds Principal Victoria for teaching evolution at her school. The Catholic church supports evolution (as do countless Protestant denominations), and Catholic schools do indeed teach it.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/XMen'' episode "Days of Future Past, Part 2", Gambit travels to UsefulNotes/WashingtonDC. But the monitor shows the ''state'' of Washington (with Washington, D.C. captioned right below).
* In ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'':
** One episode has Homer accidentally eat a poorly prepared Fugu (blowfish) at a Japanese restaurant. He was then told he'd be dead by the next day and there was no way to survive it, and the episode treats it as a standard poison. On the one hand, poison doesn't last that long -- if you survive ingesting potentially lethal poison to the next day you've probably metabolized it safely. On the other, it's irrelevant, because Fugu poison is a neurotoxin that causes death by paralysis and then asphyxiation, not generic poisoning, and it's very survivable granted you get medical aid (if you can get assistance breathing when the paralysis sets in you can survive until you metabolize it, though it has long-lasting, crippling effects).
** An early episode focuses on a mutant fish that grew a third eye due to nuclear pollution. Burns nicknames it "Blinky" and it displays its ability to blink its eyes in sequential order. However, pretty much everyone knows that fish don't have eyelids. While the fish is a mutant, no one ever implies that the eyelids are part of its mutation.
** In "The Regina Monolgues" Sir Ian [=McKellen=] is cursed with bad luck from the Simpsons saying [=MacBeth=] and wishing him good luck. Traditionally, it's only considered bad luck to say these things inside the theater, and they're standing outside of a theater.
[[/folder]]

!!In-Universe and Invoked examples

[[folder:Anime & Manga]]

* In the Franchise/{{Nasuverse}}:
** Despite the author's fairly meticulous planning and in-depth research (in spite of his frequent uses of ArtisticLicense), one gaping research failure is Lancer's Gae Bolg, whose property of always striking the target has more in common with Lugh's similarly named Gae Assail. However, the original version of the Gae Bolg has Lancer ''kick his spear at his target or even throw it with his toes to pierce the target and kill them from the inside with thorns'', which in all honesty would have looked quite ridiculous in the setting of the story. As a result, it's a fairly passable and acceptable change.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ComicBook/AmbushBug once made a huge error InUniverse. Seeing a young blonde woman in a familiar costume flying by, Ambush Bug immediately realized that some malevolent magic or Red Kryptonite [[GenderBender had turned his "pal" Superman into a girl]], and that Superman desperately needed the Bug's help. Somehow, Ambush Bug was completely ignorant of the existence of ComicBook/{{Supergirl}}, who was naturally mystified by the encounter. (Supergirl, InUniverse, was publicly known and quite famous in her own right at the time.)[[note]]Supergirl #16 (1984)[[/note]]
* ''ComicBook/JackOfFables'' often notes the hero's lack of understanding of history or science. He boasts of himself before a battle like Napolean at Waterloo or the defenders of the Alamo "and like them, I will be victorious."
* ''SupplementalMaterial/TeamFortress2'' comics:
** In ''Ring of Fired #1'', when the Demoman and his sentient sword the Eyelander are watching the show ''Ghost D.A.'', the title ghost character disappears with a "doodily-doodily-doot" noise. The Eyelander, which is possessed by a ghost, points out that ''it'' never does that and questions whether the writers are actually ghosts. It has more to complain about when the TV ghost puns "the defense rests... in peace."
--->'''Eyelander''': Ugh. "The defense rests"? He's the @$%ing prosecution! Ghost D.A.! "District Attorney!" It's in the title of the @$%ing show!
** Turns out the entire town of Teufort suffers from a major case of this in ''Unhappy Returns''. The Mayor is apparently completely oblivious to what he can and can't do in his position, apparently thinking he's allowed to force someone to become a fake-Italian, and hang people without a trial. No-one else in the town finds a problem with this. [[spoiler:This is due to them having drunk lead-contaminated water for over a generation.]]
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Comic Strips]]
* ''ComicStrip/CalvinAndHobbes'':
** Calvin has to do a report on bats, but being the typical lazy six-year-old that he is, he does absolutely no research on them. He assumes bats are bugs because "they fly, right? They're ugly and hairy, right?" Despite literally everyone who hears this telling Calvin that '''bats aren't bugs''', he refuses to listen (“Look, who’s giving the report, '''you''' chowderheads… or '''me'''?”). Predictably, he fails the assignment. Bill Watterson said in a commentary that one of the nice things about writing this strip is that he didn't need to know more than a lazy six-year-old, and after writing the story got sent more information on bats than he ever wanted to know.
** Calvin and Susie are assigned to be partners on a project about the planet Mercury. The following is Calvin's only contribution, which he wrote the morning before class despite having a week to work on his report:
-->'''Calvin''': The planet Mercury was named after a Roman god with winged feet. Mercury was the god of flowers and bouquets, which is why today he is a registered trademark of FTD florists. Why they named a planet after this guy, I can't imagine. [[OhCrap ...Um, back to you, Susie.]]
* One ''ComicStrip/TheFarSide'' cartoon caught fire for its inaccurate depiction of mosquitoes. In the cartoon, the hardworking (mosquito) husband comes home after a long day at work and comments to his homemaker (mosquito) wife how he 'must have spread malaria all over the country'. The problem is that only the females suck blood and spread malaria. However, the comic depends on the depiction of stereotypical suburbia, so swapping the genders around wouldn't have worked either.
** Gary Larson's visual depictions of historic figures or celebrities are often so strikingly off the only explanation is he could not be bothered to even glance at a photo or paining of them for reference before drawing. A cartoon depicting Albert Einstein playing basketball as a ''young'' man, for instance, portrays the famously bushy-haired scientist as balding, while one depicting "Henry VIII on the dating scene" depicted the king, who is probably one of the most visually recognizable monarchs in British history, as a generic, bald cartoon king with a crown and robe but no hair or beard (a simple beard was later sketched in for some later reprintings).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Fan Works]]
* Occurs in-universe in ''Fanfic/QueenOfAllOni'' with Lung. Not only did his EvilPlan revolve around the stubborn as a mule Jade submitting to his will, he clearly has no idea about the curse that only allows her to summon her CoDragons.
* In an in-universe example, the LemonyNarrator of ''Fanfic/EquestriaAHistoryRevealed'' seems to fulfill this trope in spades. To her credit, she does do research, but she blatantly ignores what is stated in favor of her own opinions, going as far as to cross out sections of quotes that [[BiasSteamroller don't agree with her view]].
* ''Fanfic/ABriefHistoryOfEquestria'': Apparently it's common -- due to their rivalry prior to and during the [[MeleeATrois Lake Trot Crisis]] -- to portray Viscount Arsenic as Lady Cripps' father, who abandoned her mother after a brief affair. This despite the fact that at the time of said affair, Arsenic was ''two years old''.
* The fictional authors' works in ''Fanfic/BleachFanWorks'' have several of varying severity. For example, Christina doesn't realize who Oshima (an extremely minor character who tries to threaten Ichigo, only to get taken down by Chad), while Jolene Myer has Ichigo's father called "Barnubus" rather than Isshin, and claims that Masaki divorced him when the twins were born (instead of getting killed by Grand Fisher [[spoiler:and Yhwach, although they most likely couldn't have known that when this installment was uploaded]]).
* ''WebAnimation/TurnaboutStorm'':
** [[Franchise/AceAttorney Phoenix]] makes a loud objection during the trial when it's revealed that the decisive evidence against the defendant is a storm cloud, mocking the prosecution for suggesting that his client could move that cloud around and make it shoot lightning at will. Too bad he happens to be in [[WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic Equestria]], a world where [[PaintingTheFrostOnWindows controlling the weather]] is a common sense fact.
--->'''Phoenix''': Oh... Hehe... Sorry! My mistake...\\
'''Twilight''': Maybe you should have... Oh, I don't know, ''studied''!?\\
'''Phoenix''': I said I was sorry!
** Shortly after he makes another mistake in trying to contradict a statement, pointing out that the thunder is heard after the lightning strike, not at the same time. Not in Equestria, though.
* Used intentionally and PlayedForLaughs in the ''Literature/{{Twilight}}'' fic ''[[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/5549437/5/Third-Wheel Third Wheel]]''. (The narrator is something of a ditz.)
-->''[Discussing Bella Swan's family]'' So the acorn didn't fall too far from the pine tree.
* In ''FanFic/WithThisRing'' InUniverse example with Senator Knight's proposal to ban magic after the ''''deaths of thousands of children'''' in '''Displaced'''. Senator Knight didn't know that literally anyone can learn magic and he could found this out by asking Zatara, a Justice League member with a public address who is a magic specialist. His name became synonymous with obliviousness and ignorance when Orange Lantern calls him out on it in a live interview.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* Bluto's speech in ''Film/AnimalHouse'' gives us this gem:
-->"Over? Did you say "over"? Nothing is over until we decide it is! [[ArtisticLicenseHistory Was it over when the Germans bombed Pearl Harbor?]] Hell no!"\\
"Germans?"\\
"Forget it, he's rollin'."
* S.H.I.E.L.D. of all people have this at the end of ''Film/CaptainAmericaTheFirstAvenger''. After Steve Rogers is [[HumanPopsicle unfrozen]] after crashing the HYDRA Valkyrie in 1945, they try to ease him into the present day by building a fake 1940's hospital room, complete with a 1940's baseball game broadcast "live" on the radio and a woman in period-appropriate attire entering to greet him. However, Steve immediately notices something is wrong -- [[SpottingTheThread because the "live" baseball game is from 1941]], he knows ''because he was there''. Cue him breaking out and experiencing massive culture-shock at 21st Century Times Square. [[SarcasmMode Nice going, S.H.I.E.L.D.]] Sharp-eyed fans have noted that's not the only thing wrong with the scene--the woman's hair is wrong, her attire isn't quite period-appropriate, and so on... and so they've theorized the many minor mistakes is that Nick Fury wanted to know how much sharpness Captain America lost during his long sleep.
* In ''Film/DrStrangelove'', the Russian ambassador explains that the Soviets built their world-ending machine because they feared a "Doomsday-gap" when they "discovered" that the Americans were building one. When the US President truthfully rebukes that as a ludicrous fantasy, the ambassador replies: "Our source was ''The New York Times''."
* In ''Film/{{Hitman}}'', 47 meets with an arms dealer under a false identity. When his cover is secretly blown, the dealer attempts to intimidate 47 by showing off some of his weapons and even threatening to kill one of his prostitutes with a pistol. In so doing he misidentifies aspects of every gun he picks up (such as calling an [=M4A1=] Assault Rifle with an M203 Under Barrel Grenade Launcher as an "M203 with under barrel grenade launcher"). 47, not the slightest bit intimidated, points it out to him.
* ''Film/TradingPlaces'' has this example from the heroes' MassiveMultiPlayerScam:
-->'''Coleman''': Let me see, you would be from Austria. Am I right?\\
'''Ophelia''': No, I am Inga from Sweden.\\
'''Coleman''': Sweden? ...But you're wearing ...Lederhosen.\\
'''Ophelia''': [[RefugeInAudacity Ja, from Sweden.]]
* The title character in ''Film/TheFortyYearOldVirgin'' displays his complete lack of sexual experience when he mentions that breasts feel like bags of sand.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Literature]]
* ''Literature/ASeriesOfUnfortunateEvents'':
** The villains of ''The Slippery Slope'' proudly boast about how they control "two of the greatest mammals: the lions and the eagles!" [[TheSmartGuy Klaus]] calls them out on their error, but they don't care.
** Earlier in the same book, Esme defines "individual practitioner" as "a life of crime". Even baby Sunny knows that she's completely off the mark (and, funnily enough, provides the correct definition).
* At the end of the ''Literature/BelisariusSeries'', top spymaster Narses is sent to China as an ambassador. He asks which kingdom he should be heading for, as there are sixteen kingdoms making up China at the time. Only one problem: the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixteen_Kingdoms Sixteen Kingdoms]] period had ended a century earlier, and never had more than ten kingdoms present at any one time. The person he's asking says it doesn't matter (the important thing is that he [[ChronicBackstabbingDisorder not be present in India anymore]]), but that he'll find there are [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_and_Northern_Dynasties rather fewer kingdoms to choose from]].
* ''Literature/TheCatcherInTheRye'':
** Holden Caulfield writes a paper about ancient Egypt, which reads thus: "The Egyptians were an ancient race of Caucasians residing in one of the northern sections of Africa. The latter as we all know is the largest continent in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Egyptians are extremely interesting to us today for various reasons. Modern science would still like to know what the secret ingredients were that the Egyptians used when they wrapped up dead people so that their faces would not rot for innumerable centuries. This interesting riddle is still quite a challenge to modern science in the twentieth century." That is the paper, in its entirety.
** The title of the book comes from Holden mistaking a line from the song "Comin' Through the Rye". He thinks it's "If a body catch a body comin' through the rye", but it's really "If a body '''meet''' a body comin' through the rye."
* ''[[Literature/EndersGame Ender's Shadow]]'': Bean's nemesis Achilles thinks that UsefulNotes/JosefStalin was promoted by UsefulNotes/VladimirLenin then imprisoned and killed him, when in reality Lenin died of a stroke while urging his followers to not put Stalin in charge. His mistaken belief may be due to his own lack of schooling coupled with his desire to become a dictator twisting his memory of history.
* An in-universe example from ''Literature/FearAndLoathingInLasVegas'', when the police drug "expert" tries to explain why a marijuana cigarette is colloquially referred to as a "roach".
-->''"What the fuck are these people talking about?" my attorney whispered. "You'd have to be crazy on acid to think a joint looked like a goddamn cockroach!"''
* From Creator/GordonKorman's ''Son of the Mob 2'': Vince is heading off to film school in California with his girlfriend and best friend and decides to chronicle their road trip in script form. His girlfriend immediately points out one minor problem: he has them driving ''west'' into the ''rising'' sun.
* ''Franchise/HarryPotter'': ''Literature/FantasticBeastsAndWhereToFindThem'' mentions a {{Kappa}}, and states it's Japanese. One of Harry's notes next to it says "Snape hasn't read this book either", since Snape identifies the Kappa as Mongolian in ''Literature/HarryPotterAndThePrisonerOfAzkaban''.
* ''Literature/TheHitchhikersGuideToTheGalaxy'':
** Ford Prefect chooses his name -- the name of a rather mediocre British car -- apparently on the assumption that cars were the dominant species on the planet. The movie adaptation extrapolates from this the scene of Ford and Arthur's first meeting, Arthur saving Ford from attempting to shake hands with a car.
** The CutawayGag sequence about the [[LawOfAlienNames Vl'Hurg-G'Gugvuntt]] fleet that attempted to invade the Earth, only to be accidentally swallowed by a small dog in its entirety "due to a terrible miscalculation of scale".
* ''Literature/TheHungerGames'': Delivered by none other than [[FeigningIntelligence Effie Trinket]]: "Well, if you put enough pressure on coal it turns to pearls." That should be diamonds.
* ''[[Literature/JohnPutnamThatcher Pick Up Sticks]]'': This trope is the murder motive. It seems the killer didn't realize [[spoiler:the land he'd bought for a new vacation resort was part of the Appalachian Trail.]] Thatcher points out at the end of the novel that if the killer had done any local research, he would have learned that. [[note]]At the time the novel was written, the path of the Trail was still being laid out, so searching title deeds at the state capitol wouldn't, and didn't, turn up the public byway across those farms.[[/note]]
* In Creator/StephenKing's novella ''The Body'', the 12-year-old protagonist wrote a bunch of stories about Americans trying to take a French town from the Nazis... in 1942. Only two years later did he find out that the Allies didn't land in France until 1944.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* ''Series/BuffyTheVampireSlayer'': Whenever [[AmbiguouslyGay Andrew]] flexes his [[TheStoryteller storyteller]] [[FlexingThoseNonBiceps muscles]], he'll usually include events of which he has no first-hand knowledge (i.e. [[ContinuityNod previous seasons]]) in his spiel and is thus occasionally widely off the mark. For example, when he talks to the Potential Slayers about Faith he claims that she killed a [[Franchise/StarTrek Vulcan]], "the most pacifist and logical of races". Flashback to Faith locked in deadly hand-to-hand combat with a Vulcan. In reality she killed a volcanologist. When one of the Potentials tries to correct him, he says "Why would she kill someone who studies Vulcans?"
* Creator/StephenColbert of ''Series/TheColbertReport'' uses this intentionally and mixes it with InsaneTrollLogic [[PlayedForLaughs for laughs]]. This is really the entire premise of the show.
* ''Series/DowntonAbbey'': Cora (mother of three girls) grumbles about having daughters: "you think it's going to be like ''Literature/LittleWomen'' but instead they're at each other's throats." It must have been a while since she read the book, since at least two of the little women (Jo and Amy) were ''constantly'' at each other's throats.
* One scene from ''Music/FlightOfTheConchords'''s HBO series has a racist fruit vendor mistake Australian stereotypes for New Zealander ones.
-->'''Jermaine''': I'm a person. Bret's a person. You're a person. That person over there's a person. And each person deserves to be treated like a person.\\
'''Vendor''': That's a great speech. Too bad New Zealanders are a bunch of cocky a-holes descended from criminals and retarded monkeys.\\
'''Jermaine''': Hey you're thinking of Australians.\\
'''Vendor''': No no no, New Zealanders, "throw another shrimp on the barbie", ride around on your kangaroos all day.\\
'''Jermaine''': No-no-no, that's Australians. You're thinking of Australians; that's not us.\\
'''Vendor''': I've totally confused you with Australians, I feel terrible. It's just your accents are just kinda similar.\\
'''Jermaine''': Our accents are completely different. They're like: "Where's the ''cahh''?" and we're like "where's the cahh?".
* ''Series/HowIMetYourMother'': Barney's "Platinum Rule" was based off his belief that the Golden Rule was "Love your neighbor." The other characters were quick to point out that it's actually "Treat others as you yourself would want to be treated."
* ''Series/MysteryScienceTheater3000'':
** Crow doing this trope is a RunningGag. Crow makes a documentary about UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar. Titled ''[[InCaseYouForgotWhoWroteIt Crow T. Robot's Bram Stoker's The Civil War]]'', it opens with this line... which is actually pretty much the film's ''high'' point when it comes to historical accuracy:
--->'''Crow''': The Civil War was a war that took place during a certain period in our nation's history. When, exactly? No one can say.
** He's also done reports about Rutherford B. Hayes ("Serving heroically in the Civil War, Hayes later admitted that it was in the army he first tasted human flesh.") and a [=PSA=] about how to treat women that mostly asserts that women are a cryptozoological phenomenon, like Bigfoot, except for the very, ''very'' end:
--->'''Crow''': Ah.... Oh, um, yes. So anyway Mike, in conclusion, in the off chance that you do run into a woman, uh, you know, treat her with respect and stuff.\\
'''Mike''': You know, Crow, you do know women. Now what about Pearl?\\
'''Crow''': OK, so one woman exists. That means all women exist?
** Tom Servo is also guilty of this, in the episode ''The Skydivers''. During the prologue he puts on a planetarium show, giving us such gems as referring to the speed of light as "well over 500 miles an hour" (which is true, but in the same way it's true to say the Pacific Ocean is more than a gallon of water: the speed of light is well over 600 ''million'' miles per hour) and calling Mars "the brightest star in our galaxy."
* ''Series/NewsRadio'': Bill, while trying to stage an office rebellion, shouts, "Do you think the Pilgrims really cared about all the tea they dumped into Baltimore Harbor?" It may well be a shout-out to Bluto's speech in ''Film/AnimalHouse''.
* Baroski correcting the ''Series/SonsOfAnarchy'' on the use of the term "Persian" is both intentional and unintentional. The country has officially been called Iran by the West since 1935 and by the East long before that. However, some of its people culturally self-identify as Persian. It would be acceptable to call the pornographers Persian if they identify as such, but it's never made clear if this is the case. If the Sons are also unaware, it would be better to refer to them as Iranian (while most Iranians ''are'' ethnically Persian, minorities of Arabs, Azeris and Kurds also exist). Baroski's claim that "Persia hasn't been a country since 637 AD" is incorrect; the Persian Empire fell that year, but that doesn't mean it ceased to exist as a country.
* ''Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries'': PlayedForLaughs with Pavel Chekov, who sometimes gets his Russian history wrong, claiming just about everything to be a Russian invention. That was probably what he was taught, though, as this was before TheGreatPoliticsMessUp, and the USSR in the 1960s really did have this attitude in its education. According to Creator/DianeDuane's novels, he's joking, as when he claims that the roller coaster is a Russian invention and is not believed he protests that this time it's true.[[note]]It really is. The generic name was originally "Russian ice mountain" before successive trade names caused to become "scenic railway" (1890s), then "big dipper" (1920s) and finally "roller coaster" (1930s).[[/note]]
* ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'': Dean loves cowboys [[FetishFuel (perhaps a bit too much)]], but he has no idea how they dressed.
-->'''Cas''': Is it customary to wear a blanket?\\
'''Dean''': It's a serape. And yes.
** He refers to a poncho as a "serape" (they're similar, sort of, but they're constructed differently, worn differently, and were invented by two different cultures), treats it as street clothes (it was cold-weather gear), and wears it in the Midwest (it was Southwestern). Naturally, [[ItMakesSenseInContext when the brothers have to travel back in time to the days of the cowboy]]:
-->'''Cowboy''': Nice blanket.
* [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUyK_J_W4BI This sketch]] from ''Series/ThatMitchellAndWebbLook''. Many faults are pure and simple ArtisticLicenseSports, but not all:
** "West Germany, famously a bunch of cheats" references ''East'' Germany's history with performance-enhancing drugs. And "Cricket? 'Ere in Yorkshire?" makes no sense as cricket is really popular in Yorkshire.
** The Ashes isn't a tournament with "second rounds" and "semi-finals". It's a revered test cricket series between the national teams of England and Australia. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Indies_cricket_team The West Indies]], the Dallas Cowboys (an American football team), West Germany (a country that ceased existing for 17 years at the time of airing and in which most people have no idea what cricket actually is) and Pisswiddle Steel Batters are ineligible. Manchester United is an UsefulNotes/AssociationFootball team.
** Mitchell and Webb have a whole series of skits based on two screenwriters who never, ever, do any research. The medical drama in particular is hilarious.
--->"Now he's poorly from too much electric."
** There's also the archaeologist who makes the incredible find of an ancient Roman... videotape. It appears to show several people having a toga party, but he and other researchers talk about the incredible discoveries they're making, while [[OnlySaneMan one]] stares at them in disbelief, and eventually brings up the obvious. He's then guilt-tripped into going along with it.
* ''Series/TheYoungOnes'':
** When Rick is trying desperately to recall his history lessons, he finishes the statement "Crop rotation in the 14th century was considerably more widespread after..." with a year that isn't even ''in'' the 14th century, 1172. Though thanks to the qualifier of "after", he [[MathematiciansAnswer is not technically wrong]].
** Neil never sleeps because he thinks sleep causes cancer.
* Characters on ''Series/TheWestWing'' are consistently getting called out for this; it's usually PlayedForLaughs. Perhaps the best example occurs in the pilot episode, where Sam Seaborn is asked to speak to Mallory's fourth-grade class about the history of the White House, on which subject he's clueless. Meeting them in the Roosevelt Room, he fakes it, saying the room is named after "our eighteenth president, [[UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt]]." After listening to Sam spew out factoids for a few moments, Mallory asks to speak to him outside the room:
-->'''Mallory''': I'm sorry to be rude, but are you a moron?\\
'''Sam''': In this particular area, yes.\\
'''Mallory''': The 18th president was UsefulNotes/UlyssesSGrant and the Roosevelt Room was named for UsefulNotes/{{Theodore|Roosevelt}}.\\
'''Sam''': Really?\\
'''Mallory''': There's like a six-foot painting on the wall of Teddy Roosevelt.[[note]]When Sam says "our eighteenth president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt," the camera shows him standing ''right in front'' of that painting. In fairness to Sam, there's also a painting of FDR in the room, although traditionally only one of those paintings is hanging at a time, depending on the current president's affiliation. But that loops back around on itself: [[FridgeLogic Theodore Roosevelt was a Republican, and the whole point of the show is that it's about a Democratic administration's travails]].[[/note]]\\
'''Sam''': I should have put two and two together.\\
'''Mallory''': Yes.\\
'''Sam''': The thing is, while there really are a great many things on which I can speak with authority, I'm not good at talking about the White House.\\
'''Mallory''': You're the White House Deputy Communications Director and you're not good at talking about the White House?\\
'''Sam''': Ironic, isn't it?
::He has a point. He deals with political messaging. The person to ask for information about the White House as a building would be a tour guide, which means that whoever decided he needed to talk to the class about it had their own failure.
* ''Series/TheLastManOnEarth'': In-universe. OK, fine, Tucson is Phil #1's hometown, but as Phil #2 points out, it's high on the list of the worst possible choices for a post-apocalyptic abode on the North American continent.
* When ''Series/PowerRangersNinjaStorm''[='=]s Rangers first enter the fray, the usually DangerouslyGenreSavvy [[BigBad Lothor]] protests that nobody told him there were Power Rangers on Earth (he's referring to ''active'' Rangers, as his initial plan was based on attacking the Ninja Academies specifically to prevent the activation of any Power Ranger team he knew of, but still...).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Music]]
* MC Historical Inaccuracy's verse in Creator/JonLaJoie's [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EbAJivTHPoQ WTF Collective 2]] is based on this trope. It's better heard than read, but here are the lyrics:
-->Yo, I'm MC Historical Inaccuracy
-->I drop lyrical bombs like Hiroshima in '73
-->I write rhymes like Shakespeare when he wrote Anne Frank's Diary
--> Which is about the Civil War of 1812 in Germany
-->I'm like the Spanish Inquisition when they killed Jesus
--> And Abe Lincoln's suicide was the theme for my thesis
--> Like Moses when I focus, I can split the Red Sea
--> Which he did in 1950 with the Chinese Army
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Radio]]
* A Radio/BobAndRay sketch has Bob interviewing the author of a ''History of the United States''. It turns out that the 1,100-page tome contains numerous glaring errors, including Abraham Lincoln driving to his inauguration in an automobile, the Civil War breaking out in 1911, and the nation's original capital being located in Bailey's Mistake, Maine. The author readily admits it's "a shabby piece of work", but quickly adds that it's leather-bound.
* In the episode ''The Big Big Big Ben Bungle'' of the British political satire ''Radio/TheMenFromTheMinistry'' Mr. Lamb refers to the "Hunchback of [[Literature/TheHunchbackOfNotreDame Amsterdam]]"
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer40000}}'': The Imperial Guardman's Uplifting Primer is hilariously filled with these, presenting the enemies of man as easy to defeat by the common soldiery. Features gems such as "Ork tusks can easily be pulled out of their jaws", "the Tau are evolved from cattle and will spook at loud noises", and a magnificent illustration of a Guardsman looking around a corner like a guy who showed up early for a ScoobyStack. Those are actually partially true, though. Orks have shark-like teeth that are constantly being shed and could conceivably be pulled out fairly easily while the Tau are descended from grazing ruminants and display many vestiges of that past (spooking at [[MagneticWeapons loud noises]] NOT being one of them). It also includes a few nods to the series' GameplayAndStorySegregation; for instance, the entry on Orks mentions that despite being musclebound and much bigger the typical Ork is inexplicably no stronger than a typical human (hilariously false in the fiction, completely true on the tabletop). Indeed, a common theory is that the Primer is lying to you on purpose ("[[TooDumbToLive Genestealers are slow and sluggish]]") in order to raise morale. Any company worth even half its salt has a few units of Veterans who know what fighting in a CosmicHorrorStory is ''really'' like.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* ''VideoGame/TeamFortress2'':
** Played for laughs in ''Meet the Soldier''. The Soldier starts with a (correct) quote from Sun Tzu and ''Literature/TheArtOfWar'', but then goes on to say that Sun Tzu ''invented'' fighting, perfected it, and used his fight money to herd two of every animal onto a boat and beat the crap out of them.
--->'''Soldier''': And from that day forward, anytime a bunch of animals are together in one place, it's called a '''TZU'''! ...Unless it's a farm!
** In ''Meet the Director'', it's shown that the Soldier went on even more about Sun Tzu. The director had to point out that Sun Tzu never wrote books on how to punch out someone's ribcage.
* ''VideoGame/BravelyDefault'': Ringabel gives a lengthy analysis to Agnes and Edea about the various sheep races after encountering one. Then Tiz explains that the animal they were looking at wasn't a sheep, but a goat.
* ''VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoIV'' has Playboy X, the leader of a drug crew who fancies himself an intellectual. Niko Bellic quickly realizes, however, that his professed knowledge is dubious at best. Some of his more egregious errors include thinking Dubai is in Africa and that [[JesusChrist Jesus]] killed John the Baptist.
* The ''VideoGame/{{Marathon}}'' series has Tycho, who often tries to mimic Durandal's penchant for quoting from classic literature in order to appear to be his intellectual equal, but frequently makes mistakes. One of these which Durandal takes great pleasure in pointing out is Tycho's claim that Roland in ''Literature/TheSongOfRoland'' was able to break the sword Durandal (after which the character Durandal is named). He couldn't. [[spoiler:''No one can.'']]
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* [[http://www.closetgamers.com/comic.php?id=6 This episode]] of ''Webcomic/ClosetGamers'' contains a literal example, when a ''TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons'' character informs the party that a "Purple Worm" is a tiny creature eaten by harmless, flightless birds, as opposed to the giant, nasty SandWorm monster it actually is.
* From ''[[http://lolilovesvenom.livejournal.com/ Loli Loves Venom #32]]'' -- why you should not ask ComicBook/{{Venom}} for homework help:
-->''"In nature, Franchise/{{spider|man}}s have many natural enemies. There is one main predator they always have to watch out for. The mighty octopus. Their tentacles of sheer fury are fierce opponents. Only through agility, resolution, and quick banter can the amazing spider atone for the danger he faces."''
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Web Original]]
* Website/YouTube channel ''[[https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCpvtp7mH0Cdq8FQUxcjDq0Q My Life in Gaming]]'' occasionally invokes this in their {{Retraux}}-style "How to Beat" videos, such as by mispronouncing terms and by getting the backstory of ''VideoGame/SuperMario3DWorld'' wrong, to mirror the errors that often occurred in the '80s-era "how to beat" VHS tapes that the series is imitating.
* Invoked by ''WebVideo/SomeJerkWithACamera''. As he reviews the ABC sitcoms that went to Disney World, he quickly finds they make some ''blatant'' errors about the park:
** The ''Full House'' episode has the family meet Donald and Goofy right outside of their hotel when the costumed characters never go that far from the park.
** In ''Series/StepByStep'':
*** Flash attempts to break the record for fastest time riding every Disney World ride, with his neighbor Mark helping him from the park's control room. While riding the Astro Orbiter, he's advised to not go to Alien Encounter and instead go to the Jungle Cruise because the parade is in progress. Since going to Alien Encounter from Astro Orbiter would ''not'' pass through the parade (since it doesn't go through Tomorrowland) but passing through Fantasyland to the Jungle Cruise ''would'', Jerk concludes Mark must be trying to sabotage him.
*** The Indiana Jones Epic Spectacular show fills up and Flash is let in if he plays the part of Indy. This ''infuriates'' Jerk, as the show is the most dangerous stunt show in the park and would never let a random novice play such a central role.
*** J.T. and Rich blow all their money on trying to impress girls by treating them to dinner at a supposed Disney World restaurant called Pinetta's. However, Jerk finds not only is there no place at Disney World called Pinetta's, the only dining place he can find with that name ''in the world'' is in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
-->'''Jerk''': Was it this hard to find an expensive restaurant in ''Disney World?!'' The freaking churros have installment plans!
** The ''Sabrina'' episode has her and her supporting cast travel from Animal Kingdom to their hotel room four times in one episode, even though the hotel they're at (the Coronade Springs Resort) is 3 miles away from the park. ''Roseanne'' commits a similar error, as the family somehow makes it from their hotel room to Main Street USA in only 14 minutes.
** During his coverage of ''Series/TheGeorgeLopezShow'', a clip plays where George's mom claims she rode the Matterhorn ride while pregnant with him. As the safety announcement played every 5 minutes during the line to the ride shows, pregnant women are '''heavily''' discouraged from riding the Matterhorn.
** In a later series, when reviewing ''Film/EscapeFromTomorrow'', Jerk rips into the film after it claims that Disney's turkey drumsticks are actually made from emu. Given that Disney sells roughly 1.6 ''million'' turkey legs a year, it'd mean that Disney would have to breed and slaughter over 800,000 emus, more emus than even exist in their native home of Australia.
* The ''WebVideo/ThirdRateGamer'' gives us many examples, parodying ''WebVideo/TheIrateGamer'''s above examples, such as claiming that the ''Film/SuperMarioBros'' film is the original and the [[VideoGame/SuperMarioBros1 game]] is just a cheap licensed cash-in.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* In one episode of ''WesternAnimation/Ben10Omniverse'', [[AnimalWrongsGroup Pax]] unleashes a tiny alien called the Screegit around Bellwood. The Screegit turns into a rampaging monster when exposed to nitrogen, but Pax thinks it'll be okay, since humans breathe oxygen. Ben angrily points out that Earth's atmosphere has nitrogen in it as well.[[note]]In fact as shown by NoGameNoLife, a pure oxygen atmopshere would be to dense and heavy for us to properly breathe.[[/note]]
* In the ''WesternAnimation/HomeMovies'' episode "History", Brendon makes a movie with George Washington, Annie Oakley, and Pablo Picasso as the primary villains, with very obvious inaccuracies for their backstories (such as Washington freeing the slaves, Picasso [[Creator/VincentVanGogh cutting off his ear]], etc.). It's later revealed that he's been receiving tutoring from Coach [=McGuirk=], and he's flunking history.
* In a likely nod to the ''Film/AnimalHouse'' example above, TJ from ''WesternAnimation/{{Recess}}'' once made a speech to convince Gretchen to not give up on the "space travel training" the gang was putting her through:
-->'''TJ''': Did ''Albert Edison'' give up when they stole his Theory of Regularity? Did ''Ben Franklin'' give up when the Germans shot down his kite?
* ''[[WesternAnimation/TotalDrama Total Drama World Tour]]'':
** The intern responsible for doing the research comes up with [[AncientGrome Rome, rather than Greece]], as the birthplace of the Olympic Games. He is [[YouHaveFailedMe fired by Chris, the host of the show]], when the mistake is pointed out... by being shoved out of the plane.
** [[BrainyBrunette Courtney]] tried correcting Chris when the contestants were in China, and he told them the Great Wall was built eight million years ago. The kicker? Even though Courtney realized the Great Wall couldn't have been built until much more recently, she explained there were ''dinosaurs'' in 8,000,000 B.C. Probably joking?
* In ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'', Bart calls several countries in the Southern Hemisphere to see which way the water flows in their toilets and drains. Among them is apparently Burkina Faso. This might actually be justified since Bart isn't exactly solid with the book-learning.
* ''Series/{{Futurama}}'' refers to the ''[[Film/TheMatrix Matrix]]'' example given above, with Bender saying "Doesn't that violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics? Wouldn't just about anything make a better battery than a human? Like a potato? Or a ''battery''?" Leela explains that while everyone at the time it was made thought ''The Matrix'' was the worst movie ever because of this "mistake", it turns out the film actually got it right. Of course, this is a universe in which it's possible to travel between stars in hours or at most days because "scientists increased the speed of light in 2208," besides which, in the real world, the original movie is still roundly considered very good by most people who have seen it.
* In the ImagineSpot short "The Wrath of Waitro", Shaggy and Scooby--er, Commander Cool and Mellow Mutt--escape the villains trap, a vat filled with chocolate pudding, by eating their way out of it. in real life, chocolate is harmful to dogs and all that rich, savory mousse would have killed WesternAnimation/APupNamedScoobyDoo. Fortunately (a) it was all in Shaggy's imagination (b) a young boy legitimately might not know this fact and (c) Scooby being verbal and partly bipedal may mean he can safely eat the stuff, who knows?
[[/folder]]

!!Both
[[folder:Fan Works]]
* ''FanFic/Gensokyo20XX'' almost has on a meta-level when it comes to Tosca, an opera she alluded to the author initially thinking it was by Shakespeare. Fret not, she later corrects her mistake both in RealLife and in-universe.
[[/folder]]

----